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HISTORY 



4 

IPSWICH, ESSEX, ANT) HAMILTON, 



By JOSEPH B. FELT 



Magno Usui est memoria refum gestarum. 

Sallust. 



CAMBRIDGE: 

PRINTED BY CHARLES FOLSOM, 
1834. 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 18y4, 

by Joseph B. Felt, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



PREFACE 



Though the history of ancient Towns, whose popu- 
lation, wealth, and notoriety are less than those of a 
metropolis, is not of great comparative importance, 
yet, when faithfully written, it is a miniatuie likeness, 
in many proportions and parts, of such Towns' own 
County and State. A history of this kind, at least, 
extends a helping hand, to draw^ back from the cur- 
rent of time not a few facts, which, without being so 
preserved, would be speedily borne down to oblivion. 
When candidly examined, it may not fail to exhibit 
views, which are suited to interest the curiosity, to 
enlarge the surveys of the mind, and improve the 
affections of the heart. With these prefatory remarks, 
it may not be amiss to relate here what was known 
of Agawam, previously to its becoming a permanent 
settlement. 

1614. Capt. John Smith, in his Description of 
North Virginia, as New-England was then called, 
says of Augoan or Agawam, — "Here are many ris- 
ing hills, and on their tops and descents are many 
corne fields and delightfull groues. On the east is 
an Isle of two or three leagues in length ; the one 
halfe plaine marish ground, fit for pasture, or salt 
ponds, with many faire high groues of mulbeiTy trees. 
There are also okes, pines, walnuts, and other wood, 
to make this place an excellent habitation." 

* 1620, Dec. Before the Company, who occupied 

* Mourt's Relation. 



IV PREFACE. 



Plymouth, had finally concluded to dwell there, some 
of them " urged greatly the going to Auguan or 
Augoun, a place twenty leagues off to the northward, , 
which they heard to be an excellent harbour for ships' 
better ground and better fishing." As to the ex- 
cellence of the harbour, they had been wrongly in- 
formed. *1630, Sept. 7th. "A warrant shall be 
presently sent to Agawam for those planted there, to 
come away." f 1633, Jan. 17th. "The Court of 
Assistants order, that a plantation be commenced at 
Agawam (being the best place in the land for til- 
lage and cattle), lest an enemy finding it, should pos- 
sess and take it from us." Governor Winthrop's 
son, John, is to undertake this settlement and to have 
no more " out of the Bay, than twelve men ; the rest 
to be supplied at the coming of the next ships." 
The word Bay, as here used, did not formerly in- 
clude towns to the north of Winisimet, now Chel- 
sea, t The following appears to have been writ- 
ten a short time before Winthrop and his company 
came to Ipswich : " Agawamme is nine miles to the 
north of Salem, which is one of the most spacious 
places for a plantation, being near the sea. It 
aboundeth with fish and flesh of fowls and beasts, 
great meads and marshes, and plain plowing 
grounds." Thus introduced to us, before civil au- 
thority allowed it to be retained by unauthorized 
settlers, Ipswich, in the value of its soil and produc- 
tions generally, has not fallen below its original re- 
commendations. 

* Col R. t Winthrop. t Wood. 



CONTENTS. 









PAGE 


Name 


. 




. I 


Situation and Extent 






1 


Indian Inhabitants 


. 


. 


. 2 


Remains of the Agawams 


. 


6 


Shells. — Tomahawks. — Gouges. 


— Pestles 




and Mortars. — 


- Heads of Arrows 


, 


6,7 


Deed 


• 


, 


. 8 


Place first occupied as a 


Town . 


. 


9 


First Settlers 


. 




. 9 


Grants of Land 




. 


14 


Grants made by the General Court 


. 


. 15 


Common Lands 






16 


Freemen 


. 


, 


. 18 


Freemen's Oath 






19 


Residents 




. 


. 20 


Residents' Oath 




, 


20 


Manner of Writing 


. 


, 


. 21 


Chronology 




. 


21 


Royal Style 


• 


. 


22 


Titles . 






23 


Middle Names 


• 


, 


. 23 


Dwelling-Houses 




, 


23 


Fuel 


. 


. 


. 25 


Light 




. 


26 


Drinks 


. 




. 27 


Ardent Spirit. 


— Wine. — Beer. — 


-Cider.— 




Coffee. — Tea. 


— Chocolate 


. 


27-29 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Sweetening ...... 29 

Food . . . . . . .30 

Travelling ...... 31 

Entailment . . . . . .32 

Reputation of our Ancient Inhabitants . . 33 

Face of the Country . . . . . 34 

Hills. — Plain. — Meadows. — Swamps. — 
Marshes. — Creeks. — Coves. — Points. — 

Necks. — Banks. — Particular Places. 

Springs. Brooks. Ponds. Rivers. — 

Islands. — Inland Islands. — Harbour . 34 - 36 
Soil ....... 36 

Manure ...... 37 

Cultivation . . . . . .37 

Vegetable Productions .... 38 

Grain. — Hay. — Fruits. — Esculent Vege- 
tables. Tobacco. — Hemp. — Shrubs. — 

Trees . . . . .38-41 

Wild Quadrupeds . . . . .42 

Wol ves. — Bears. — Deer. — Foxes. — Wood- 
chucks . . . . .42-44 

Domesticated Quadrupeds . . . .44 

Cowherds. — Shepherds . . . 44,45 

Prices of Grain and other Articles for Taxes, as ordered 

by the Legislature . . . . .46 

Agricultural Implements .... 47 

Fencing . . . . . . .47 

Fish ....... 47 

Serpents . . . . . . .48 

Fowl ....... 48 

Minerals . . . . . . .49 

Public Ways ...... 49 

Ferry ....... 52 

Bridges .••... 53 

Canals and Cuts . . . , .54 

Municipal Concerns ..... 55 

Town Officers. — Regulations. — Matters of 
Morality . , . . .55-57 



CONTENTS. 



▼U 



Fire Department 
Engines 
Lightning-Rods 
Market .... 

Hay-Scales 
Town Seal . 

Goods found 

Province Loans 

Donations .... 

Benefactions .... 

Bunker Hill Association. — Rel 

Division of Essex County 

Town House 

Probate Office Building 

Post-Office 

Unity Lodge .... 

Temperance Society 

Bank . . . . . 

Precautions as to Strangers 

Ornamental Trees 

Neutral French . 

Paupers 

Aims-Houses 

Settlements and Towns set off 

Emigrants from Ipswich . 

Dismissions from Chebacco Church 

Dismissions from the Hamlet Church 

Emigrants to Ipswich 

Education .... 

Grammar School. — English Free Schools. — 
Rules. — Report of Schools. — Progress of 
Common Education. — Burley Fund. — Acad- 
emy. — Sabbath Schools. — Lyceum. — Town 
Libraries. — Newspaper . . .83 

Harvard College ...... 

Graduates of Ipswich 

Manufactures 





PAGE 


. 58 


59 




. 59 




60 




. 60 




60 




60 




61 




. 61 




61 


igiou 


s Charities 62 




63 




. 63 




63 




. 64 




64 




. 65 




65 




. 65 




66 




. 66 




67 




. 67 




69 




71 




81 


. 82 


82 




. 83 



•92 
92 
93 
94 



CONTENTS. 






PAGE 


, ^ 


. 102 


• • • 


103 


^ , 


. 103 


. , 


103 


. 


. 104 


• • 


105 


. 


106 


• 


106 


, 


. 106 


• 


106 




. 108 



via 



Trade 

Excise 

Interest Money . 

Wages 

Currency 

Paper Money 
Land Bank 
Monopolies 
Valuation 
Taxes 
Fishery 

Wears. — Cod and other Fishery. — Clams 108, 109 
Commerce . . . . . . HO 

Wharves. — Other Commercial Concerns. — 
Light-House. — Landmarks . . 110,111 

Taverns . . . . . . .111 

Prison. — House of Correction . . . 112 

Courts ....... 113 

Immoralities and Crimes .... 114 

Letters of Ipswich Court . . . .115 

Trials and Executions for Murder . . . 116 

Other Modes of Punishment . . . .118 

Stocks. — Pillory. — Wearing a Halter. — 
Cage. — Cleft Stick. — Ducking and Gag- 
ging ..... 118, 119 

Slaves 119 

Population . . . . . . 120 

Political Affairs ...... 121 

Resignation of the Charter. — Taxation Re- 
sisted. — Revolution. — Mason's Claim. — 
Other Political Concerns . . .123-137 

Cockades . . . . . .138 

Pay of Representatives and Magistrates, &.c. . 138 

Votes for Magistrates ..... 139 

Military Concerns ..... 140 

Fortifications and Watch-house. — Soldiers, 
Training, Officers. — Artillery Company. — 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



Wards, Watches, Guards, and Alarms. — 
Ammunition, Arms, and Accoutrements. — 
Colors, — Powder-House. — Exercise-House. — 
Expeditions, Captives, Wounded, Killed, Com- 
pensation, and Supplies 

British Prisoners 

Pensioners .... 

Love Affairs .... 

Marriages .... 

Publishments .... 

Births and Baptisms 

Obituary and Biographical Notices . 

Burying-Places .... 

Sexton's Fees 

Diseases ..... 

Pest-House .... 

Bath . . . . 

Exhumation of the Dead 

Funerals ..... 

Remarkable Events . 

A Woman, blind, deaf, and dumb. — Canker- 
worms. — Droughts. — Storms. — Winters. — 
Lightning. — Fires. — Losses. — Dark Day. 
— Individuals Drowned and Killed. — Earth- 
quakes. — Witchcraft. — Large Child. — Spec- 
tre Account. — Deliverances 

Ecclesiastical and Parochial Concerns . 

Worship. — Form of Worship. — ■ Lectures 
Singing. — Hour-Glass. — Contribution 

First Church ..... 
Church Discipline. — Church Officers 
Ministers : — 

Thomas Parker 
Nathaniel Ward 
Thomas Bracey 
Nathaniel Rogers 
John Norton 

B 



140-152 


152 


. 152 


152 


. 153 


155 


. 156 


156 


. 194 


195 


. 195 


197 


. 197 


198 


. 198 


199 



199-211 
. 211 

212, 213 

. 214 

214, 215 

216 
. 216 

218 
. 219 

221 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Thomas Cobbet . . . .225 

William Hubbard ... 228 

John Rogers .... 232 

John Dennison . . . 233 

John Rogers .... 234 

Jabez Fitch ... 236 

Nathaniel Rogers . . . 237 

Timothy Symmes . . . 239 

Levi Frisbie .... 239 

David Tenney Kimball . . 241 
Fasts for Ministers. — Ordination Expenses. 
— Salary and Settlement. — Parsonage. — 
Meeting-Houses. — Seating and other Regula- 
tions of Meeting-Houses. — Bell. — Church 
Concerhs. — Quarterly Fast . . 242-246 
The Minister of New Meadows 

William Knight .... 246 

South Parish ...... 247 

South Church ..... 247 

Ministers : — 

John Walley ... 247 

Joseph Dana, D. D. . . . 248 

Daniel Fitz ... 251 
Salaries and Settlements. — Meeting-House. — 

Parsonage ..... 251 

Line Brook Parish and Church • . . 252 

Meeting-House. — Parsonage . . . 252 
Ministers : — 

George Lesslie .... 253 

Gilbert Tennant Williams . . 253 
David Tullar . . . .254 

Moses Welsh . . . 255 

Salary and Settlement .... 2.55 

Baptist Society ..... 255 

Methodist Society ..... 256 

Unitarian Society ..... 256 

Restrictions and Fines on Account of Religion . 256 



CONTENTS. 



XI 







PAGE 


Chebacco Parish 


• 


257 


Meeting-House. — Bell. — Parsonage. — Church 


257 


Ministers : — 






Jeremiah Shepherd . 


. 


258 


John Wise 




258 


Theophilus Pickering 


. 


260 


Nehemiah Porter 




262 


Salaries 


. 


262 


Fourth Church . 




262 


Sixth Parish .... 


. 


263 


Meeting-House . 


. 


263 


Minister : — 






John Cleaveland 


. 


263 


Quarterly Fast. Salary. - 


— Union of the 




Second and Fourth Churches 


266 


Chebacco Parish — Second Churcli 


• « • 


266 


Ministers : — 






Josiah Webster . 


. 


267 


Thomas Holt 


. 


267 


Robert Crovvell 




267 


Meeting-House — Salary. — 


Settlement . 267 


-268 


Christian Society 




268 


Universalist Society . 


• 


268 



ESSEX 



Incorporation 
Boundaries. — Extent 
Soil. — Productions 
Manufactures 
Road. — Bridge . 
Wharves. — Tonnage 
Fishery. — Bait . 
Population 
Valuation 
Town Expenses 



268 
268 
269 
269 
270 
270 
270 
270 
272 
272 



CONTENTS. 





PAGE 


Buildings ..... 


. 272 


Hay-Scale ...... 


272 


Engine, &c, ..... 


. 272 


Post-Office ..... 


272 


Military. — Pensioners .... 


. 272 


Political ..... 


273 


Temperance Societies .... 


. 273 


Education ..... 


273 


Graduates since the Incorporation of Essex 


. 273 


Sabbath Schools .... 


273 


Company Libraries .... 


. 274 


Aims-House ..... 


274 


Charities ...... 


. 274 


Publishments, Marriages, and Deaths 


275 


Persons who died aged 90 Years and over 


. 275 


Casualties ..... 


275 


Obituary Notices .... 


. 275 


Essex Church .... 


276 



THE HAMLET, NOW HAMILTON. 



Hamlet Parish, called the Third 


. 276 


Character of The Hamlet 


277 


Meeting-House ..... 


. 277 


Clock and Bell .... 


277 


Parsonage ..... 


. 278 


Salaries and Settlements 


278 


Third Church . . . . 


. 278 


Minister : — 




Samuel Wigglesworth . 


. 279 


Incorporation of The Hamlet as a Town 


283 


Situation. — Extent .... 


. 283 


Soil 


283 


Productions ..... 


. 383 


Buildings. — Roads. — Bridge 


284 



CONTENTS. 


Zlll 




PAGE 


Population ..... 


. 284 


Employments . . . . 


285 


Building Vessels ..... 


. 286 


Lace ....... 


286 


Fishery ...... 


. 286 


Post-Office ...... 


286 


Education ..... 


. 286 


Graduates since the Incorporation . . ' . 


■287 


Sabbath School ..... 


. 287 


Libraries .... . . 


287 


Town Expenses. — Paupers 


. 287 


Valuation ...... 


288 


Political ...... 


. 288 


Military 


288 


Pensioners . . . 


. 288 


Benefactions ...... 


288 


Marriages. — Births .... 


. 289 


Deaths. — Longevity .... 


289 


Deaths of persons aged 90 Years and over 


. 289 


Burying-Ground. — Hearse .... 


290 


Casualties ..... 


. 290 


Emigrants ...... 


290 


Obituary Notices .... 


. 291 


Deacon Nathaniel Whipple 


291 


Barnabas Dodge 


. 291 


John SafFord .... 


291 


Col. Robert Dodge 


. 292 


Jonathan Lamson .... 


292 


Deacon Benjamin Appleton 


. 292 


Dr. Enoch Faulkner 


292 


Francis Quarles 


. 292 


Capt. John Whipple 


293 


Extraordinary Bleeders .... 


. 293 


Universalist Society ..... 


293 


Hamilton Church .... 


. 294 


Manasseh Cutler .... 


294 


Conclusion ..... 


300 



TO THE READER. 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK. 



R. — Records. 

Reg. R. — Registry Records. 

Prob. R. — Probate Records. 

Qt. Ct. R. — Quarterly Court Re- 
cords. 

(These three sorts of records are 
of Essex County.) 

T. R. — Town of Ipswich Records, 
not full and regular till 1G6'1. 

1st Ch. R. — First Church Records, 
lost till 1702. 

1st P. R. — First Parish Records, 
lost till 1702. 

S. Cii. R. — South Church Records, 
mostly deficient. 

S. P. R. — South Parish Records. 

2d Ch. R. — Second Church Re- 
cords. 

2d P. R. — Second Parish Records. 

4th Ch. R. — Fourth Church Re- 
cords. 

4th P. R. — Fourth Parish Re- 
cords. 

(These four last pertain to Che- 
bacco Parish, and part of them 
are mostly wanting.) 

3d Ch. R.-Third Church Records. 

3d P. R. — Third Parish Records. 
(These two belong to The Ham- 
let Parish.) 

L. B. Ch. R. — Line Brook Church 
Records. 

L. B. P. R. — Line Brook Parish 
Records. 

(These belong to the Parish, 
comprising a division of Ips- 
wich and Rowley.) 

Col. R. — Colony Records. 



Col. P. — Colony Papers. 

Prov. R. — Province Records. 

Prov. P. — Province Papers. 
(These are of Massachusetts.) 

Winthrop — Governor John Win- 
throp's History of New-England. 

Lechford Plain Dealing, by 

Thomas Lechford. 

Wood — New-England's Prospect, 
by William Wood. 

Hazard — Historical Collections, 
by Ebenezer Hazard. 

Morton — New-English Canaan, 
by Thomas Morton. 

Williams — On the Language of 
New-England Natives, by Roger 
Williams. 

Dunton — Journal, by John Dunton. 

Purchas — Purchas's Pilgrims. 

Josselyn — Voyages to New-Eng- 
land, by John Josselyn. 

Smith — History of Virginia, by 
John Smith. 

Johnson — The Wonder- Working 
Providence, by Edward Johnson. 

Higginson — New England's Plan- 
tation, by the Rev. John Higgin- 
son. 

Hubbard — History of New-Eng- 
land ; Indian Wars ; by the Rev. 
William Hubbard. 

Gookin — History of Indians, by 
Daniel Gookin. 

Moreton's Mem. — New-England's 
Memorial, by Nathaniel More- 
ton. 

Mass. Hist. Coll. — Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Collections. 



Some transactions of the General Court are put after dates, which, 
from the manner wherein they are originally placed, may not be 
altogether correct. 



TO THE READER, XV 

When names of persons are mentioned, they are of Ipswich, unless 
otherwise expressed or implied. Many interesting facts, havincf only a 
general bearing on this Town, have been chiefly omitted. Modern 
concerns, necessarily adduced, to accord with our plan, are, though of 
little attraction to us, as likely to interest our successors, as ancient 
ones are to interest us. The mistakes which occur on a part of the 
following pages, are not owing to the want of endeavour to avoid them. 

To the numerous individuals, who have punctually and kindly as- 
sisted in supplying materials for this work, the writer of it returns his 
unfeigned thanks. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



sacuiiicuu 
I, 9, after allowed insert fjowder 
S, 4\,fi'r Col. R. read Ct. R. 



Page. Line. 
2, 11, /or Wessacumcon read Wes- 

sacumcou 

4 

5, ,„ 

8,25," Caytimore '• Covtimore 

9,21, " IWiG " ](iGO 

11, 43, transfer Gillman, Edward to 
the year 1648 

13, 34, /or Lianon read Simon 

14,33," freeman, — owners read 
freemen. Owners 

17, 40, for have read had 

21, !>, r/c/e those of 

25, 34, /or six rc«rf. six to eight 

26, 12, " slim " thin 

27, 36, " householders read house- 

holds 

34, 32,/or Long Brush read Long — 

Brush 
" 38, Sagamore hill, and the others 
which follow it in the para- 
graph, are all in Hamilton. 

35, 22, after Castle insert Crope's 

36, 39, " gravelly " marshy 
53, 10, for David read Daniel 
61, 11, " £50,000 " £60,000 
73, 39, " Gillam " Gillman 
76, 32, " 1677 " 1674 

79, 34, " Howsen " Hovey 

80, 6, " bad " had 

81, 36, Mary, wife of John Howard, 

was dismissed to Windsor, 
Conn. 

82, 6, Elizabeth, wife of David 

Goodridge, was dismissed to 
Lunenburg. 

83, 1,/or Colton read Cotton 
" 36, " Jonathan " John 

86, 25, " 1259 " 1759 

88, 28, " seemed " served 

93, 39, under the year 1707, insert 

Henry Rust 

94, 7, dele 1799. Rufus Choate, law- 

yer, placed with the proper 
date under Essex, pa^e 273. 
96, 40, /or Fullers read Pullers 
98, 29, " Hawlett " Hewlett 
104, 8, " they " workmen 

114, 20, " May 2d, Tuesday read 

May, 2d Tuesday 
117, 22, for Thursday read Friday 
120, 27, dele six. 
" 34, /or 2,550 rcarf 2.5.53 
122,20, " of " from 

" 35, " year " month 
124, 17, " free " freeborn 



Page. Line. 

126, 36, " complainers read corn- 
plainer 

133, 23-27, transfer the five lilies be- 

ginning tvith April and end- 
ing ivilh chosen, to the year 
1775. 

134, 26,/or Two read Three 
143. 19, " 1644 " 1642 
14), 17, " How " Low 
151, 19, " masters " master 

" 29, " 1786 " 1787 

159. 14, " 1674. His" 1674, his 
162,23, " Spurwick,Casorc«<Z Spur- 
wink, Casco 

167, 33, /or Gow read Grow 
" 35, " upwright " upright 

168, 5, after Cxoshy, put a seviicolon. 
16!), 14, /or 1667 read 1677 
173, 7, " eighty-seventh " seventy- 
eighth 

174.15, insert, Samuel Ingalls d.l. ; 

— left a wife ; and children, 
Mary Butler, Anna Gid- 
dinge, Joseph, Nathaniel, 
wife of Samuel Chapman. 
He was Representative 1690. 

175, 22, insert, ipjjn .Dennison was 

Lieutenant-Colonel of a regi- 
ment, Representative 1716, 
1717, 1718, and a High 
Sheriff of Essex County. 

" 23,/or 1724 read 1725 

" 41, " 28th " 18th 

176, 36, after Matthew, put Appleton, 
178, 10, John Appleton was not of the 

Council during 1704,-5,-6. 

180, 33, after 1743, insert 1744, 

181, 19. /or Baker rearf Barker 

182, 42, " Antis " Anstice 
190, 33, " his " this 

200, 33, " off thrown " thrown ofF 
203, 2, before He insert He was b. 

Sept. 25th, 166S. 
206, 15, /or 1775 rearf 1755 
219, 34, " Coggershall read Cogges- 

hall 
241, 12, for Zeruiah read Zerviah 
247, 30, after and was insert born 
253,38, " Windham, " N. H. 

254, 5, 6, •n,for Fullar read TuUar 

255, 2, after Hampshire insert in 

1784, and was son of Col. 

Joseph Welsh. 
285, 31, /or large read larger 
288, 29, " $215 " $215-90 

292, 16, " Covention " Convention 



HISTORY OF IPSWICH. 



NAME. 

The name given to Ipswich by Indians, was Agawam, 
sometimes spelt differently.* With this name, no doubt, 
many successive generations of the natives associated thoughts 
of cliildliood and of riper age, of sports and toils, of ease and 
adventures, of safety and perils, of peace and war, of joys 
and sorrows. It was a word applied by the Aborigines to sev- 
eral portions of Massachusetts. It seems to have denoted 
places, where fish of passage resorted. Captain Smith informs 
us, that after he had made out a draught of this country in 
1614, with the names which had been given to its different 
divisions. Prince Charles had Agawam exchanged for South- 
hampton. This name is on the Captain's map, prefixed to 
his account of New England. 

f 1634, Aug. 4th. Agawam is called Ipswich, being a 
town in England, by the Court of Assistants, " in acknowl- 
edgment of the great honor and kindness done to our peo- 
ple, who took shipping there." Thus altered from an appel- 
lation, long familiar to the ears, and long dear to the hearts 
of the Agawames, it received another more familiar and 
dearer to Eno:lishmen. 



SITUATION AND EXTENT. 

Before Europeans came to this country, Agav^^am reached 
from Merrimack River on the north, to Naumkeag River, now 

* See Preface. t Col. R. 

1 



2 INDIAN INHABITANTS. 

of Salem, on the south ; from Cochichawick, afterwards named 
Andover, on the west, and to the sea-side on the east. When 
it was settled by Mr. VVinthrop and others, its boundaries on 
the north and west remained the same ; but those on the east, 
were its own bay and that of Squam, and the town of Glou- 
cester ; and on the south were Manchester, Wenham, and 
Danvers, all four of which latter places were then villages 
belonging to Salem. Johnson remarks on this territory, 
" The Sagamoreship or Earldom of Agawam, now by our 
English nation called Essex." 

* 16^56. Wessacumcon, or Newbury, being settled, the court 
order, that Ipswich shall run six miles into tlie country. As 
population flowed in and spread over its surface, as correspond- 
ing necessities arose and reasons for separation successively 
prevailed, this town became reduced to its present size. 

The latitude of Ipswich, as taken at the Court-house, is 
42° 41' north, and longitude, at the same place, 70° 50' west. 
This place, now havino- Rowley on the north, Boxford and 
Topsfield on the west, Hamilton and Essex on the south, and 
the ocean on the east, has an area of 25,478 acres. Of this 
3,579 acres are water, 1,509 sand on Castle Neck and Plumb 
Island. There are 72 miles of roads. 

Before we fully attend to the various concerns of the En- 
glish, it may not be out of place to give a parting notice to 
the Indians, who owned and occupied the land, on which their 
more intelligent and powerful successors entered. 



INDIAN INHABITANTS. 

When we look back on the Aborigines, as the sole proprie- 
tors of our soil, on the places which once knew them, but are 
now to know them no more for ever, feelings of sympathy and 
sadness come over our souls. Such reflection, though not 
presenting us with monuments of the civilized arts, nor with 
the productions of literature, nor with the improvements of 
science, to secure lasting fame, still sets before us, in the light 
of history, a tribe of men immortal as ourselves, who have 
irrevocably disappeared from the scenes and concerns of earth. 

t 1611. Capt. Edward Hardie and Nicholas Hobson sailed 

* Col. R. t Smith. 



INDIAN INHABITANTS. d 

for North Virginia. They touch at Agawam, where the 
natives treat "them more kindly than others had done. 
* These people must have been far more numerous at this 
visit, than they were subsequently, because a plague swept 
off most of the' New England Indians about 1617. 

t 1629. They inform Governor Endicott, that they are 
fearful of an invasion from the Tarrentines or Eastern In- 
dians. He immediately despatches a boat with Hugh Brown 
and others, to defend them. Such aid was afforded them 
several times, .t June 13th. " Lord's day, in the morning, 
the Sagamore of Agawam and one of his men came on board 
our ship and stayed'with us all day." This chief was called 
Masconnomo, but more commonly Masconnomet, and some- 
times John. '^ It is evident from the account given by INIas- 
connomet's grand-children, when they received of different 
towns compensation for land, which he had owned, that his 
jurisdiction was as extensive, as already described. About 
'l630, lie was at Saugus, and with other Indians witnessed the 
sale of Nahant and "other land by black William, to William 
Wiiter for two pestle-stones. 

II 1631, July 5th. "The Sagamore of Agawam is banished 
from every Englishman's house for the space of one year, 
on the penalty of ten beaver skins." H Aug. 8th. " The Tar- 
rentines, to the number of 100, came in three canoes, and in 
the night assaulted the wigwam of the Sagamore of Agawam, 
slew seven men, and wounded John Sagamore, and James, and 
some others, (w^hereof some died after,) and rifled a wigwam 
of Mr. Craddock's men, kept to catch sturgeon, took away 
their nets and biscuit." ** The wife of James and others were 
carried away captives by their enemies. According to report, 
Masconnomet had slain some, belonging to the people of 
these invaders. John and James, previously mentioned, were 
sachems, the former of a tribe on the west of Saugus, and the 
latter of a tribe in that town. It is very likely, that they had 
come, as allies, to Masconnomet, because he often dreaded an 
attack from his eastern foes, ff Sept. ITth. Abraham Shurd 
of Pemaquid, sends to Agaw^am James's wife, who had been 
recently captured. He writes that wampum and beaver-skins 
are demanded for her ransom. 



* Higginson. t William Dixey's deposition. t Winthrop. 

§ Reg. R. II Col, R. IT Winthrop. ** Hubbard. t+ Winthrop. 



4 INDIAN INHABITANTS. 

* 1638, Marcli 13th, Masconnomet sells his fee in the soil 
of Ipswich to John VVinthrop Jr., in behalf of its inhabitants, 
for £20. 

t 1639. In the southwest part of Ipswich, now apper- 
taining to Middletown, there was an Indian plantation. This 
contained a hill, called, 1661, Will Hill, from old William, 
an Indian, who, 1660, seems to have owned considerable land. 

X March 5th. IVlasconnomet is to have his gun mended, 
which the Governor's servant broke. He is also allowed to 
kill fowl and deer. He acknowledges himself satisfied with 
what Mr. Winthrop paid him for his right to the territory of 
this town. 

1642, Sept. The Agawames and other tribes are to have 
their arms restored, having been taken from them because it 
was suspected that they intended to rise against the English. 

1644, JNIarch 8th. Besides four other Sagamores, Mascon- 
nomet puts himself, his subjects, and possessions under the 
protection and government of Massachusetts, and agrees to be 
instructed in the Christian religion. The following questions 
are submitted to these chiefs, who give the accompanying 
replies. 

1st. Will you worship the only true God, who made heaven 
and earth, and not blaspheme ? Ans. " We do desire to 
reverence the God of the English and to speak well of Him, 
because we see He doth better to the English, than other gods 
do to others." 2d, Will you cease from swearing falsely ? 
Ans. " We know not what swearing is." 3d. Will you 
refrain from working on the Sabbath, especially within the 
bounds of Christian towns ? Ans. " It is easy to us, — we 
have not much to do any day, and we can well rest on that 
day." 4th. Will you honor your parents and all your superi- 
ors ? Ans. " It is our custom to do so, — for inferiors to honor 
superiors." 5th. Will you refrain from killing any man with- 
out just cause and just authority ? Ans. " This is good, and 
we desire so to do." 6th. Will you deny yourselves fornica- 
tion, adultery, incest, rape, sodomy, buggery, or bestiality ? 
Alls. " Though some of our people do these things occasion- 
ally, yet we count them naught and do not allow them." 
7ih. Will you deny yourselves stealing ? Ans. '■ We say 
the same to this as to the 6th question." 8th. Will you 

* Col. R. 1 Annals of Salem. t Col. R. 



INDIAN INHABITANTS. 



allow your children to learn to read the word of God, so that 
they may know God aright and worship hiiu in his own way ? 
Ans. " We will allow this as opportunity will permit, and, as 
the English live among us, we desire so to do." 9Lh. Will 
you reirain from idleness ? Ans. " We will." After Mas- 
connomet and the other chiefs had thus answered, they pre- 
sent the Court with twenty-six fathoms of wampum. The 
Court, in return, order them five coats, two yards each, of red 
cloth, and a pot full of wine. 

* 1652, April 17th. Peckanaminet, alias Ned, an Indian, 
and sometimes called Acocket, of Ipswich, had recently mort- 
gaged for £30 his land, about eight miles square, on the 
further side of Merrimack, lying eight or ten miles from An- 
dover. This Indian was aged 6S in 1676... He had a brother, 
Humphrey. Both of them, like most of their red brethren, 
possessing land and surrounded by whites and tempted by rum, 
were continually distressed through their improvident debts. 

I 1655, Feb. 21st. " Left to the seven men to grant to 
the Sagamore six acres of planting land, where they shall 
appoint, for to plant, but not propriety to any but himself" 

1658, June 18th. " Granted the Sagamore's widow to 
enjoy that parcel of land, which her husband had fenced in, 
during the time of her widowhood." Thus we have notice 
of Masconnomet's decease. He had lived to behold his peo- 
ple almost extinct, and to perceive his power dwindled to the 
very emblem of weakness. As the last of the Chiefs, who 
ruled over the Agawames, his feeble and broken sceptre 
descended with him to the grave. He was buried on Saga- 
more Hill, now within the bounds of Hamilton. His gun and 
other valued implements were interred with his body. 
X March 6th. Idle curiosity, wanton, sacrilegious^ sport, 
prompted an individual to dig up the remains of this chief 
and carry his skull on a pole through Ipswich streets. Such 
an act of barbarity was severely frowned on, and speedily 
visited with the retributions of civil justice. 

>§> 1671, Feb. 21st. "Granted Ned two or three acres to 
plant, during his life, in some convenient place, if he fence 
it sufficiently with stone wall." 

1678, Dec. 23d. Several Indians, hving in a wigwam, are 
furnished with some provisions by the town. 

*Recr. R. tT.R. tCol. R. § T. R. 



6 REMAINS OF THE AGAWAMES. 

1683, Feb. 27th. Surveyors are empowered to lay out a 
small quantity of land for Ned and bis family and the old 
Sagamore's daughter and her children, to improve for them, 
durino; the town's pleasure. 

* 1686. John Dunton was accompanied from Wenham 
to Ipswich by an Indian, who gives him the common saluta- 
tion of his tribe, — netop, friend. Mr. Dunton describes a 
funeral, which took place near Ipswich, and which shows the 
custom of the Agawames, in so solemn a service. When the 
mourners came to the grave, they laid the body near by, then 
sat down and lamented. He observed successive tears on the 
cheeks of old and young. After the body was laid in the 
grave, they made a second lamentation ; then spread the mat, 
on which the deceased had died, over the grave ; put the dish 
there, in which he had eaten, and hung a coat of skin on an 
adjacent tree. This coat none touched, but allowed it to con- 
sume with the dead. The relatives of the person, thus buried, 
had their faces blacked, as a sign of mourning. 

f 1690, Feb. ISth. Ned is still assisted by the town and is 
aged about 82. — Dec. 30th. Robert, an Indian, is similarly 
helped. 

1726. There were three families, each having a wigwam 
back of Wigwam Hill at the Hamlet. It is probable, that, not 
long after this year, Indians disappeared from among the inhab- 
itants of I[)sw'ich. Had letters flourished among the Agawames, 
many of their transactions, fitted to excite pity and admiration, 
to draw forth censure and approval, would have been recorded 
on the pages of history. But such a privilege, with which a 
kind Providence has favored us, was not theirs. Hence 
no register exists to tell us where the red men, who once 
held undisputed sway over our soil, had their homes and 
corn-fields, their places of fishing and hunting, of feasting and 
amusement, their battle grounds, and their consecrated spots 
for council and for worship. 



REMAINS OF THE AGAWAMES. 

Shells. In many places, and particularly on high land, 
abundance of clam shells have been ploughed up. These 

* Dunton. t T. R. 



REMAINS OF THE AGAWAMES. 7 

shells were undoubtedly carried thither with their contents, as 
food, by the natives. 

Tomahawks. These are stones of various species, aver- 
aging the length of a common-sized man's hand, with a place 
towards one end, where handles were fastened, and with the 
otlier end brought down to an edge. They continue to be 
frequently discovered in different spots. They were used by 
Indians before they obtained i -on from Europeans, whom they 
called Chauquaquock, or " knife-men." Though rude, such 
weapons must have proved deadly to opposing foes. 

Gouges. These, of hard stones, are about half a foot 
long, and have one end sharpened. The process of manu- 
facturing articles with them would be most tedious to the 
mechanic of our day, who is favored with the great improve- 
ments of art. 

Pestles and Mortars. These, composed of granite, 
have been occasionally disinterred. They were for such 
purposes as the pounding of dried berries and corn. 

There are relics, whose use is not certain. Some of them 
are stones nearly round and encircled with a groove for strings 
or withes. They were probably used in battle. Others are 
formed much like a small pear, with the slender end fitted 
for a string. They may have been worn as ear-drops by the 
natives, who were strangers to the factitious charms of gold 
and diamonds. 

Heads of Arrows. These are met with in great num- 
bers. They are of a flinty substance and of several colors 
and sizes. They have been generally discovered on swells of 
land facing each other. This is an indication that some 
great battles were fought there. When such events were, who 
the parties engaged, what the cause of their conflict, the great- 
ness of the slaughter, the number of captives, the results of 
the combat, are particulars once known to the tribes concerned, 
once related by fathers to their listening children ; but now 
beyond the reach of our perception, though fresh in the re- 
membrance of Him, " who will bring to light the hidden 
things of darkness." 



DEED. 



DEED. 



* " I Masconnomet, Sagamore of Agawam, do by these 
presents acknowledge to have received of Mr. John Winthrop 
the sum of £20, in full satisfaction of all the right, prop- 
erty, and claim I have, or ought to have, unto all the land, 
lying and being in the Bay of Agawam, alias Ipswich, being 
so called now by the English, as well as such land, as 1 form- 
erly reserved unto my own use at Chebacco, as also all other 
land, belonging to me in these parts, Mr. Dummer's farm 
excepted only ; and I hereby relinquish all the right and in- 
terest I have unto all the havens, rivers, creeks, islands, hunt- 
ings, and fishings, with all the woods, swamps, timber, and 
whatever else is, or may be, in or upon the said ground to me 
belonging : and I do hereby acknowledge to have received full 
satisfaction from the said John Winthrop for all former agree- 
ments, touching the premises and parts of them ; and I do 
hereby bind myself to make good the aforesaid bargain and 
sale unto the said John Winthrop, his heirs and assigns for 
ever, and to secure him against the title and claim of all other 
Indians and natives whatsoever. Witness my hand. 

28^A of June, 1633. 

Witness hereunto, Masconnomet, 

John Joyliffe, 
James Downing, 

Thomas Caytimore, his ^ y mark." 

Robert Harding. 

f 1639, Nov. 5th. Ipswich is required to pay John Win- 
throp Jr. the £20 which he paid the Sagamore for his right 
to their land. 

X 1705, Feb. 22d. " Voted, that Samuel Appleton, Esq., 
and our two Representatives treat with the Hon. Wait Win- 
throp, about Masconnomo's deed of Agawam, made to his 
father deceased. Governor of Connecticut." 

* Topsfield, T. R. t Col. R. \ T. R. 




PLACE FIRST OCCUPIED AS THE TOWN. \) 

PLACE FIRST OCCUPIED AS THE TOWN. 

From the phraseology, used when grants of land were first 
made to people of Ipswich, it is evident that the Town, 
so denominated by way of distinction, was located on the 
Neck. This was immediately bounded on the east by what 
is now known as Jeffrey's Neck. It appears, that originally 
the whole neck, the western part of which was selected for 
the town, was called after the same person. It seems that 
William Jeffrey had given name to this neck, and also to the 
creek, afterwards Manchester, before Agawam was settled in 
1633. To this point the following is adduced. 

* 1628. Jefiiey and Burslem are assessed £2 towards the 
expenses of the expedition against Morton at Merry Mount. 
There can be but little doubt, that Jeffrey was, this year, a 
resident in the original bounds of Agawam, because no wri- 
ter or document has shown, that he lived elsewhere, and two 
places within such territory very early received their names 
from his. 

1634. Winthrop, speaking of Jeffrey's handing him a let- 
ter from Morton, calls him, " an old planter." 

f 1666. William Jeffrey claims the Neck, of his name, in 
the limits of Ipswich. He is granted five hundred acres of 
land on the south side " of our patent, to be a final issue of all 
claims by virtue of any grant, heretofore made by any In- 
dians whatsoever." 



FIRST SETTLERS. 

For a considerable period from the permanent occupation 
of Agawam, no persons were considered as its inhabitants, 
without the consent of its freemen. This was a regulation 
throughout the colony, which preserved each community from 
the intrusion of the idle, contentious, and immoral. Were such 
a regulation now acted on by all our towns, not merely to 
guard against anticipated expenses of pauperism, but also to 
keep off the contagion of vice, so many of them would not be 
under one of the worst of tyrannies, even amid the praises of 

* Gov. Bradford. t Col. R. 

2 



10 



FIRST SETTLERS. 



their freedom, a tyranny of being ruled by the votes of the 
unprincipled, who are ever ready to hinder the best good of 
society :.nd to bring down upon it the curse of their iniquities. 

* t 1633, March. John VVinlhrop Jr. and twelve others 
commence a settlement here. J April 1st. The Court of 
Assistants forbid any to reside in this place, without their 
leave, except those already come. Then follows a list of 
them; viz. — Mr. John VVinthro[), Jr., Mr. William Clerk, 
Robert Coles, Thomas Howlet, John Biggs, John Gage, 
Thomas Hardy, William Perkins, Mr. John Thorndike, and 
William Serjeant. Three are wanting to make up the first 
number. June 11th. Thomas Sellan has permission to be- 
come an inhabitant. 

<§> 1634, May. Before the people of Newton emigrated to 
Connecticut, " they sent men to Agawam and Merrimack, and 
gave out they would move." || Rev. Thomas Parker and 
company out of Wiltshire, being about one hundred, and 
other new settlers, take up their abode here. 

Besides the preceding individuals, are those on the following 
list, having the years, up to 1652, when they are first met 
with, as belonging to Ipswich. The spelling of their names 
is put down as they were found written. 

1635. Andrews, Robert 



1637. Appleton, Samuel 

Avery, Wm. 

Archer, Henry 
1639. Andrews, John 

1642. Annable, John 
Adams, Wm. 

1643. Andrews, Richard 
1648. Averil, Wm. 

Appleton, John. 
Ayres, John 

1635. Bracey, Thomas, Mr. 
Bradstreet, Dudley 
Bradstreet, Humphrey 
Bradstreet, Simon, Mr. 
Bartholomew, Wm. 

1636. Bishop, Thomas 

1637. Bishop, Nathaniel 



Bixbey, Nath'l. 
Browning, Tho's. 
Boreman, Tho's. 

1638. Brown, Edward 
Burnam, John 
Baker, John 

1639. Button, Mutthias 
Bird, Thos. 
Belcher, Jeremy 
Bellingham, Rich'd., Mr. 
Bosworth, Nath'l. 
Bird, Jatlinell 
Boreman, Sam'l. 

1640. Bachellor, Mr. 
1642. Brown, John 

Beacham, Robert 
Bitgood, Rich'd. 
Bachellor, Henry 
Brewer, Tho's. 



* Winlhrop. 

t The late excellent map of Ipswich mistakes in making its settlement 
in 1632. 

t Col. R. § Winthrop. || Hubbard. 



FIRST SETTLERS. 



11 



1643. Buckley, Wm. 
1G44. Bridges, Edmund 

1647. Burnam, Thomas 

1648. Bosworth, Haniel 
Brau-g, Edward 
Belts, Richard 
Birdley, Gyles 
Bishop, Job 

1649. Bixbey, Joseph 



1634. Dillingham, John 

1635. Dudley, Thomas, Mr. 
Dudley, Samuel, Mr. 
Dennison, Daniel, Mr. 

16.36. Dorman, Thomas 

1638. Dix, Widow 
Dane, John 

1639. Davis, John 
1642. Dane, John, Jr. 

Duglas, Wm. 
Davis, Richard 
Dane, Francis 
Day, Robert 



1647. Dennison, John 

1648. Dutch, Robert 
Dix, Ralph 

1634. Elliot, 



16.33. 
J 634. 


Carr, George 
Currin, Mathias 




1635. 


Cross, John 
Cogswell, John, Mr. 
Covengton, John 


1634. 


163G. 


Clark, Daniel 


1635. 


1637. 


Clark, Thomas 
Cross, Robert 
Challis, Phillip 
Colebeye, Arthur 






Comesone, Symond 


1637. 


1638. 


Cooley, John 


]638. 




Cartwright, Michael 


1639. 




Cachame, Henry 






Crane, Robert 






Comings, Isaac 


1642. 


1639. 


Cachame, Edward 
Chute, Lionel 
Castell, Robert 


1648. 


1642. 


Cowley, John 


1635. 


1644, 


, Chelson, Robert 
Chapman, Edward 




1648. 


, Chute, James 
Catchame, John 
Clark, Malachi 


1638. 




Choate, John 


1639. 




,.Cogswell, Wra. 


1642. 




Colborne, Robert. 


1648. 



Easton, Nicholas, Mr. 
1638. Emerson, Thomas 
English, Wm. 
Eppes, Dan'L, Mr. 
Emerson, Joseph 
Emerson, John 



Franklin, Wm. 
Fuller, John 
Fawne, John, Mr. 
Fuller, Wm. 
Fowler, Philip 
Foster, Wm. 
Firman, Tho's., Mr. 
French, Tho's., Mr. 
French, Edward 
French, Tho's., Jr. 
Filbrick, Robert 
Firman, Giles, Doct. 
Farnum, Ralph 
Fellows, Wra. 
Foster, Abraham 
French, John 

Goodhue, Wm. 
Gardner, Edmund 
Giddinge, George 
Graves, Robert 
Gibson, Thomas 
Greenfield, Samuel 
Gilven, Thomas - 
Green, Henry 
Gutterson, Wm. 
Granger, Lancelot 
Gilbert, Humphrey 
Greene, Thomas 
Griffen, Humphrey. 
Gillman, Edward 



1651. 



1635. Hubbard, Wm., Mr. 
Hassell, John 
Haffield, Rich'd. 

1636. Hall, Samuel 
Hart, Nathaniel 
Harris, Thomas 

1637. Heldred, Wm. 
Hayes, Robert 



12 



FIRST SETTLERS. 



1638. 

1639. 



1641. 

1642. 

1647. 

1648. 
1651, 



Hovey, Daniel 
Hauchet, John 
Humphrey, 



Huttley, Richard 
Hadley, George 
Hodges, Andrew 
Hart, Thomas 
Hoyt, John 
Howe, James 
Hunter, Robert 
Heard, Luke 
Heiphar, Wm. 
Harris, Anthony 
Harris, Thomas 
Harindin, Edward 



1633 and before. Jeffrey, Wm. 

1635. Jackson, John 
Johnson, John 

■ Jordan, Francis 

Jacob, Richard 

1636. Jennings, Richard 
1G37. Jordan, Stephen 

1635. Knight, Alexander 
Kent, Richard 
Kinsman, Robert 

1637. Kemball, Richard 

1638. Kingsbury, Henry 
Knight, Wm., Mr. 
Kemball, Henry 

1639. Knowlton, John 
1642. Knowlton, Wm. 

Knowlton, Tho's. 
Knight, Aleph 
1648. Kemball, Ricli'd., Jr. 

1635. Lancton, Roger 

1636. Lord, Robert 

1637. Lamson, Wm. 
Ladd, Daniel 

Lord, Katherine, widow 

1638. Lumkin, Richard. 

1640. Lee, John 

1642. Lee, Tho's. 
Lumas, Edward 
Lumas, Richard 

1643. Low, Tho's. 

1647. Lovell, Tho's. 

1648. Long, Sam'l. 
Lancton, Joseph 
Long, Phillip 



Lay ton, John 
1651. Leigh, Joseph 

1634. Manning, John 

1635. Moody, Wm. 
Metcalf, Joseph 
Mussey, John 
Mussey, Robert 

1636. Merriall, John 

1637. Mosse, Joseph 

1638. Morse, John 
Medcalf, Tho's. 
Miller, Wm. 

1639. Mohey, Robert 

1634. Newman, John 
1636. Norton, John, Mr. 

Norton, Wm., Mr. 
16.37. Northe, John 

1638. Newmarch, John 
Nichols, Richard 

1639. Newman, Tho's. 

1635. Osgood, Christopher. 

1634. Perkins, John 
Perkins, John, Jr. 
Parker, Thomas, Mr. 

1635. Procter, John 
Perley, Allen 

1636. Pebody, Francis 

1637. Pike, , Mr. 

. Purrier, Wm. 

Perkins, Isaac 

1638. Paine, Wm. 

1639. Pitney, James 
Preston, Roger 

1640. Paine, Robert 
1642. Perry, Thomas 

Pettis, John. 
Pingrey, Moses 
Pinder, Henry 
Podd, Daniel 

1648. Perkins, Jacob 
Pinder, John 
Pingrey, Aaron 
Podd, Samuel 
Pearpoynt, Robert 
Pendleton, Bryan, Mr. 

1649. Prichard, Wm. 
Palmer, George 
Potter, Anthony 



FIRST SETTLERS. 



13 



1637. Quilter, Mark 

1634. Robinson, John 

1636. Rogers, Nath'l., Mr. 

1637. Reading, Joseph 
Rawlinsone, Tho's. 

1638. Robinson, John 
1642. Reddiri, John 
1644. Roberts, Robert 
1648. Ringe, Daniel 

Rawlinsone, Tho's., Jr. 
. RofFe, Ezra 
RofFe, Daniel 

1^1633. Shatswell, John 

1634. Symonds, Mark 
Spencer, John 
Sewall, Henry, Mr. 

1635. Saltonstall, Rich'd., Mr. 
/ Short, Anthony 

Short, Henry 
Symonds, Wm. 
Sayward, Edmund 
Saunders, John 
Sherrat, Hugh 
Scott, Thomas 

1636. Sherman, Samuel 
Seaverns, John. 

.Sawyer, Edmund 

1637. Symonds, Samuel, Mr. 

1638. Silver, Thomas 
Sherman, Tho's. 
Scott, Robert 
Stacy, Lianon 
Swinder, Wm. 

1639. Smith, Tho's. 
Story, Andrew 

1641. SafFord, Tho's. 

1642. Scofield, Rich'd. 
Setchell, Theophilus 
Smith, Richard 

1647. Silsbee, Henry 

1648. Smith, George 
Story, Wm. 
Stacy, Tho's. 
Stone, Nath'l. 
Scott, Tho's., Jr. 
Satchwell, Richard 
Smith, Robert 
Salter, Theophilus 



1635. Tuttle, John 
Treadwell, — 



Mr. 



1637. Treadwell, Edward 

Turner, , Cap. 

Thornton, John 

1638. Treadwell, John 
Treadwell, Tho's. 
Taylor, Sam'l. 

1639. Thomson, Simon 
Tingley Palmer. 

1635. Varnuni, George 

1637. Vincent, Humphrey, Mr. 

1634. Ward, Nath'l., Mr. 

1635. Williamson, Paul 
Wyatte, John 
Wainwright, Francis 
Wells, Thomas 
Webster, John 
White, Wm. 
Whityear, John 
Wade, Jona., Mr. 

Woodmansee, , Mr. 

Wythe, Humphrey, Mr. 

1636. Wilson, Theophilus, Mr. 

1637. Wedgwood, John 
Whitred, Wm. 
Williamson, Michael 
Warren, Wra. 
Wattles, Richard 
Whittingham, John, Mr. 

1638. Whipple, Matthew 
Whipple, John, Mr. 
Wilkinson, Henry 
Whitman, Robert 

1639. Wallis, Robert 

1642. Warner, Daniel 

1643. Windall, Tho's, 

1644. Wood, Daniel, Cap. 

1645. Whittingham, Tho's., Mr. 

1648. Woodman, John 
Warren, Abraham 
Walderne, Abraham 
Ward, John, Doct. 
Whipple, John, Jr. 
Whitred, Thomas 
Walderne, Edward 
West, John 
Wooddam, John 
Warner, John. 

1649. Wood, Obadiah 
1651. Walker, Henry 

1635. Younglove, Samuel. 



14 GRANTS OF LAND. 

Among the changes of two centuries, is this, that many of 
the preceding names have disappeared from those, whereby 
the present inhabitants are designated. To the mind which 
is pleased with nothing, but tiie glowing descriptions of fancy, 
and finds no entertainment except at the board of fiction, such 
an array of proper names, without any connecting chain of 
remark, to tell of them whom they indicate, may be exceed- 
ingly repulsive. But not so is it with the persons, who have 
been accustomed to look for gold even amid sands ; who can 
find objects worthy of search even in the desert, which sur- 
rounds a luxuriant Oasis ; who wish to know the primitive 
settlers of an ancient community, and from them trace the de- 
scent of multitudes, scattered in almost every direction over 
our country. Such lists are among the attractions of history 
to the reflecter on " olden times " ; for by them he connects 
the present with the past, and has associations of thought 
awakened and put in motion, which afford him both pleasure 
and improvement. 



GRANTS OF LAND. 

* 1629, May 21st. The Assistants of the Company, who 
settled Massachusetts, meet in London and order that two 
hundred acres be allowed to each adventurer for £50 in the 
common stock, and so after this rate. They agree that such 
adventurers shall have fifty acres for each person whom they 
send over. They appoint that every man, who has no share 
in the general stock, and who transports himself and family at 
his own expense, shall have at least fifty acres. These were 
the rules, observed by all the ancient towns, in dividing their 
territory among their population. No individual was per- 
mitted for many years, to have any concern in assigning lots, 
unless he was a freeman. When business of this kind was 
to be transacted, the meeting for it was headed, Grants made 
" by the company of freemen," — owners of farms had house- 
lots in the town. This accorded with the following regulation. 

f 1635, May. " No dwelling-house shall be built above a 
half-mile from the meeting-house in any new plantation, 

• Col. R. t Ibid. 



GRANTS MADE BY THE GENERAL COURT. 15 

without leave from the Court, except mills and farm-houses 
of such as have their dwellings in town." It was intended to 
give here a particular account of each grant, but our want of 
room forbids. The highest number of acres, assigned, at one 
time, to any person, was somewhat above three hundred. The 
freemen voted very few lots of land to persons, who came to 
reside among them, after 1650. The soil, being variously 
apportioned out up to this period, has passed from one hand 
to another, so that a large division of it is held by those of a 
name, different from that of its original proprietors. Such a 
transfer has been especially promoted, since the right of en- 
tailment was negatived by the spirit and influence of our free 
institutions. The busy, stirring scene, to which our fathers 
were accustomed, when their first assignments of land were 
made, has long ago passed away in its living features. Our 
ancestors too have long since bodily mingled with the dust, 
though a few mementos are spared by the resistless march 
of time, to tell us, that they were, though now they are not. 
Truly wise were those among them, who, while careful to 
secure earthly possessions, were far more so to inherit heav- 
enly portions. 



GRANTS MADE BY THE GENERAL COURT. 

It was often the case that this Court appropriated lands to 
individuals and towns. Such appropriations were made to 
some individuals belonging to Ipswich ; and they will be stated 
under particular notices of those individuals. Only the follow- 
ing will be placed here. 

* 1649, Oct. 17th. Ipswich is allowed two-fifths of Plumb 
Island. Each town, at its first settlement, did generally agree, 
that a part, twenty acres, lying between the salt marsh and 
the low water mark, be for the use of the whole town, to be 
improved for thatching houses. This agreement, having 
been rendered void by a former General Court, is now con- 
firmed by the present one. 

1661, May 24th. George Smith is granted two hundred 
acres for £25, adventured by John Smith, 1628. 



Col. R. 



16 COMMON LANDS. 



COMMON LANDS. 

* 1645, Feb. 25th. "Whereas a plott of the cow-com- 
mon on the north side of the river, containing by estimation 
three tliousand two hundred and forty-four acres more or less, 
was presented unto the freemen of the town the day and 
year above written ; the freemen do give and grant unto the 
inhabitants of the town with themselves, their heirs, and suc- 
cessors for ever, (viz. all such as have right to commonage,) 
all the aforesaid common to be improved as aforesaid." 

1660, March 15th. " For as much as it is found by expe- 
rience, that the common lands of this town are overburdened 
by the multiplying of dwelling-houses, contrary to the interest 
and meaning of the first inhabitants in their granting of house- 
lots and other lands to such as came among them : to the 
end such inconveniences may be prevented for the future, it 
is ordered that no house, henceforth erected, shall have any 
right to the common lands of this town, nor any person, inhab- 
iting such house, make use of any pasture, timber, or wood, 
growing upon any of said common lands, on pretext of any 
right or title belonging to any such house hereafter built, 
without express leave of the town. It is further ordered, 
that the Seven men, in behalf of the town, petition the next 
General Court for the confirmation of this order, f The 
Court passed a law. May 30th, 1660, in accordance with this 
petition, that no cottage or dwelling shall have commonage, 
except those now built, or may be by consent of commoners 
or towns. 

X 1663, April 16th. "Ordered that no man shall cut any 
grass on Plumb Island before the 10th of July, nor any family 
use above two scythes at a time." 

1664, March 15th. The town vote to grant no more land. 

1665, Feb. 14th. " Voted that Plumb Island (the part 
belonging to Ipswich). Hog Island, and Castle Neck be divided 
to such, as have the right to commonage, in the proportion of 
4, 6, 8 ; that all who do not exceed 6s. 8d., in their person and 
estates, in a single country rate, to be of 4 ; those not ex- 
ceeding I65., in such a rate to be of six ; those above I65., 
together with magistrates, elders, Messrs. John Rogers and 

* T. R. t Col. R. I T. R. 



COMMON LANDS, 17 

Thomas Andrews, to be of 8." — April 10th, of two hundred 
and three commoners, t\venty-eiii;ht have a double share ; sev- 
enty, one share and a half; one hundred and five, one share; 
each share being three acres. There were eight hundred 
acres of common lands on the three islands, previously men- 
tioned, "besides beaches and galled hills." 

1668, INIarch 10th. Five men are admitted to be com- 
moners. 

16S2, April 13th. Question before the town, " Whether 
any commoner or inhabitant may take up and inclose land 
upon the common or high ways, as he or they shall see good, 
for Tobacco yards and oiher uses," is decided in the negative. 
1702, March 30th. As persons haa built cottages on the 
common lands, it is voted, that they shall pay rent ; and that 
no others shall build thereon without proper leave. 

1709, Jan. 11th. Voted, that all the common lands be 
divided into "eighth parts," except what is hereafter to accom- 
modate ancient and new connnoners. Voted, that wood-land 
at Chebacco Ponds, that thatch banks and land above Ba- 
ker's Pond and Samuel Perley's, Jeftiey's Neck, and Paine's 
Hill be divided into three-fifths and two-fifths shares. Voted, 
that any commoner, who has one or more rights and has built 
one or more new houses in the place of old ones, shall have 
only the right, for a new house, which belonged to the old one. 
— 25th, about one hundred and forty commoners are admitted. 
* 1757, April 22d. Voted, that Captain Jonathan Fellows, 
of Cape Ann, have the use of all the sand banks lying in 
Ipswich, for one year, at £2 13s. Ad. It was a custom thus to 
lease these banks, while sanded floors remained fashionable. 

1783, June 9th. It was decided by a majority of the com- 
moners present, that an absolute grant of all their interest, 
real and personal, as commoners, be made to the town of 
Ipswich for the purpose of paying its debts. These debts 
were contracted to meet the frequent and heavy demands of 
government, for aiding to carry on the revolutionary war. 
The vote to help to clear them off was as honorable to the 
commoners, as it was acceptable to the town. — Oct. 6th. 
This vote was confirmed as follows ; yeas 35 ^ rights, nays 26. 
Such a grant was worth about £600. Thus was a body of 
proprietors dissolved, similar to others, which have existed in 

* Commoners' R. 

3 



18 FREEMEN. 

all our towns. They appear to have had their origin in the 
freemen, who, for year3, liad the sole disposal of lands, which 
had not been appropriated, and which belonged to them, as a 
company. They had annually chosen their officers, admitted 
member-, and managed their concerns, as a business corpora- 
tion. The commoners of Ipswich had been far from a selfish 
policy. They frequently gave portions of their income to min- 
isters, schools, and poor of the town, and to those who suf- 
fered losses. When exclusive privileges, though continually 
viewed with an eye of jealousy, are used to promote the public 
good, the feelings of envy and the voice of reproach against 
them are greatly diminished. Such privileges, as were pos- 
sessed by the commoners, had no doubt become uncongenial 
with the popular views of liberty, as fostered by indepen- 
dence of monarchical government. Having become extinct, 
sucii a class of society, as to their former existence and pur- 
pose, will remain only on the pages of the past, an evidence, 
that associations and customs disappear, as the circumstances 
of the community alter. 



FREEMEN. 

To become a freeman, each person was legally required to 
be a respectable member of some congregational church. 
Persons were made freemen by the General Court of the col- 
ony, and also by quarterly courts of the counties. None but 
freemen could hold offices or vote for rulers. This regulation 
was so far modified by Royal order, in 1664, as to allow indi- 
viduals to be made freemen, who could obtain certificates of 
their being correct in doctrine and conduct from clergymen 
acquainted with them. 

* 1634, May 14th. A law is passed that the whole body 
of freemen meet, from all the towns, at the General Court of 
Election, and choose the IMagistrates, including Governor 
and Lieut. Governor. 

1636, March 3d. Ipswich and five other towns are allowed 
to keep a sufficient guard of freemen at home from such a 
Court and to forward their proxies. 

1663, Oct. 26th. The practice of freemen's meeting in 

* Col. R. 



freemen's oath. 19 

Boston to elect magistrates is repealed. This repeal, bow- 
ever, was so unpopular, that the same practice was renewed 
next year; but it seems to have gone down soon after. At 
first, danger from Indians war, pleaded, why border and distant 
towns should retain part of their freemen from General Elec- 
tion. At last, the greatness of the number, when assembled 
from the whole colony to choose the magistrates, and the con- 
current inconveniences of this custom, appear to have been the 
cause of producing an alteration, which substantially accords 
with present usage. 



FREEMEN'S OATH. 

1634, May 14th. The General Court order this oath to 
be so far altered, as to accord with the following form. 

" I, A. B., being by God's providence an inhabitant and 
freeman within the jurisdiction of this Commonwealth, do 
freely acknowledge myself to be subject to the government 
thereof, and therefore do here swear by the great and dreadful 
name of the everlasting God, that I will be true and faithful 
to the same, and will accordini,dy yield assistance and support 
thereunto, with my person and estate, as in equity I am bound ; 
and I will also tr'.dy endeavour to maintain and preserve all the 
liberties and privileges thereof, submitting myself to the whole- 
some laws and orders, made and established by the same. 
And further, that I will not plot nor practise any evil against 
it, nor consent to any, that shall so do, but will truly discover 
and reveal the same to lawful authority now here established, 
for the speedy preventing thereof. Moreover, I do solemnly 
bind myself in the sight of God, that when I shall be called 
to give my voice, touching any such matter of this state, 
wherein freemen are to deal, I will give my vote and suffrage, 
as I shall judge in mine own conscience may best conduce 
and tend to the public weal of the body, without respect of 
persons or favor of any man ; so help me God in the Lord 
Jesus Christ." 

This was essentially the same, as the previous oath. 



20 RESIDENTS. RESIDENTS' OATH. 



RESIDENTS. 

These were persons, who were either not allowed, or de- 
clined, to become freemen. They were not entitled to full 
civil privilee^es. 

* 1635, March 4th. All of them, above sixteen years, are 
to take an oath of fidelity. 

1638, Sept. 6th. Persons, neither freemen nor church 
members, who have excused themselves from voluntary con- 
tributions, are required to pay their proportion. 

1647, May 26th. They, who are twenty-four years old and 
who have taken the oath of fidelity, are allowed to be chosen 
on juries by freemen and to vote for selectmen. The disa- 
bilities, under which residents labored, ceased in 1664, when 
the conditions of freemanship became less restricted. 



RESIDENTS' OATH. 

1634, April 1st. Every man of or above twenty, who is 
or shall be a resident six months and not enfranchised, shall 
take the subsequent oath before the Governor or Deputy Gov- 
ernor, or the two next Assistants. 

" I do here swear and call God to witness, that being 
now an inhabitant within the limits of this jurisdiction of Mas- 
sachusetts, I do acknowledge myself lawfully subject to the 
authority and government here established ; and do accord- 
ingly submit my person, family, and estate to be protected, 
ordered, and governed by the laws and constitutions thereof; 
and do faithfully promise to be from time to time obedient 
and conformable tliereunto, and to the authority of the Gov- 
ernor and all other magistrates and their successors, and to 
all such laws, orders, sentences, and decrees, as now are or 
hereafter shall be lawfully made, decreed, and published by 
them or their successors. And I will always endeavour (as 
in duty I am bound) to advance the peace and welfare of 
this body politic, and 1 will to my best power and means 
seek to divert and prevent whatsoever may tend to the ruin 
or damage thereof, or of the Governor, Deputy Governor, 

* Col. R. 



MANNER OF WRITING. CHRONOLOGY. 21 

or Assistants, or any of their successors. And I will give 
speedy notice to them or some of them of any seditions, 
violent treachery, or other hurt or evil, which I shall know, 
hear, or vehemently suspect to be plotted or intended aiiainst 
them or any of them, or against the said Commonwealth, or 
government establislied. So help me God." 

This oath was the same for substance, as one before used. 



MANNER OF WRITING. 

The Records of Ipswich, like those of all others of equal 
age, were so composed for over a half-century, as to require 
considerable study before they can be readily and correctly 
rendered. Their spelling and a part of their letters varied 
from ours. Some of their syllables and words were contract- 
ed. They had, in accordance with the custom of the age, 
the possessive pronoun succeeding a noun in the possessive 
case, till after 16S9 ; as " Sir Edmund Andros his rule." 
This is the occasion of one among the precepts of modern 
grammar, which cautions us against improper expression. 
Such differences have continually taken place between the 
chirography of successive centuries, since letters have been 
extant, as well as in printing, since the more recent invention 
of types. Two centuries from this, our books, both in manu- 
script and print, will probably appear as antiquated to others, 
as those of our ancestors do to us. 



CHRONOLOGY. 

* The people of New England " call the dayes of the 
weeke beginning Sabbath," first, second, third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, and seventh, which is Saturday. They begin their 
months in March by the names of first, second, third, fourth, 
and so to the twelfth, which is February. 

The primitive records of this town agree with the preceding 
account. Such a practice lasted many years through the 
whole country. It was generally exchanged for ours of the 

* Lechford. 



22 CHRONOLOGY. ROYAL STYLE. 

present day. It was retained by tlie Friends. By act of 
Parliament, the year, which liad l)egun on the 25tli of March, 
was ordered to commence January 1st, 175-2, and to have 
eleven days added to it, so as to make Sept. 3d the 14th. 
Such an addition was made, that the Equinoxes and Solstices 
might be calculated to fall on their proper dates. It seems 
that the first emigrants to Massachusetts altered the mode of 
naming the montlis for the followint^ reasons. Through the 
partiality of Charles the First and Bishop Laud, some forms 
of the Catholic Church had been imposed on the English 
Church. Besides, Pope Gregory had long endeavoured to 
have his improvement of the Julian style of reckoning time 
adopted by Protectant nations. Such a style allowed the 
months to be called by their proper names, as invented by 
Romulus and amended by Numa. In order then not to de- 
note the months, as the Catholics did, whose ecclesiastical 
corruptions had become more than commonly offensive to 
Puritans, because an increased occasion of llieir being op- 
pressed by the crown, it is believed that our fathers marked 
the months -'by tigures and not by Romish words. On this 
point Lechford observes, they did so " because they would 
avoid all memory of heathenish and idols names." When 
reference is now made to dates before 1752, they are said to 
be Old Style ; when made to those after, they are called New 
Style. Alterations of this kind, though undoubtedly for the 
better, have been no small tax on the patience of correct 
annalists, and have led to many anachronisms. 



ROYAL STYLE. 

In Massachusetts the regal mode of heading public papers 
■was abolished June 1st, 1776. This year May 15th, warrants 
for town-meeting in Ipswich were headed thus, " You are 
hereby warned in the name of the government and people of 
Massachusetts Bay." Before, the caption of such warrants 
was, " In his Majesty's name," which was continued as late 
as March 1st. This rooting out of old forms, which had be- 
come familiar to children in the play of impressment, was 
required as pertinent under a new order of legislation, and 
as a means of cutting off the people from every trammel of 
royalty and urging them forward in the pursuit of freedom. 



TITLES. MIDDLE NAMES. DWELLING-HOUSES. 23 



TITLES. 

The title of Mr. was applied to captains and sometimes to 
mates of vessels ; to military captains ; to eminent meicliants ; 
to schoolmasters, doctors, magistrates, and clergymen ; to per- 
sons who had received a second degree at college, and who 
had been made freemen. The wives and daughters of such 
individuals were called Mrs. To be deprived of this address 
was deemed a serious degradation. 

1631, Sept. 27th. Josiah Plaistow of Boston, for a mis- 
demeanor, is sentenced by the Court of Assistants, " hereafter 
to be called by the name of Josias and not ]S[r., as formerly 
used to be." The usual appellation of adults, who were not 
Mr. and Mrs., were gooJman and goodwife before their re- 
spective surnames. Taking these terms in their radical mean- 
ing, it is not strange that they were sometimes, if not often, 
misapplied. 

Distinctions of this sort generally continued, till the colony 
was merged in an extensive province, under Joseph Dudley, 
1686, when the custom of making and recording freemen 
seems to have ceased. Hence these distinctions gradually 
fell into disuse. 

" When merit pleads, titles no deference claim," {Broome.) 



MIDDLE NAMES. 

Scarcely any persons had these names before 1731, when 
they began to increase slowly. By 17S3 they had become 
considerably fashionable, though notliing near so abundant as 
at present. Were many of the individuals, who have from 
one to four of such names, to travel in Asiatic Turkey and be 
particularly asked the reason and definition of them, as is 
customary there, they woidd be hardly able to give an intelli- 
gible and satisfactory answer. 



DWELLING-HOUSES. 



Johnson remarks of Ipswich dwellings about 1646, " Their 
houses are many of them very faire built with pleasant gar- 



24 DWELLING-HOUSES. 

dens." From the appearance of houses, erected here one 
hundred and fifty years since, the better sort of them were 
two stories high, with the upper story jutting out a foot or so 
over tlie lower. The roofs of them, being generally hipped 
or "-ambrel, were high and steep. Some of the grander ones 
among them had one or two peaks on each side of tlie roof, so 
as to form small chambers. Tlie frames of these buildings 
were of white-oak and much larger than we use in our day, 
bavin"- the beams of each finished room considerably in sight. 
They show that so valuable wood was very plenty, and that 
there was little fear of its becoming scarce, as it now is. 

The windows of such houses were from two and a half to 
three feet lone:, one and a half to two wide, with squares, like 
the figure of a diamond, set in leadlines, and from three to four 
inches long. These windows were sometimes entire, and some- 
times in halves, and opened outwardly on hinges. They 
were fashionable till after 1734. Those with four by six suc- 
ceeded, then five by seven, then six by eight, then seven by 
nine, set in wooden frames, which began to be used here 
eighty years ago. Such sized glass as was put into these 
frames appeared, at its different periods of increase, as 
much larger than the diamond-formed, as the great squares 
of our day, which began to be in use here thirty-five years since, 
seemed in comparison with those that immediately preceded 
them. The doors of the best houses, ninety years past, had 
diagrams marked out on them, as large as the squares of glass, 
setin lead lines, and had brass nails driven in at the points of 
the angles. 

As lime-stone was little known and less manufactured for 
over a century, the walls of houses were daubed with clay, 
mixed with straw, or plastered with a sort of lime made in great 
part from clain-shells. Paper not being put on walls till 
a century ago, and very little until 1733, whitewash was used 
in its stead. 

Each side of a dwelling had bricks laid against the inner par- 
tition, being then covered with clay, and then with clapboards. 
These boards, being so immediately put on the clay, were 
lonir called dayhoards instead of clapboards. It was thus our 
fathers sought to make their abodes comfortable in cold weath- 
er, as well as durable. While the better kind of buildings 
were shingled on the top, others, such as cottages of one 
story, had thatched roofs till after 1691. This was no doubt 



FUEL. 25 

an Imitation of a custom in England, where it still exists in 
country villages ; and made our thatch-banks in greater de- 
mand than they are now. 

Very few if any houses had more than one chimney pre- 
viously to 1700. This was in the middle, was of large di- 
mensions, and, besides other fireplaces, had a mammoth-like 
one for the kitchen, where a whole family could sit conven- 
iently on the two forms or benches, placed in the corners. 
Even now most of the houses standing, have but one chimney. 
Instead of free-stone, soap-stone, and marble, as sometimes now 
used on the tops and sides of fireplaces, there were occasion- 
ally, as early as 1728, Dutch china tiles with scriptural repre- 
sentations. 

Houses had little or no paint on them, inside or out, before 
1784. Even half a century since, it was not common for the 
best room, and much less for the whole building, to be thus 
ornamented. Very few houses were painted outside as late as 
ISOO. Since then the number of them, thus ornamented, has 
gradually increased. 

1831. Besides two hundred and ninety-eight barns, there 
were in Ipswich three hundred and thirty-two dwelling-houses. 
Of these only eight are three stories high. 



FUEL. 



The first settlers thought no more of burning twenty or 
thirty cords of wood annually, than we do of burning five. 
* " All Europe is not able to make so great fires as at New 
England. Here is good living for those who love good fires." 
As the Indians resided on a spot, till they had consumed the 
trees around them, and then sought another place, where 
were enough more, they thought that one reason, why our 
ancestors emigrated to this country, was, that they had burnt 
out their fuel in England and came to America for a fresh 
supply. The price of hard wood in Ipswich forty years ago 
was two dollars a cord ; now it is six dollars. Peat began to 
be used in some families about fifty years since. It is now 
burnt considerably by farmers, who have it in their grounds, 
and whose wood has become scarce. It was made into coal 



Higginson. 



.// 



26 LIGHT. 



sixty years past and used on the forges of blacksmiths. Fre- 
quently individuals hire pieces of bog and pay two dollars a 
rod, for peat two feet and a half deep. Anthracite coal 
began to be used by some a year or two since. 



LIGHT. 



" Although New England has no tallow to make candles of, 
yet by the abundance of the fish thereof, it can afford oil for 
lamps. Yea, our pine trees, that are most plentiful of all 
wood, do allow us plenty of candles, which are useful in a 
bouse. And they are such candles as the Indians commonly 
use, having no other ; and they are nothing else but the wood 
of tiie pine tree cloven in two little slices, something shm, 
which are so full of the moisture of turpentine and pitch, that 
they burn as clear as a torch." 

Though this account was given by Mr. Higginson as to 
Naumkeag, in 1629, yet there is no reason to forbid its applica- 
tion to Agawam in 1633 and afterwards. We are credibly 
told, that such rude lights arfe burnt even now in the back 
parts of Alabama. 

* Tiie oil consumed by our ancestors was mostly obtained 
from fish livers. It continued to be generally used among 
their descendants till within forty years. The lamp, which 
contained this oil, was large, made of tin, had a great wick, 
and was commonly hung on one side of the fire|)lace. f As 
whale and sea-horse oil was among the staple commodities of 
the colony in 1642, it is likely, that the wealthier people of 
Ipswich burnt it occasionally, if not frequently. 

Tallow candles were very little used till within a half 
century. Governor Winthrop desired his son John, in 1630, to 
send him over some ordinary suet or tallow, which was prob- 
ably for the manufacture of such lights. Neither our ancestors 
nor we have employed spirits to light our houses, as some 
have recently in our country, a use far less objectionable than 
consuming human vitals by them ; or gas, as ingeniously and 
conveniently used by many in our metropolis for several years. 

* Morton. t Mass. Hist. Coll. 



DRINKS. 27 



DRINKS. 



Ardent Spirit. There is mournful proof, that this found 
its serpentine way among the first inhabitants of Ipswich, as 
well as among those of other communities. Still, such " fire- 
water," as rightly it was called by Indians, was very far from 
being so common, as it has been in our age. A gentleman, over 
ninety, informs us, that much less of it was consumed here in 
1760, for the same number of people, than there is now, even 
since the temperance reformation. Then, a pint was made to 
go as far among workmen, as a gallon in latter years. Other 
poisons have slain their thousands, but this its tens of thou- 
sands. Happy the people, who shall cast it from among them, 
and consign it to the care of judicious apothecaries. 

Wine. This was drunk sparingly by a small proportion of 
the primitive emigrants. It was taken, as well as spirits, for 
many years, from a cup. Like every thing of the kind, which 
produces excitement, though it endangers and debases, it grew 
upon the appetite of the people, even faster than their growth. 
In 1639, the legislature forbid healths to be drunk, undoubtedly 
with wine ; and, in 1672, they require it not to be given to 
workmen. Such enactments, however, neither caged nor bound 
the abuse of this liquid. Multitudes, now living, can remem- 
ber when tyrant fashion would obtrude it upon their taste, by 
night and by day, whenever making a call upon others either 
for business or pleasure. There is indeed matter for un- 
feigned thankfulness to our Maker, that He has caused the 
threatening tide of this custom to be turned back. It is vain 
for us to expect, that ever total abstinence from spirits will 
hold its own, and make great advances, until the use of wine, 
for those in health, is banished from society. 

Beer. For the first half century, families in general had 
their beer apparatus, with which they brewed their common 
beverage. As orchards increased and came to maturity, this 
drink of their " father-land " was in less and less demand. 

Cider. This, as the successor of beer, long continued to 
be a standing liquid for most of our householders. Its abuse 
has hastened not a few to the precipice of intetnperance, from 
which they have fallen no more to rise. Such have been the 
ravages made by canker worms, within several years, upon 
our apple-trees, that cider has become less plenty than it was. 



28 DRINKS. 

Should a loss of this kind weaken appetite for stronger liquids, 
it will prove a gain indeed. 

How much less bound down to oppressive and expensive 
habits would men have been, had they realized, that there was 
a far better drink than all these, divinely provided for them ! 
God, when making bare the arm of his might and mercy, 
when performing miracles to relieve those perishing with thirst, 
never sent them spirit, wine, beer, or cider, but simple, 
unadulterated water. He has thus given us a striking lesson, 
as to what is best to revive the drooping and refresh the 
languid. His teaching is infallible. As we learn of Him, 
so shall we be blessed. 

Coffee. This article was not used by any of our original 
inhabitants, whether rich or poor. It does not meet our eye 
on their inventories of stores. It was introduced into Mar- 
tinico, 1717, Surrinam, 1718, and Jamaica, 1732. A consid- 
erable number of years must have elapsed after the last of 
these periods, before coffee could have become an article of 
much importation into this colony. Of so recent an origin in 
our part of the world, there is no wonder, that coffee was 
little used, and this only by wealthier families in Ipswich, as 
tradition relates, till 1770 ; and then not a tenth part so much 
as it was soon after the peace of 1783. In our contest for 
independence, as well as in our last war with Britain, most 
people, on account of the great price and scarcity of coffee, 
substituted for it burnt rye, beets, peas, and potatoes. 

Tea. The beverage made from this herb was unknown to 
the primitive social circles of Ipswich. It had no Lettsoms or 
CuUens to descant upon its poisonous or salutary effects. 
The first mention of it in English statutes was in 1660. From 
this fact, it is not strange, that tea was very seldom drunk by 
our ancestors for over a century after they settled Agawam. 
The first instance of meeting, on accounts of Ipswich estates, 
with tea equipage, was 1739. From about 1718 lea slowly 
made its way into the favor and usage of the richer part of 
this community. Other people scarcely ever had it, except 
on particular occasions of having company. Not a few anec- 
dotes are related by aged individuals, which show how awk- 
ward their mothers were in " making tea," even down to 1760 ; 
which tell of various experiments they tried, before they ascer- 
tained the proper quantity, and acquired the desired taste. 
It is evident from these trials, that people have no natural 



SWEETEXING. 29 

relish for such a plant ; and that they were desirous to adopt it, 
as an item of domestic living, more for the sake of imitatino-the 
example of the rich, than for any good it did them. It has 
always been the case, that things " dear bought and lar fetch- 
ed " have an imaginary worth affixed to them, and thus have 
gained a great preference over others, equally good, but nio-h 
at hand and of no computed value. Our difficulties with Par- 
liament increasing, and the compacts entered into by numerous 
towns not to import tea, because of the tax on it, prevented this 
article from getting into general use, till some years after the close 
of the Revolutionary war. During this struggle. Liberty tea was 
adopted by some, as a substitute for that of India. It was made 
of four-leaved loosestrife. This plant was pulled up hke flax ; 
its stocks, stripped of their leaves, were boiled ; and the leaves 
were put into an iron kettle and basted with the liquor of the 
stocks. After this process the leaves were removed into plat- 
ters and placed in an oven to dry. A pound of this tea would 
go as far as one of Souchong. It sold quickly in barter for 
about 6cl. a pound. 

Chocolate. This article, being made by Spaniards, not 
long after their settlement in South America, was used earlier 
than coffee and tea, both in Europe and in the English Colo- 
nies. It was drunk occasionally by the original settlers of Ips- 
wich, who were in good circumstances. Once a week, when 
an unusual treat was hankered after, a kettle would be hung over 
the fire with the necessary ingredients of water, milk, and cho- 
colate. This has never been generally used here, probably be- 
cause of its producing a heaviness of feeling. Neither our an- 
cestors nor we have resembled the Spaniard, who would look 
on himself as sunk in the most abject poverty, if he could not 
procure a daily portion of such beverage. 



SWEETENING. 

Sugar was long imported from the East into Europe, as a 
great rarity. It was employed more as a medicine than oth- 
erwise. In 1641, sugar-cane begins to be planted in the West 
Indies. Of course, not a few years must have elapsed, before 
it could have become a common article of food among the peo- 
ple of this town. So early, however, as 1630, Governor 
Winthrop requested his son to send him some of it from Lon- 



30 FOOD. 

don ; and, in 1637, the General Court laid a heavy duty on it, 
which was soon repealed. These instances are consistent with 
the position already expressed. The more wealthy had sugar 
in their families for special occasions, and in proportion as they 
used chocolate, tea, and coffee. But others, not having these 
last three articles, for a long period, did without sugar till they 
came to have them as a part of their domestic meals. 

In an account of an Ipswich estate, in 1674, molasses is 
named, which shows that it had been used here in some de- 
gree. This kind of sweetening was more common than that 
of sugar. Botii sugar and molasses were consumed much more 
by people in general after the peace of Independence, than 
before. It may be a fair question, however nutritious sweet- 
ening is in itself, whether it has not promoted the thousand 
delicacies and luxuries, which were almost unknown to our 
ancestors, and have thus impaired the health of their descen- 
dants by new diseases. 



FOOD. 



Dinners, though not the same in every respect formerly as 
now, have never essentially varied. Such meals, in England, 
were commonly taken at 11 o'clock before noon, in the 16th 
century. The regular hour in Ipswich has been, for the most 
part, at twelve o'clock, when the bell rings. There was a 
time, a (ew years since, when the bell rang at half past 
twelve. The suppers and breakfasts of our former inhabitants 
have been very much altered. For more than a century and 
a half, the most of them had pea and bean porridge, or broth, 
made of the liquor of boiled salt meat and pork, and mixed 
with meal, and sometimes hasty pudding and milk,' — both 
morning and evening. This is indeed different from our fare. 
Were an original proprietor of our soil to revisit us, and look in 
upon our tables at the beginning and close of day, and judge 
where he was by the appearance of them, he would think him- 
self in a strange land. Among the several articles of diet 
already mentioned, broth was more common than the rest. 
A lady of eighty relates, that she had become so attached to 
it, that after having been in several families, about 1790, and 
partaken of their Thanksgiving dainties, she was heartily glad 
to return home and set a meal of her favorite broth. This 



TRAVELLING. 31 

was truly as sweet to her, as the black broth of the Spartans 
was to them. With regard to bread-stuffs, rye and Indian 
corn were long the only ones used. In 1720, flour was baked 
and eaten in a few rich families, as a rare treat. Within 
thirty years the consumption of it has increased. 

The sa5i;e remark long ago made, that we should eat to live, 
and not live to eat, is worth our constant observance and 
practice. 

An account of the fashions of household furniture and of 
dress was prepared for this place, but the extent of other con- 
cerns requires it to be omitted. 



TRAVELLING. 

At the first settlement of Ipswich, as horses were scarce, 
walking on foot was common with all classes. When such 
animals became plenty, two persons would ride one of them, 
fitted out wilh a saddle and a pillion. Females, also, rode 
singly on side-saddles much more commonly than in modern 
times. These customs continued till the introduction of small 
wagons and chaises. About 1770 it began to be the practice 
to trot horses. Previously these animals had paced. It had 
been common to pay individuals for learning them to go in this 
manner. The way, in which a horse was learned to pace, was 
by fastening his two right and two left feet with leather straps, 
so that the two former might step together, and then the two 
latter. The first chair, being a sort of chaise body without a top, 
known to have been owned in Ipswich, was one of Richard 
Rogers, Esq., in 1730. One of the first chaises was that of the 
Rev. Samuel Wigglesworth, about 1753. There were a few 
sleighs in 1740, and the number slowly increased. * For the 
accommodation of the people here and elsewhere, John Stavers, 
of Portsmouth, commenced, 1762, the running of a curricle, 
drawn by two horses, from that town to Boston. This carriage 
left on Monday morning and came to Ipswich, and reached 
Charlestovvn ferry next day. It went and returned by Friday 
night. The fare through the whole route one way, was 13^. 
6d. sterling, f 1774, a stage with four horses from Newbury- 
port to Boston rode through Ipswich twice a week in going 

* Annals of Portsmouth. t Essex Journal. 



32 ENTAILMENT. 

and the same in returning. This was an accommodation ex- 
ceeding any of preceding years. But it was far less than 
now exists. Such facilities for traveUing are twenty times 
greater than they were then. About thirty-five years ago, 
horse-wagons began to be employed. Gradually increasing, 
they have almost altogether superseded riding on horse-back 
among our farmers. They are used to carry articles to market, 
which were forn)erly borne to town in wallets and panniers, 
thrown across a horse. They have prevented the method of 
going in a cart, as often practised before they were invented, 
by social parties, when wishing to make a visit of several miles. 
Should the improvements in journeying be as great for two cen- 
turies to come, as they have been in the two already elapsed, 
posterity will as much wonder that we are contented with the 
present degree of such improvements, as we do, that our an- 
cestors were satisfied with their mode of travelling. 



ENTAILMENT. 

It was the general custom of our fathers to bequeath their real 
estate, so that it could not be sold by their heirs. This custom 
continued as legal, till the peace of our Independence. Even 
after this period some property was held by claim of entailment. 
In one case, where a large amount was likely to fall into other 
hands, than were intended by its former possessor, the immedi- 
ate owner had the entailment of it removed by act of the Gen- 
eral Court about 1792, so that he might dispose of such estate 
as he wished. Thus an ancient law, whereby estates were long 
kept in one name, and the eldest sons had the most of what 
their fathers left, was broken down. Still the habit, acquired 
under the influence of this practice, has not altogether ceased ; 
not a few of our aged farmers leave their houses and lands to 
their eldest sons, on condition of paying small legacies to other 
heirs. They have an aversion to the prospect, that what they 
either inherited or earned, should be divided among several, 
and thus become insufficient for the support of one family, who 
stand related to them and bear their name. Formerly, if 
there was no great amount of real estate, the parent, instead 
of entailing it, would give his eldest son a double portion. 
This custom lasted till after the Revolution. It was one of 
the practices which were brought to this colony from Eu- 



REPUTATION OF OUR ANCIENT INHABITANTS. 33 

rope ; one of the ties by which our ancestors were bound to 
the motlier country. 



REPUTATION OF OUR ANCIENT INHABITANTS. 

A large proportion of these inliabitants possessed intelligent 
minds, virtuous hearts, useful influence, and respectable char- 
acter. Tiiey well understood how the elements of society 
should be for the promotion of its welfare, and how such ele- 
ments should be formed, and kept pure from ignorance and 
irreligion. They were careful of their own example, and 
thereby gave force to their precepts. They provided and 
supported schools. They selected able and pious men for 
their spiritual guides. They attended to these and other con- 
cerns of society, as persons, who felt bound to consult the 
benefit of posterity as well as their own immediate good. 
Cotton Mather, while speaking of Mr. Rogers's ordination in 
1633, says, " Here [Ipswich] was a renowned church, con- 
sisting mostly of such illuminated Christians, that their pastors, 
in the exercise of their ministry, might, in the language of 
Jerome, perceive that they had not disciples so much as 
judges." Johnson remarks, 1646, — "The peopling of this 
towne is by men of good ranke and quality, many of them hav- 
ing the yearly revenue of large lands in England before they 
came to this wildernesse ; but their estates being imployed for 
Christ, and left in banke, tliey are well content till Christ shall 
be pleased to restore it againe to them or theirs, which in all 
reason should be out of the Prelates' lands in England." 
The term, " Prelates," refers to those ecclesiastical persons, 
who so persecuted the first settlers of Ipswich, as to force 
them to seek a refuge here. The same writer informs us, 
that some of these Pilgrims were merchants. One reason why 
the original inhabitants of this town sustained a reputation, 
better than commonly falls to the lot of newly settled commu- 
nities, was, that several of their clergymen brought with them 
some of their most estimable parishioners from England. Re- 
flection upon worthy ancestors affords satisfaction, and should 
lead to a constant imitation of their excellences. Were the 
lustre of such reflection altogether free from spots, it would be 
more than has ever been realized fi'om a corporation of human 
5 



34 FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

beings. There were two betrayers of the public weal, even 
among the first twelve, who accompanied the younger Win- 
throp to the wilds of Agawam. In these betrayers we have a 
specimen two centuries old, of the more than brutal degradation, 
of the enormous iniquity, and of the most painful consequences, 
to which intoxication has always led some of its votaries, and 
to which it especially and constantly exposes the whole of them. 
It would be far better for the temporal and eternal welfare of 
men to be Rechabites, Nazarenes indeed, — to have their lips 
never moistened, except with the pure drink, which God in his 
wisdom has made and has caused to gush from the fountains of 
earth, than to partake of the choicest wines and spirits, which 
the perverted genius of science has invented, and thus to con- 
tinually enlar2;e the multitudes, who sacrifice themselves on 
the crowded altars of Intemperance. 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 

The landscape, as contained within the former boundaries of 
Ipswich, affords an agreeable variety. 

Hills. These, as well as other features of the soil, will be 
put down, partly preceded by the year, when first found upon 
record, though most of them must have been previously 
designated. The reason of the hills being called as they are, 
is, for the most part, suggested by their names. Those not 
mentioned as beloni!;insj elsewhere, are within the present limits 
of Ipswich, and their situation may be seen on the map of this 
place. 

1634, Castle. 1635, Great bare — Heart-Break. 1637, 
Rabbit — Hurtleberry — Captain Turner's — Little Turner's 
— Turkey. 1647, Rocky. 1655, Bartholomew. 1662, Wil- 
derness. 1665, Red-Root. 1673, Averill's. 1676, Wig- 
wam. 1678, Wind-Mill. 1689, Paine's. 1691, Bragg's. 
1702, Long Brush — Tobacco-Pipe — Scott's — Pigeon — 
Pine — Timber — Steep. Some of the hills contained on the 
map of Ipswich may be partly among those on the preceding 
list, but with changed names ; as North Ridge — Town — 
Jewett — Prospect — Boar — Eagle — Plover — Burnham — 
White's — Perkins's, and Eveleth's now in Essex. 1638, 
Sagamore. 1678, Lamson's. 1702, Whipple or Job's — 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY. 35 

Vineyard — Dean's — Wigwam — Brown's and Independent, 
now in Hamilton. The two last are modern names. 

Plain. This was denominated Wolf-Pen, a place for 
catching wolves. 

Meadows. 1634, Rocky. 1635, Far. 1637, West. 
1647, New, between Topsfield and Hamilton — Nealand 
and Conant's, on Topsfield bounds — Perley's, in Essex. 

Swamps. 1635, Great Pine. 1678, Cedar — Bear, in 
Hamilton — Long, in Essex. 

Marshes. 1635, Reed — Rocky. 

Creeks. 1634, Labor-in-vain. 1635, Chebacco, in 
Essex. 1650, Robinson — Walker. 1667, Green. 1672, 
Whitred. 1678, Muscle. Other creeks. Sluice — Dane — 
Fox — Board man — Paine. On the map are the following : 
Rodgers — Lord — Treadwell — Neck — Six-Geese — 
Metcalf — Broad — Law — Wallis — Stacy — Kimball — 
Hart — Baker — West — Grape — Pine. 

Coves. 1638, Great. 1716, Muscle — Neck — Lord's. 

Points. 1635, Moore. 1667, Green — Cedar — Brewer 

— SafFord — Hog Island — Deacon Sam — Cross Bank — 
Holland — Sawyer — Bar Island. 

Necks. 1635, Little — Great — Jeffrey. 1655, Castle. 

Banks. Thatch — Cross — Nub — Hart — Beach — Neck, 
or Patch. 

Particular Places. Turkey Shore — Diamond's Stage. 
1635, Great Crook. 1639, Aspine Rock. 1643, Poor Man's 
Field. 1650, Far Chebacco, towards Gloucester — The Hun- 
dreds. 1662, Argilla. 1678, Great Pasture, near Gloucester 
line — Cow-Keeper Rock — The Eighths — Town Landing 

— Sheep Walks, several places where shepherds kept flocks 
of sheep. 1707, Blind Hole. 

Springs. Indian. 1678, Lummus, on Wenham line — 
Bath — Bear Swamp, in Hamilton. 

Brooks. 1635, Mile, running from Wenham pond to 
Ipswich river. 1637, Gravel. 1649, Pye. 1660, Saunders. 
1681, Black, in Hamilton — Howlet, on Topsfield bounds — 
Choate, in Essex — Bull — Potter — Norton. 

Ponds. 1662, Pleasant, on Wenham line. 1671, Baker, 
on Topsfield limits — Prichard — Duck — Perley, in Essex — 
Chebacco, partly in Essex and partly in Hamilton — Beck — 
Round and Gravel, in Hamilton. 

Rivers. Ipswich. Speaking of this, Johnson says, 1646, 



36 son- 

" A faire and delightful river, whose first rise or spring begins 
about twenty-five miles farther up the country, issuing forth a 
very pleasant pond. But soon after, it betakes its course 
through a most hideous swamp of large extent, even for many 
miles, being a great harbour for bears. After its coming forth 
this place, it groweth larger by the income of many small 
rivers, and issues forth in the sea, due east against the Island of 
Sholes, a great place of fishing for our English nation." 
1634, Chebacco, having falls and running from Chebacco pond, 
in Essex. 1635, North, or Egypt, flowing into Rowley river. 
1637, Muddy, emptying into the same — Rodgers Island. 
1707, Mill, running out of long swamp into the great pond, 
beyond Chebacco river. 

Islands. Plumb. In the grantof King James, 1621, to Cap- 
tain John Mason, of land between Naumkeag and Merrimack 
rivers, there is the subsequent clause ; "The great Isle, hence- 
forth to be called. Isle of Mason, lying near or before the bay, 
harbour, or river of Agawam." This must have been Plumb 
Island, part of which was set off to Ipswich by the General 
Court, 1639. 1637, Hog, in Essex. 1662, Diamon. 1668, 
Perkins — Boreman. 1673, Bagwell — Birch — Rogers — 
Treadwell — Tilton — Bull — Horse — Manning — Grape — 
Millstone — Holy — Eagle — Mighill's Garden — Groce — 
Bar, — Story — Round — Corn — Cross ; the four last in 
Essex. 

Inland Islands. 1707, Gregory, in Chebacco Pond — 
Hemlock, on Wenham line. 

Harbour. Smith says of Agawam, — " This place might 
content a right curious iudgment ; but there are many sands 
at the entrance of the harbour, and the worst is, it is imbayed 
too farre from the deepe sea." His opinion, though differing 
from that of the first settlers at Plymouth, was correct. Had 
the harbour of Ipswich been deep and capacious, it would 
probably have been a metropolis. The natural advantages or 
disadvantages of a place, make it either great or small, in the 
process of ages. 



SOIL. 



This has its various portions of the clayey, loamy, sandy, 
gravelly, peaty or mossy, and vegetable-earthy. Speaking of 
the people here, 1646, Johnson remarks ; " They have very 



MANURE. CULTIVATION. 37 

good land for husbandry, where rocks hinder not the course of 
the plough." The land, in general, does not abound with 
rocks. These are primitive and the common granite, exhib- 
iting their constituent parts in different proportions. 1831, 
the land contained the following divisions : 778 acres of 
tillage, 2000 of English upland and mowing, 469 of fresh 
meadow, 3367 of salt marsh, 7423 of pasturage, 403 of wood- 
land, 1090 of unimproved, besides 1690 of unimprovable, 3579 
covered with water, in addition to 468 of roads. 



MANURE. 

Moreton observed, 1637, that shad and alewives were 
used to feed the ground ; that one thousand of them were 
put into an acre, which would yield three times more 
corn, than without them. This custotn was derived from the 
Indians, and continued till the English so increased as to 
diminish the fish. * 1639, the General Court order, that after 
June 20th, no bass nor cod shall be taken for manure, except 
their heads and offals. The following order, relative to this 
subject, was passed by the town, f 1644, May 11. " It is 
ordered that all doggs, for the space of three weeks after the 
publishinge hereof, shall have one leggtyed up. If such a dogg 
should break loose and be found in any corne field, doing any 
harme, the owner of the dogg shall pay the damages. If a man 
refuse to tye up his dogg's legg, and hee bee found scraping up 
fish in the corne field, the owner shall pay 12.?., besides wliatever 
damage the dogg doth. But if any fish their house lotts, and 
receive damage by doggs, the owners of those house lotts shall 
beare the damage themselves." Since fish became scarce, 
the land has been manured chiefly with the contents of barn- 
yards, and, among the sea-board residents, with rock-weed and 
other vegetable substances in addition. 



CULTIVATION. 

This is equal to what it generally is in the county 
of Essex. In this town, however, as in many parts of 
our country, suitable care is not taken to keep the land in 

* Col, R. tT. R. 



38 VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 

prime order. The increase of the earth is reaped, but suffi- 
cient nourishment is not returned to supply the exhaustion. 
The impression is entertained by no small number of oiu- yeo- 
manry, that by cultivating their ground as long as it will bear 
with a moderate supply of manure, they realize more profit 
than by different management. But others neither think nor 
act so. Experiment evidently decides in favor of the latter 
class. Some persons have made considerable exertion to 
improve their swamps and meadows. Their enterprise has 
not been in vain. Lots, once of little or no profit, now yield 
plentiful crops of hay. No doubt the influence of the Agri- 
cultural Society of our county has tended to improve our 
farming interest ; and would have done more, had a larger 
number of our inhabitants united with it, attended its meetings, 
and acted according to its instructions. Husbandry is an 
essential, honorable employment. Without it potentates could 
neither reign nor live ; all the gold and rubies of the globe 
would be worth no more than the dust of the streets. To 
redeem such a calling from the unmerited disrespect, which has 
been cast upon it, our farmers have only to increase their stock 
of useful knowledge, and to advance in the good degree of 
morality, which many of them may justly claim. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 

These are such as are generally raised in New England. 
The crops of grain, fodder, fruit, and vegetables, are about 
equal to those of the adjacent region. There will not 
be room to give a botanical arrangement of such produc- 
tions. We shall only speak of some among them, in com- 
mon parlance. 

Grain. * Before Agawam was peopled by the English, it 
had fields of corn planted by the Indians. This has always 
been raised, more or less, on our farms, as a staple comtnodity. 
When, for several years before the last, it was about sixty 
cents a bushel, because of the abundance from the South and 
West, very little of it, comparatively, was cultivated. But 
now it brings nearly the old price of one dollar, we see that 
it has more and larger fields for its growth. No doubt but 
that the primitive settlers of Ipswich either brought other sorts 

* Smith. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 39 

of grain with them, or obtained some to plant from their neigh- 
bours. *As early as 1629, the officers of the Massachusetts 
Company wrote to John Endicott ; — ''We have sent grayne 
for seed, wheat, barley, and rye in the chaff." These with 
oats have been continually cultivated in larger or smaller 
quantities, according to the demand and seasons for them. 
Such grain has fallen and risen in price as corn has. It has 
been observed, that, when rye was mildewed, barley was not ; 
and when the latter was so blasted, the former escaped. Eng- 
lish grain is found to be better when sown in the fall than in 
the spring. It was long ago discovered, that grain of this kind 
would suffer a blight when growing near barberry bushes in 
flower. Before the Revolution, when beer was more com- 
monly used than afterwards, barley was raised here in consid- 
erable quantities and made into malt for brewing. The fact 
that the several kinds of grain, except corn, were exotics, and 
brought from England, has given them the name of English 
for about two centuries. 1S31, there were raised 60 bushels of 
wheat, 330 of rye, 698 of oats, 12,128 of corn, 467 of barley. 
Hay. This was always abundant within the former bounds 
of Ipswich. There are various kinds of grasses, natural to the 
soil. But that which is called English, probably because its 
seed was imported from England, finds the most ready sale 
and the highest price in Salem and Boston. Little of it was 
carried to the latter place twenty years ago. From that time 
such hay has been transported thither increasingly. Within 
ten years many tons of it have been sold weekly in that city, 
when the weather and way have permitted. Formerly twenty 
or thirty hundred were considered a great load. IVow most 
loads average seventy, and a few weigh ninety-five hundred. 
Till the latter part of 1833, for several years, such hay had 
fallen so as to fetch only from fifty to sixty cents a neat hun- 
dred. Since, the common price has been from ninety cents to 
one dollar and eight cents a hundred. Large quantities of 
salt hay are obtained from the marshes. It is healthy for cat- 
tle, and makes much saving of other fodder. The labor of 
obtaining it is the hardest and most perilous, which our farm- 
ers have to do. It is noticeable, that old records in speaking 
of marshes, sometimes call them meadows. Fresh or meadow 
hay is cut in abundance. It serves cattle as a substitute for 
the English, which is sent to market. 1831, there were cut 

* Hazard. 



40 VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 

1075 tons of English hay, 224 of meadow, and 1880 of saU 
marsh. 

Fkuits. Such of these as grow spontaneously in our woods 
and other wild lands, are natural to the soil, and often served 
to regale Indians long before the English came among them. 
Of tiiis kind, which once abounded, but are now scarce, were 
mulberries, strawberries, black and red currants. We are told 
that the plumbs, which are found on Plumb Island, were 
plenty, many years since, in various parts of the town. Fruits 
from Europe, such as apples and pears, began to be cultivated 
immediately after the arrival of our ancestors hither. In 1649 
their records speak of orchards among them. Other exotic 
fruits are raised here in about the same proportion as in the 
vicinity. 

Esculent Vegetables. Of these, which our fathers 
found cultivated by Indians, are pumpions, water-melons, 
beans, and peas. To them were added others from European 
seed, which are generally found in our gardens. Potatoes, 
though of American origin, were not cultivated in this town 
till 1733, and then but seldom. They were kept as a 
rarity, to eat with -roast meat. They were at first planted 
in beds, as beets and carrots. Three bushels of them were 
considered a large crop for one farmer's family. Now a 
hundred bushels of them are not thought so much of, as one 
was then. Before potatoes came into use, turnips were 
raised abundantly and supplied the place, which the former 
now do. * Sweet potatoes were imported from Bermuda 
into Boston as early as 1636, and were sold at 2i. a pound. 
It seems that no efforts were made here to cultivate this spe- 
cies of potatoes, as there have been, to a small extent, within 
a few years. 

Tobacco. This, being so called from Tobaco or Tobago, 
one of the Caribbean Islands, where it grew as well as in oth- 
er parts of America, was used by the natives before they 
were visited by Europeans. The species, however, which 
the Indians consumed, had a small, round leaf, and was com- 
monly called poAre. Another, having a broad, long leaf, pointed 
at the end, was raised by our ancestors. Tobacco was consid- 
ered hurtful by the legislature, and was forbidden by their acts. 

f 1634. No person shall take tobacco publicly, on fine of 

* Winthrop. + Col. R. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 41 

2s. 6d., or privately in his own or another's house, before 
acquaintances or strangers. 

1635. It is enacted that no one shall buy or sell this com- 
modity on penalty of 10^. after September. Tliese restrictions 
did not avail. What Josselyn said, 1663, as to the consump- 
tion of tobacco in England, was applicable to our people ; " It 
is generally made the compliment of our entertainments and 
hath made more slaves than Mahomet." 

The records of Ipswich speak, 1682, of tobacco yards, as 
having been common. Such places were continued to 1783. 
Up to this year scarcely any other tobacco was used in Ips- 
wich, than what was raised here. Many families would 
have their spots of land for cultivating it, and their mode of 
twisting it, and curing it with molasses and rum so as to render 
it more palatable. Segars were very little used till after the 
peace of Independence. Pipes and a large box of tobacco 
for smoking were in daily and extensive use. They were 
considered, till witliin thirty years, as essential for the enter- 
tainment of company, as the chibouque and its apparatus are 
in Turkey. It is matter of consolation, that tobacco, though 
consumed much more than either cleanliness, comfort, health, 
or temperance justifies, has begun to loose its hold on the 
vitiated appetite of thousands, and that there is some prospect 
of its going down to the deep degradation of intoxicating 
liquors. Had the liquid, which the affrighted servant of Ra- 
leigh threw upon him, so effectually quenched his zeal for 
rendering tobacco fashionable, as it fully drenched his smoking 
head, and thus no imitators of this noble lord been found, a 
vast amount of evil would have been prevented in the civil- 
ized world. 

Hemp. This was known to the Aborigines before they 
ever saw Europeans. They made it into lines and nets. Our 
fathers long cultivated it principally for clothing. It has not 
been used for many years, being exchanged for more conven- 
ient articles. 

Shrubs. None of these, which were indigenous, have 
disappeared. Among them is Sumach, which was formerly 
used and exported as a dye-stuff. Its root, suitably pre- 
pared, imparts a reddish color. Its berries, pounded and mixt 
with honey, used to be administered for the hemorrhoids. 

Trees. Of these, which are natural to the soil and which 
have become scarce among us, are the Mulberry, Bass, Ches- 
6 



42 WILD QUADRUPEDS. 

nut or Chees-nut, and Sassafras. The last was, many years ago, 
an article of commerce, and was applied to medical purposes. 



WILD aUADRUPEDS. 

These, of coiu'se, were far more abundant, when our ances- 
tors came hither, than they were subsequently. Not a few of 
them, whose habits were uncongenial with nearness to popu- 
lous regions, have entirely deserted our territory. Such are 
the Beaver, Wild-cat, Wolf, Bear, Deer, and Moose. 

Wolves. Many and long were the efforts of our fathers to 
extirpate wolves, which often preyed on their flocks. For this 
purpose, Ipswich receives, in J 635, twenty-five wolf-hooks, 
as their proportion of those sent over by Mr. Wilson. 

* 1642. " Whosoever kills a wolf is to have and 

the skin, if he nail the head up at the meeting-house and give 
notice to the constables. Also, for the better destroying or 
fraying away wolves from the town, it is ordered, that by the 
1st day of 7th mo., every householder, whose estate is 
rated £.500 and upward, shall keep a sufficient mastive dog ; 
or £100 to £500, shall provide a sufficient hound or beagle, to 
the intent that they be in readiness to hunt and be employed 
for the ends aforesaid." The fine for not complying with this 
order, was l5. each month, till it was obeyed. 

1644. " Whoever shall kill a wolfe with hounds, or the 
greater part of the dogs being hounds, shall have payed him 
by the constable lOs. ; if with a trapp or otherwayes, hee shall 
have 5s., provided they bring the heads to the meeting-house 
and there nayle them up, and give notice thereof to the consta- 
ble, whom we appoint to write in his booke a due remembrance 
thereof." 

t 1648. The heads of wolves, in order to receive the 
premiums, must be brought to the constable and buried. 
The selectmen of each town are empowered " to purchase as 
many hounds as they think meet, and to impose the keeping 
of them on such as they think fittest, so that all means may 
be improved for the destruction of wolves." Josselyn informs 
us, 1663, how such animals were taken. " Four mackerel 
hooks across are bound with a brown thread and then some 

* T. R. t Col. R. 



WILD QUADRUPEDS. 43 

wool is wrapped round them and they are dipped into melted 
tallow, till they be as big and round as an egg. This thins, 
thus prepared, is laid by some dead carcase, which toles tlie 
wolves. It is swallowed by them, and is the means of their 
being taken." 

* 1663, Any person catching or killing a wolf within two 
miles and a half of the meeting-house, shall have 40s. over 
what is already allowed by the colony, which makes £4. 

1715. The town vote 305. over what the law allows, for 
killing a grown wolf, and 55. for a whelp wolf, if destroyed 
within their limits. Notwithstanding the constant warfare car- 
ried on against them, wolves continued their devastations there 
till 1757. Down to this year, it was a common thing to 
hear them commence their howl soon after sun-set, when 
it was very dangerous to go near the woods. Tradition is 
full of accounts about their destroying large numbers of 
sheep. They would occasionally attack, wound, and kill 
cattle. 

1723. Wolves were so abundant and so near the meeting- 
house, that parents would not suffer their children to go and 
come from worship without some grown person. 

Bears. The most noted resort for these was in a swamp, 
which received its name from theirs, on Ipswich River, and 
at the west part of the Hamlet. One was shot there in 1747. 
Another was killed ten years after, east of Mile Brook, in the 
same parish. From this time, they began to disappear, and 
soon deserted the town. 

Deer. These were abundant at the first coming of our 
ancestors. As they were valuable, they were often hunted. 

t 1739. The law for preserving deer was read before the 
town, and they chose two persons to see it executed. 

1770. It was voted, that the deer-reeves of Ipswich join 
with those of other towns, to prevent these animals in Chebacco 
Woods from being extirpated. A k\v of them were seen 
here as late as 1790. Soon after this, they disappeared. 

Foxes. Some of these are now occasionally discovered. 
They are still mischievous in devouring poultry. For a long 
period, a price was set upon their heads. 

1678. The town paid £3 IO5. for killing seventy of them 
in the course of a year. 

* T. R. t Ibid. 



44 DOMESTICATED (QUADRUPEDS. 

WooDCHucKs. These, also, had their turn of becoming 
obnoxious to the public, 

1734. A premium of Is. was voted for destroying a dozen 
of them. They are yet considerably numerous. 



DOMESTICATED aUADRUPEDS. 

Such of these, as were formerly in common use, but not 
in modern years, are the goat and the ass. Ipswich, having 
good grazing land, soon abounded with cattle. Johnson said 
of them, 1646 ; " The Lord hath been pleased to increase 
them in cattle of late, insomuch, that they have many hundred 
quarters to spare yearly, and feed, at the latter end of summer, 
the towne of Boston with good beefe." As long as wolves 
and other beasts of prey infested the woods, the inhabitants 
had certain persons to take a constant care of their cattle and 
sheep, while out at pasture. 

Cowherds. * 1661. Haniel Bosw^orth is to keep the 
herd of cows on the north side of the river, from the 1st of 
May to the 20th of October. He is to go out with them 
half an hour after sun-rise and to bring them home a little 
before sun-set, at I3s. a week, " a peck of corn a head at 
their going out, one pound of butter or half peck of wheat in 
June, and the rest of his pay at the end of his time, whereof 
half to be paid in wheat or malt ; the pay to be brought to his 
house within six days after demanded, or else to forfeit 6d. a 
head more." " Agreed with Henry Osborn to join Bosworth 
to keep the cows on the same terms. One of them to take 
the cows in Scott's Lane and to blow a horn at the meeting- 
house green in the morning." 

1667. "Agreed with Haniel Bosworth to keepe the cow- 
herd on the north side of the river from the 22d of April to 
the last of October, to have for his wages 14s. a week, I2d. 
a head for the first paye, one pound of butter in June, and the 
rest at the end of the tyme, and for helpe in the spring and on 
the Lord's day, as in other years ; and, if any that are warned 
to helpe him then, fail, they shall forfeit 2s. 6d. a daye, if 
warned the night before." 

*T. R. 



DOMESTICATED QUADRUPEDS, 45 

1670. Every cow of the herd is to have a bell. 

Shepherds. * 1661. The town hire Robert Roberts to 
keep a flock of sheep on Jefl:rey's Neck from April 8th to 
end of October, and to have one person follow them con- 
stantly. He is to have £13. Robert Whitman is to keep 
another flock on the north side of the river, the same pe- 
riod, at IOa'. a week in "half English and half Indian" 
grain. 

1662. "Whereas there are three shepherds hired to keep 
the sheep, and on the south side of the river the common 
being overburdened, and the north side having too few, it is 
ordered, that about one hundred of those men's sheep, who 
came last (they being full before) shall be brought to the flock 
on the north side, it being intended that the flocks be equal 
and the pay equally proportioned on the sheep." 

1668. Some persons complain, that their shepherd had 
so placed their sheep, as to have them exposed to be destroyed 
by wolves. 

1702. The shepherds are to have cottages adjoining the 
sheep-walks so as to be near their flocks. It was a custom for 
each shepherd to put his flock in a pen every Friday afternoon, 
so that the owners might take what they wanted for family use 
or for market. While cowherds and shepherds were thus 
employed, the appearance of their respective routes and places 
of grazing must have been quite pastoral, and suggested those 
placid associations, which we experience, when reading of such 
scenes. 

It was enacted by the General Court, 1642, that if a dog 
kill a sheep, double damages shall be paid by his owner and 
the dog be hung immediately. This has some resemblance 
to the hanging of dogs for witchcraft, as was done in this vi- 
cinity 1693. 

1831. There were the following animals in Ipswich ; 187 
horses, 404 oxen, 700 cows, 285 steers and heifers, 458 sheep, 
and 284 swine. 



T. R. 



46 PRICES OF GRAIN, hc. 

PRICES OF GRAIN AND OTHER ARTICLES FOR 
TAXES, AS ORDERED BY THE LEGISLATURE. 

1634. Corn 4s. 6f/. 1635. No Indian corn, except for seed, 
is to be sold above 6s. till after harvest. 1640. Corn 55. ; 
Summer Wheat 7s. ; Rye 6s. 8d. It appears that the two 
latter sorts of grain had not been previously raised in sufficient 
quantity to be paid for colonial expenses. It may be here proper- 
ly stated, that for over a half century, it was common to use the 
phrase, " all sorts of corn," meaning the several kinds of grain. 

1646. "Wheat, 4s. ; Barley, 4s 6d. ; Rye, 3s. 6d. ; Teas, 3s. 
6(J. ; Corn, 2s. 8d. ; Cows, four years old and upwards, £5 each ; 
Heifers and Steers, £4 ; and the same of two and three years, 
50s. ; of one and two years, 30s. ; Goats above one year, 8s. ; 
Swine, 20s. ; Asses £2, and other [)roperty in proportion. 

1653. Every mare, horse, or gelding of four years old and 
upwards, £16 ; of three years, £10; of two years, £7 ; of 
one year, £3 10s. Poll tax, 20r/. 

1660. Wheat, 5s. ; Barley and Barley Malt, 4s. 6d. ; 
Peas and Rye, 4s. ; Corn, 3s. 

1668. Shingles 19s. a thousand. 

1673. Sheep, £5 a score. They bad been estimated 
higher. Wheat, 5s. ; Barley and Barley Malt and Rye, 4s. ; 
Peas and Corn, 3s. 

1675. One quarter of the amount paid in produce, is to 
be subtracted for money. 

1678. All corn or grain is to be brought to the deposit of 
the treasurer, at the charge of the town whence it is sent. 

1685. Wheat, 5s. 6d. ; Barley and Barley Malt, 4s. 6d. ; 
Rye and Peas 4s. ; Corn, 3s. ; Oats, 2s. 

1689. One third discounted for cash. 

1690. As a loan to the country. Pork 7 farthings and 
Beef 3ry. a pound; Pork £3 and Beef 36s. a barrel. 

1698. Wheat, 5s. ; Peas, 4s. ; Barley and Barley Malt, 
Corn, and Rye, 3s. ; Oats, Is. 6d. 

1702. Flax and sheep's wool Is. a pound. 

1705. Beans, 5s. 

1715. Rates to be paid, one-third in money and two-thirds 
in grain. Wheat, 6s. ; Rye, Barley, and Malt, 4s. ; Corn, 
3s. 6d. ; Oats, 2s. 

1751. Rye, 3s.; Com, 2s. 6d.; Barley, 2s. 3c?.; Flax, 
8d. a pound. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. FENCING. FISH. 47 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

These are nearly the same in number as they were 
formerly, though much improved. 

1637. Ploughing was a distinct employment, and particu- 
lar men made it their chief business in its season. * Then, 
there were only thirty-seven ploughs in all Massachusetts. 
Now, every farmer has one or more. For a century and a 
half, the tumbril, a sort of cart, fitted to carry large loads, was 
named in the inventories of deceased farmers' estates. Dur- 
ing all this period, our fathers never used the wagon. This 
began to be employed in Ipswich about forty-five years ago. 
Such a fact shows the reason why nuich greater burdens are 
drawn now than in former times. Previously to the intro- 
duction of wagons, and while carts only were used, the backs 
of cattle were subject to more injuries than at present. Then, 
loads would often bear down behind or before, and strain and 
occasionally kill such animals. 



FENCING. 

f 1635. Paling, or narrow boards or poles, sharpened on 
the top, were often used to enclose ground. 

1653. As the General Court has ordered the selectmen 
of every town to regulate their fences, it is ordered that all 
persons, concerned and living in Ipswich, shall, before April 
20th, have their fences in a good state, (except farms of one 
hundred acres,) made of pales well nailed or pinned, or of five 
rails well fitted, or of stone wall three and a half feet high at 
least, or with a ditch three or four feet wide, with a substantial 
bank, having two rails or a hedge, or some equivalent, on 
penalty of 5s. a rod and 2s. a week for each rod while ne- 
glected. 



FISH. 



Animals of this sort were very abundant when Agawam was 
settled. Of their number, salmon and bass have nearly, and 

* Graham. t T. R. 



48 SERPENTS. 



FOWL. 



Sturgeon have entirely, disappeared from our waters. There 
were companies, of Matthew Craddock and others, who caught 
lar^e quantities of sturgeon for the European market, in Ips- 
wich, while it was owned by Indians. The sounds of 
these fish were made into isinglass. Smith remarked of Mas- 
sachusetts ; " No river where there is not plenty of sturgeon 
or salmon or both, which are to be had in abundance, observ- 
ing but their seasons. But if a man will goe at Christmas to 
gather cherries in Kent, though there be plenty in summer, 
he may be deceived ; so here these plenties have each their 
season." 



SERPENTS. 

These, of various colors and kinds, have thinned off as 
population has spread and manifested its perpetual hatred to 
them. Among them the Rattle-snake is most dreaded be- 
cause of its most deadly bite. This creature continues to be 
seen, though not so frequently as in years past, in Essex and 
Hamilton woods, formerly a part of Ipswich. 



FOWL. 



Animals of this sort have become far less numerous than 
they were two centuries past. Some of them, as the Eagle, 
Crane, and Partridge, have grown scarce. Others, as tlie 
Swan and Wild Turkey, have disappeared from this vicinity. 
In the summer and autumn, Plovers, Curlews, Yellow-legs, 
Snipes and Sand-pipers, and in winter, Wild Ducks abound. 
It was anciently the practice for persons in several parts of the 
colony, to obtain grants of water privileges, and to furnish 
themselves with suitable gear, for the purpose of taking fowl. 
In accordance with this is the following. 

* 1663. Granted Mr. Jonathan Wade, nine acres of water 
in Chebacco pond, by the mouth of the river running out of it, 



T. R. 



MINERALS. PTTBLIC WATS. 49 

and two rods of ground about the water by the side of this 
pond. 

1666. He relinquishes this grant. 

The subsequent premiums sliow, that the owners of grain 
fields and certain of the featliered tribe differed about havino- 
all things in connnon. 

* 17:34. Voted that I2d. a dozen be paid for the heads of 
such blackbirds and blue jays, as shall be killed within the 
town, "upon producing them to the treasurer," who is to 
destroy them, so as to prevent their being paid for twice. 

1827. Voted that ten cents be paid for every crow killed 
within the limits of this place. 



MINERALS. 

None of these have been discovered here, except bog-ore. 
This has been dug in several parts of Ipswich. 

1658. The town grant " liberty to the inhabitants, with 
such others as shall join with them, to set up a blomary for to 
make iron at Chebacco River." 



PUBLIC WAYS. 

These are put down as found on the Town Records. 

1635. One to be laid out through J. Spencer's and N. 
Easton's land, on south of the river. 

" Pathway which leads to Merrimack." This proba- 
bly went up Brook Lane, where the old road to Newbury 
used to run. Instead of a pathway, it has long been the 
great thoroughfare to Maine. 

High Street. Ways to the Mill, to Great Neck, to 
Chebacco, and to Jeffrey's Neck. A road of four rods wide 
is reserved through John Tuttle's one hundred and fifty acres, 
east of Mile River to the Connnon. 

1636. Ways to Labor-in-vain Meadows, and to Muddy 
River. 

1637. Lanes from Mill Street to High Street, to Salton- 
stall's farm, and Bridge Lane. 

1638. It is voted, that a general fence be made from the 

*T. R. 



50 PUBLIC WATS. 

end of the town to Egypt River, and from the east end in the 
way to Jeffrey's Neck, to be done at the charge of those who 
own the land within said compass. Liberty is granted them 
to fell trees to make the fence, from lands ungranted. 

A highway is to be laid out beyond Mr, Appleton's. West 
End Street. 

1639. Way from High Street to Bridge Street is to be 
drained by means of ditches. Brook Street. 

1641. Way to be through tlie farm of Matthew and John 
Whipple. This is the eastern stage route in Hamilton. It 
was long called the Bay Road, because leading to Boston, 
which was then strictly considered in Massachusetts Bay to 
the exclusion of towns to the north of Chelsea. 

1651. Country road through Mr. Appleton's farm. A 
way between Mr. Tuttle's swamp and ends of the lots ; 
another to Norton and Paine's Neck and the Marshes ; and 
another through Robert Kinsman's land ; one, a rod and a 
half wide, to Robinson's Neck. 

1655. A way through Goodman Procter's land to Good- 
man Foster's marsh. 

1656. A road and foot-bridge are to be made, leading to 
Castle Neck. 

1657. A road is to be laid out from the further side of 
Chebacco Ferry to Robert Cross's and also to Goodwife 
Haffield's bridge, through Mr. Rogers' ox pasture. A way 
through Thomas Burnam's ground across the swamp. 

165S. A road is to run through Mr. Saltonstall's forty 
acres and part of John Andrews' farm, one rod and a half 
wide. 

1660. A foot-way is to be laid out from the road at Heart- 
break Hill, and run to the farms and common lands, where it 
hath been used. 

1661. Daniel Warner has a way allowed through his six 
acres by Saunders' Brook. " Lots laid out at Jeffrey's Neck, 
to have their high-way at the head of them." Scott's Lane. 

1662. A road is to run to Samuel Symonds' land, near 
Pleasant Pond. 

1665. A way through Wm. Whitred's farm. 

1666. One through Samuel Perley's land. 

1667. Way to Green's Point. 

1669. One through Mr. Eppes' marsh. 

1677. One from Mr. Baker and Robert Lord's marsh to 



PUBLIC WAYS. 51 

the road from the town to Reedy Marsh. Another from Mr. 
Norton's farm is to be two rods wide. 

1678. A road from the Windmill to Hafheld's Brid,s;e. 

1681. One, a rod and a half wide, to Robinson's Creek. 

1696. A way is laid out to Thomas Treadwell senior's 
house. 

1697. One through John Cogswell senior's farm. An- 
other is ordered to Perkins's Island. 

1699. The town resolve, that all their country roads shall 
be four rods wide, except where they lead through an individ- 
ual's land, and then they shall be two rods in width, if he 
make the way "passable ; if not, they are to be four. A road 
is to be made from Gloucester line to John Cogswell's upland. 

1702. A way of two rods wide, is to pass through Geo. 
Gidding's farm. 

1703. One to John Emerson's farm. 

1706. Another through Thomas Hammond's farm, by 
Rowley line. 

1730. A road from Lamson's Bridge to Gravelly Brook. 

1741. One from the house of Daniel Warner to the coun- 
try road. 

1745. Another to lead to the Town Landing. 

1753. A way from North Common Field gate to Col. 
Berry's farm is accepted. 

1757. One from Solomon Gidding's gate to Jacob Proc- 
ter's causeway is accepted. 

1753. Another from Solomon Smith's to Wenham Ford 
is allowed. 

1760. A way is to be from North gate by John Baker's, 
through P. Kinsman's land to Chebacco road. 

1761. One is to pass through land of Isaac Smith and 
Paul Dodge. 

1764. Voted to have a road through the westerly part of 
North Common Fields through Wm. Dodge's farm, to the 
Sluice Creek. 

1774. A road from Thomas Adams's barn to the Hamlet 
meeting-house, and another through Saltonstall's farm from 
Swamp Bridge to the country road, are reported. 

1787. A road is to pass through Jonathan Lamson's land, 
beginning at Nathaniel Raymon's house, and coming to the 
road by Thomas Millet's house. 

1789. It is reported that the way from the foot of Maxey's 



52 PUBLIC WAYS. 



FERRY. 



hill to Gidding's corner, which had been closed up, belonged 
to the town, for they had formerly maintained it. This road 
was soon re-opened and continues. 

A way with gates is granted, leading from the road by Mo- 
ses Conant's to Boxford. 

180.3. One in Chebacco, over Procter's Point from Glou- 
cester, is accepted. 

1805. Another from Green's Point to Town Landing, is 
laid out. 

1806. A private way overland of Samuel Hardy, running 
partly to Hog Island road, is reported. 

1807. A way, two rods wide, is to run from Pingrey's 
Plain to Muddy River bridge. 

1810. One is laid out through Oliver Cogswell's land. 
The old way through his land is to be discontinued. 

1814. Voted to accept a way through lands of John 
D. Andrews, Asa Andrews, and John Heard, who give the 
land and fencing. Another is to run to Nathan Brown's 
marsh, at his own expense. 

1817. A way is accepted from the gate of the Newbury- 
port turnpike, over David Hobbs's land to Topsfield line. A 
road from Chebacco to Manchester. One from Topsfield way 
to Wm. Warner's house, is accepted. 

1823. A road which was granted in 1753, to the town's 
farm, is allowed. 

1824. Another is to run from Fowler's lane to Northfield 
common. 

Had it been fixed law and practice from the beginning of 
Ipswich and other ancient towns, to have their roads sufficient- 
ly broad and straight, there would have been far less conten- 
tion and expense, than have occurred of late years. To begin 
a thing well, is much better tl^an to begin it ill and leave it to 
be rectified by others. We should do for posterity what we 
think our ancestors should have done for us. 



FERRY. 



This was kept over Chebacco river before 1657, when the 
ferriage was 2(7. a passenger. 

1697. The same is to be paid for one person, and 4d. for 
each horse. This ferry ceased about 1700, when a bridge 
was built. 



BKIDGE3. 53 



BRIDGES. 



1635. One for foot passengers ; 1641, it had been renew- 
ed and widened ; was repaired 1663, and in 1700, when it 
was called the Great Bridge. It appears to have passed over 
the Town River. 

1644. Reedy ■Marsh. 

1655. One at the creek near Castle Neck. 

1656. Haffield's. 

1665. Mile Brook. One between Ipswich and Rowley ; 
another by David Warner's. 

1666. Horse-bridge over Chebacco River by Gloucester. 
It was broken downby a storm in 1672, and repaired. 

1668. One to be erected over the river, near the mills. 

1673. Perkins's — Labor-in-vain — Egypt River. 

16S1. Saltonstall's — Black Brook. 

1696. Boarman's. 

1700. Bridge built over Chebacco Ferry. One to be made 
at Burnam's creek. 

1730. Cart bridge, built over the river by Jonathan Lam- 
son and others. 

1757. One of rock is to be at " Bridge Craft." 

1762. Appleton's to be rebuilt with stone. 

1764. Voted to rebuild the town and county bridge six or 
eight feet wider. Hon. John Choate was on the committee 
for this business, after whom the new bridge was named. It 
cost the town £500. The county paid as much more. It is 
strong and neat, having two arches with one solid pier in the 
bed of the river. 

1770. One at Muddy River to be rebuilt with stone. 

1811. Voted ,f 1500 to rebuild the great bridge at Che- 
bacco and repair its causeway in conjunction with the county. 
Voted afterwards ^1000 more to finish them. 

1832. After a long contention and several litigations, a 
bridge is finished over the river, near Smith's mills, which cost 
^2500. 



54 CANALS AND CUTS. 



CANALS AND CUTS. 

*1652. "Granted Thomas Clark and Reginal Foster, 
that when they shall have cut through a passage I'rom this 
river into Chebacco River, of ten feet wide and soe deepe as a 
lighter may pass through laden, and to make a ford and foote- 
bridge over, that then the town have given unto them £10 
towards said passage." 

1682. " Granted to any of the inhabitants to perfect cut- 
ting the cut, that comes up to Mr. Eppes' bridge, if they will 
submit to the selectmen, yearly, the setting of the toll for 
those who pass through and who do not help cut it." 

1694. "Granted that such persons of Ipswich, as will, 
may have liberty to cut the cut through on the hither side of 
Castle Neck ; and if any pass through, who do not help do it, 
they shall pay for a passage as the selectmen set the price." 
" Whoever will cut the cut through the marsh by Mr. Eppes' 
sufficient for boats to pass through laden, shall have liberty. 
Such as pay about 55. towards doing it, shall pass free. Such 
as pay nothing, shall be charged 3d. in money for a cord of 
wood, or load of hay, or ton of other loading." 

1820. A company became incorporated for having a canal 
from Ipswich to Essex. It was made navigable early in 1821. 
Its length is about half a mile. It commences at Fox Creek 
and runs to Chebacco River. It cost near ^1100. This stock 
is divided into twenty-seven shares of forty dollars each, and 
pays nearly six per cent, on the original amount. As an 
inlet to Essex from Merrimack River for ship timber, it has 
kept this article down lower than it would be, had dependence 
been placed solely on what the vicinity would supply. 

Prices of freight through this canal. — Oak timber 
seventeen cents, and pine fourteen cents a ton. Oak sawn 
stuff of an inch thick, forty cents M., and of other thicknesses 
in proportion. Pine sawn stuff of one inch thick, thirty cents 
M. ; hard wood thirty cents, and pine twenty cents a cord. 
Hogshead staves seventy-five cents, and barrel staves forty 
cents M. Hogshead hoop-poles one dollar, and barrel hoop- 
poles seventy-five cents M. Clapboards, forty cents, and 
shingles ten cents M. Each light gondola five cents, and 
every ton of loading fifteen cents. 

*T. R. 



MUNICIPAL CONCERNS. 55 



MUNICIPAL CONCERNS. 



As the age and population of Ipswich increased, so did its 
relations, necessities, and offices. J\o man should ever take 
upon himself a public trust with any other motive, than to 
promote the best good of the community. In order to avoid the 
common and too much deserved charge, " Corporations have 
no souls," the inhabitants of each town should be willing that 
their officers should transact their pecuniar)' business on princi- 
ples of justice. It is often the case, that, for the sake of 
avoiding the undeserved reproach of a March meeting, such 
officers are tempted to haggle and shuffle, to do for their 
constituents what they would be ashamed of as individuals. 

* 1636. The General Court allow, tliat the freemen of 
every plantation, shall not only have power to grant lots of 
land, but also to make orders for their own regulation not 
opposed to colonial laws ; to assess and collect fines for breach 
of their rules, not above 205., and choose their several officers. 
Town Officers. Some of these will be preceded by the 
year, when first seen on the records, though most of them 
were elected before. 

1637. " The Seven Men.'' 163S. " The Eleven Men.'' 
As to the origin of these, the following is offered. 

f When a church was gathered at New Haven in 1639, the 
Rev. J. Davenport directed the brethren " to select eleven of 
their most godly men, as a nomination for church pillars, that 
there might be no blemish in church work." These were to 
choose seven among themselves, because it is read in Proverbs, 
" Wisdom hath hewn out her seven pillars." Here we very 
probably have the reason for the number of eleven and seven 
men, as contained not merely on the records of Ipswich, but 
on those of other ancient towns. So closely connected were 
the civil and ecclesiastical conceins of our ancestors, so fixed 
were they in having no person liold any social trust, unless a 
professor of religion, that they would not hesitate to apply the 
same distinctive names to their chief men, as officers of the com- 
munity, which they bore in relation to the church. There can 
be little doubt, that the selecting of such individuals originally, 
gave rise to the term select, as applied to the superintendents of 

* Col. R. t Mass. Hist. Coll. 



56 MUNICIPAL CONCERNS. 

town affairs. Not a few expressions, which we often use with- 
out tracing them to their source, were once associated in other 
minds witli important occasions. At first the Selectcnen were 
elected only for three months. They continued to be seven 
till 1723, when they were five. Tlie next year and after- 
wards to 1741, they were restored to the old number. 

Toivn Clerk. 1636, Daniel Dennison. He is to have 6d. 
for every entrance of land. 

Sarveyors and Constables. Each constable was required 
in 1646, to have, as a sign of his office, a staff, five feet or five 
feet and a half long, tipped on the upper end with five or six 
inches of brass. 1687. The constable at Chebacco is to 
have one black staff, there being two others in town. 

1641. Giles Firman is appointed by the General Court 
for Ipswich, to grant summons and attachment in civil 
actions, the same as a cleric of writs. 

Treasurer. 1642, Robert Paine. Such an officer, in 
1695, had 1^. on £l, of all he received and paid. 

1646. Commissioner of Taxes begins and continues many 
years. His duty was to act with the Selectmen in making out 
the tax lists. 

1661. Hog-Reeves. There was a pound for swine, 
which damaged cornfields, in 1635. In 1641, each inhabitant 
is allowed to let out from one to four hogs, according to his 
property. 

1677. Sealer of Weights and Measures. 

Tythingmen. Twenty-five of these are chosen. Were 
such guardians of the public morals as vigilent and active 
now, as they were formerly, many who are bold and unre- 
strained in their vices, would be brought to justice. 

1678. Packer, Pounders, and Town Crier. Each town 
is required, in 1642, to have a crier, who is to have 2f/. for 
every article he proclaims. 

1681. Clerk of the Market and Leather-Sealer. — 1685. 
Culler of Boards and Staves. — Carder of Wood. — 1691. 
Ganger. — 1693. Fence- Viewers. — 1694. Hay- Wards. — 
1698. Overseers of the Poor, who were generally the Select- 
men. — 1715. Culler of Fish. — 1139. Deer- Reeves. —1760. 
Surveyors of Boards and Timber. — 1761. Six Wardens, three 
for the town parishes, ^one for Chebacco and another for the 
Hamlet. Their duty. was to seethe Sabbath kept orderly. 
They were elected till after 1778. — Clerk of the Hay-market. 



MUNICIPAL CONCERNS. 57 

1801. Besides the preceding town officers, are the Fish 

Committee, Measurers of Grain and Salt, Cullers of Bricks. 

This year, Tlie town Clerk had ten dollars, the Treasurer 

seventeen, and Selectmen, serving as Overseers and Assessors, 

had each twenty-five dollars annually for their services. 

1805. Fire- Wards. 

Regulations. 1635. No timber or " clayboards " are to 
be carried out of the town without consent of the freemen, nor 
any timber sawn or unsawn, riven or umiven, on pain of for- 
feiting the same. This town, with the rest, is required to 
have a peck and a bushel measure and weights sealed by 
the marshal of Boston. 

1641. It is ordered that every sale or exchange of house 
and land shall be recorded on the town book. 

1642. Whoever leaves carrion twenty-four hours, so as 
to draw wolves in or annoy people, shall pay 55. An order 
is to be put on the meeting-house against selling powder and 
guns to Indians. 

1646. Mechanics are required to assist farmers, when 
there is danger of losing part of a crop. 

1649. As some were d ssatisfied, that tradesmen only were 
allowed to fell white oaks for their business, it is ordered that 
none shall use such liberty as to any kind of trees without 
leave from tlie Seven men. 

1696. Rails, posts, wood, boards, staves, shingles, and 
hoop-poles are forbidden to be sold from the town's common. 

1704. No person is to speak in town meeting without 
leave of the moderator, on penalty of 6^^. 

1820. Inhabitants are allowed to sit in such meetino-s with 
their hats on. 

Matters of morality. 1642. The Seven men are to 
see that children, neglected by their parents, are employed, 
learned to read and "understand the piinciples of religion and 
the capital laws of this country," and, if neces.sary, be bound 
out to service. 

1653. The law against Sabbath-breaking is posted up on 
the meeting-house. 

1661. As an inhabitant of Ipswich, living at a distance 
absented himself with his wife from public worsliip, the Gen- 
eral Court empower the Seven men to sell his farm so that 
they may live nearer the sanctuary and be able more con- 



58 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



veniently to attend on its religious services. Individuals are 
appointed to keep order in the meeting-house. 

1670. Constables are instructed to prevent young persons 
from being out late in the evening, especially Sabbath, lecture, 
and training-day evenings. 

1672. Laborers are forbidden to have intoxicating liquors. 

1678. All persons in town are required to have some visi- 
ble employment. 

1631. Single persons, who are under no government, are 
ordered to put themselves under the care of some head of a 
family. Daniel Weldron is required to return to his wife 
according to law. An inhabitant is complained of by a 
tytliingman, because he had had a servant many years and 
had not taught him to read. 

1738. The act for reformation of manners is read at the 
annual town meeting, and so continues to be till after 1771. 

1777. It is voted that the ministers take turns in opening 
town meetings with prayer. This custom Is still observed. 

As we reflect on the moral transactions of this and other 
ancient towns, we are compelled to notice one fact, however 
ominous of evil, however discouraging to our hope. This 
fact is, that, as such communities have increased in numbers, 
wealth, and years, so have they departed from the justifiable 
strictness of their ancestors. We look in vain for that meas- 
ure of vigilance, promptness, and activity, which the officers 
of each corporation anciently manifested against the workers 
of iniquity. We look in vain for the ready obedience, which 
the vicious were constrained to yield to the commands of their 
social authorities. Our disease is open before us. Wise and 
happy shall we be, if we apply the needed remedies. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

* 1642. " As much hurt hath been done by fire, through 
neglect of having ladders in readiness at men's houses, and 
also by the insufficiency of chimneys and due cleaning of them, 
every householder shall have a ladder in constant readiness, 



T. R. 



LIGHTNING-RODS. 59 

twenty feet long, at his house." As wooden chimneys plas- 
tered with clay, and thatched roofs, were common then, such 
an order was highly necessary. 

1649. " Wliereas complaint has been made of the great 
danger, that may accrue to the inhabitants by reason of some 
men's setting stacks of hay near the dwelling-houses, if fire 
should happen, — ordered that whosoever hath any hay or 
English corn in straw by their houses, or have set any hay- 
stacks within three rods of their houses, shall remove it within 
six days after notice, on fine of 20s." 

1804. As smoking in the streets had become prevalent, 
and thus endangered buildings, it is forbidden by the town in 
the penalty of one dollar for each offence. 

Engine. 1804, Jan. 3d. Tiie South parish vote to unite 
with the first, and build a house for the engine bought by 
subscription. 

1808. Voted to have four fire-ladders and four hooks with 
chains, two of each to be kept in the body of the town, one 
of each at Chebacco and Line Brook. 

Another Engine. 18"21, March 13th. The Selectmen 
are to purchase an engine and have a house made for it. 
The cost of this engine was four hundred and fifty dollars. 
It made two for Ipswich. AVell fitted and sufficient fire de- 
partments are good economy for all towns. The fact, that not 
a few of our small towns have no preparation for fires, be- 
tokens neither public spirit nor prudence. 



LIGHTNING-RODS. 

These, being invented by Dr. Franklin about 1747, have 
been but little used in any part of Ipswich. There has been 
none in Essex or in Hamilton. The only one recollected 
eighty years since, was on the old jail. There are now 
seven in Ipswich. A probable reason for their not being 
formerly more introduced here, was the prejudice, very prev- 
alent through the Colonies, that the erection of them upon 
buildings was a resistance to Providence, because attracting 
the electric fluid from its direct course. It is well that such 
Mahommedan fatality has not the influence it once had, in 
preventing the improvements of science. 



60 MARKET. HAY-SCALES. TOWN SEAL. GOODS FOUND. 



MARKET. 

* 1637. Venison is forbidden to be bought without leave 
of each town. No cakes or buns are to be sold, except for 
burials or marriages. 

J 672. As some Indians stole hogs from the English to sell, 
the latter aie lequired to mark one ear of such animals as 
belong to them, and the former to have no mark for theirs ; 
and, when bringing pork for sale to the English, " to bring 
with them the swine's ears." The market here is not fully- 
supplied, excepting with the article of wood. 



HAY-SCALES. 

1761. Doctor John Calef is granted a spot of land to 
Duild these on, at the south corner of Back Lane. 

1792. Joseph Lord has leave to set up hay-scales. 

1832. Instead of the high framed ones, two of the patent 
platform scales are made. This alteration is much for con- 
venience and neatness. 



TOWN SEAL. 

M 



1681. A seal and stamp is bought with these letters ip 



GOODS FOUND. 



1712. Articles, picked up, are prized and entered on the 
town book, so that the loser may recover them. This was 
long a standing custom till after 1735. It was not so easy for 
the fraudulent finder to indulge his disposition then, as it is 



now. 



• Col. R. 



PKOVINCE LOANS. DONATIONS. BENEFACTIONS. 61 



PROVINCE LOANS. 

1721, May 11 th. The town vote to draw their proportion 
of the £50,000 in bills of credit out of the province treasury, 
as emitted by the General Court. This proportion was 
£1429. Oct. 5th. Three trustees are appointed to loan this 
money. Oct. 19th. They are allowed to have it, except 
£100 on mortgage at four per cent., and to let it to individuals 
in town at six. 

1728. April 1st. Five persons are appointed trustees of 
£1560 5s., the proportion which Ipswich was designated to 
have of £50.000 in province bills. They are to let it at six 
per cent. No townsman is to have more than £50 nor less 
than £5. The trustees are allowed two per cent, for their 
trouble. The General Court had made two other emissions 
of bills, one in 1690 and the other 1702. They entered upon 
such an experiment from necessity, having greatly involved 
the country by an expedition to Canada, and possessing no 
other apparent means to extricate it from debt. The prece- 
dent, however, was an evil one. It led to other similar exped- 
ients, until confidence was lost in government paper, and 
deep distress brought upon the whole province. 



DONATIONS. 

* 1644. £5 or a cow is to be paid to Ipswich by order of 
Mr. Richard Andrews, haberdasher, of London, who had made 
similar gifts to other plantations. 

1659. The General Court grant each town copies of Mr. 
Norton's work, in the press, against the Quakers, in proportion 
to its rates. 



BENEFACTIONS. 

•|-166S. As the Selectmen are instructed by the General 
Court to receive gifts here for freight of masts for His Majesty, 
next lecture-day is appointed to ascertain what sum can be 

* Col. R. t T. R. 



62 BENEFACTIONS. 

advanced. These masts and other articles were sent over to 
Charles the Second, by contributions from the several towns, 
as a sort of palliation for our fathers' having favored the anti- 
royalists. 

1682. Mr. Samuel Hall, some time a resident in Massa- 
chusetts, had died at Langford near Maiden, Essex county, 
England. He bequeathed £100 to those, who lost by the 
great fire in Boston and by Indian wars in this colony. Mr. 
John Hall of Islington, near London, was his executor, who 
sent an order to his mother, Mrs. Rebeccah Symonds of 
Ipswich, to dispose of the bequest. She gave to individuals 
who had suffered by Indians, as follows: — £8 to Martha 
Graves ; £10 to Moses of Newichiwanack, son of the Rev. 
William Worcester ; £5 to Frances Graves of Ipswich ; £3 
to Martha Coy, fled to Boston, widow of John Coy of Brook- 
field, slain ; 335. to Susannah, widow of Thomas Ayres, also 
slain. 

1774, Aug. 29th. Ipswich voted £100 to relieve the 
distressed inhabitants of Boston, " who are suffering in the 
cause of the country." Such noble charity was bestowed by 
all parts of our country, though adversity frowned and fears 
were high in every quarter. 

1803. For sufferers by fire at Portsmouth 100 dollars, 
and for such in the same town, in 1814, 250 dollars. 

1811. For sufferers by fire at Newburyport 1000 dollars. 

1823. 220 dollars to sufferers by fire at VViscasset and 
Alna. 

1828. Collections were made for the Greeks. 

1830. Some aid was granted to sufferers by fire at Glou- 
cester. 

1832. 150 dollars were contributed for the Cape de Verd 
Islands. 

Bunker Hill Association. 1825, April 19th. 148 
dollars 20 cents are paid over to the treasurer of this associ- 
ation, for erecting a monument. About 56 dollars more were 
given by ladies for the same object. 

Religious Charities. In Mr. Kimball's Society, for the 
last seven years, they have averaged 300 dollars annually ; 
and, for the same period, there has been, in Mr. Fitz's, an 
average of 215 dollars each year. 

" To shed beneficence, 

Celestial office ! " 



DIVISION OF ESSEX. TOWN HOUSE. PROBATE OFFICE. 63 



DIVISION OF ESSEX COUNTY. 

* 1693, March 17th. Ipswich instructs its representatives 
to petition with others, that the county may be divided. 
This was granted by the House, but negatived by the Governor 
and Council. 

1736, March 4th. The town instruct their representa- 
tives to oppose a division of the county. This subject has 
been several times agitated. Such a division will probably 
take place ; but when, time will tell. 



TOWN HOUSE. 

1704, May 11th. Voted, that such a building be forthwith 
erected on Meeting-house Hill, with a school-house under it, 
if the county pay half of the expense. Dec. 28th. A com- 
mittee are chosen to contract for such a house, 23 feet wide, 
32 feet long, 18 or 19 feet stud, with chimneys. 

1767, Aug. 2d. It is voted to pay £29 75. 8d. for making 
a Steeple on the Town-house. 

1794, May 1st. Agreed that the committee, who are to 
confer with the county committee about a new Court-house 
be empowered to sell the old one. The new house was 
finished early in 1795. It cost 7000 dollars, Ipswich paying 
one half and the county the other. 



PROBATE OFFICE BUILDING. 

This, made of brick and fire-proof, is 28 feet wide, 40 
feet long, and one story high. It cost the county 3700 dol- 
lars. It was finished and occupied December 15th, 1817. 
The Probate Office was kept from 1722 to 1815 in the 
Court-house. From this time, till 1817, it was kept in the 
house of Nathaniel Lord, Esq., the present Register. It is 
well, that after the elapse of many years, the public good was 
so far prudently consulted, as to provide a safe depository for a 
large portion of the county's most valuable records. 

*T. R. 



64 



POST-OFFICE. UNITY LODGE. 



POST-OFFICE. 



*1775, May 4th. Ipswich chooses a committee to confer 
with those of other towns, from iXewburyport to Danvers, 
who are met here respecting the estabhsliment of a regular 
post from the former place to Cambridge. f May 24th. 
The Provincial Congress lately appointed a Post-office for 
Ipswich, and James Foster to be its keeper. The mail had 
been carried through Ipswich, up to this time, from before 
1756, on horseback. It was six days on its route from Bos- 
ton to Portsmouth and back again. Since Deacon Foster, 
there have been seven Post-masters. 



UNITY LODGE. 

This body received their charter March 9th, 1779. It 
was the ninth chartered by the Grand Lodge. The Masons 
of Ipswich have held no meeting since 1829. As to this 
cessation they are not chargeable with imprudence. Though 
aware that there have been gross misrepresentations of Ma- 
sonic obligations and transactions, yet they have not thought 
it well to convene, lest it should fan the flame of party ani- 
mosity, which already preys upon the vitals of the body poli- 
tic. They do not undertake to assert, that no lodges in our 
country have become so corrupt, as to engage, that, if expe- 
diency or necessity require, they will violate laws both human 
and divine. But they can truly declare, that neither they nor 
any lodge of New England, with which they have an ac- 
quaintance, have ever understandingly covenanted to counte- 
nance, much less to practise immoialities. They feel them- 
selves bound to condemn the murderers of Morgan, if such 
there be, and the attempts to prevent the infliction of justice 
upon them, as upon other members of the community. It 
would, however, be infatuation to pretend, that Masonry is 
free from every fault. Like all institutions of human origin, it 
has imperfections. Among these imperfections is a part of 
the figurative expressions and forms, used on the admission of 

* T. R. t N. E. Chronicle. 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. BANK, &C. 65 

its members. Such things, if they were not formerly defects, 
have become so, wherever the benevolent spirit and enlight- 
ened views of Christianity prevail. The object of legitimate 
Masonry can now be accomplished without them. 

With regard to the proposal before our Legislature, it is a 
question deserving serious and general consideration, whether 
they should not only forbid Masonic, Phi Beta Kappa, and 
other literary societies' oaths of secrecy, but also oaths of 
every description. The true man will tell the truth without 
an oath. The false man will declare falsely with an oath. 
Indeed, who is not shocked to witness the frequent perjury, 
which takes place in our courts of justice ? In cases of this 
sort, the perjurer implicitly calls upon his Maker to destroy 
his soul, if he do not speak truly. There is nothing really 
so awful as this in the obligations of ]\Iasonry. While the 
axe is laid to one root, let it be laid to the whole. Let a law 
be passed, prohibiting oaths of every kind, and requiring, 
when' necessary, the solemn affirmation of the Friends. 
Let this be done, and then the public welfare will not have 
cause to complain, that while one part of its claims are listened 
to by a numerous legislative assembly, the other is neglected. 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. 

An association of this kind, with strict rules and a consis- 
tent compliance with them, is one of the greatest blessings 
to any community. As existing in Ipswich, it was formed 
1S29, and embraces five hundred members. 



BANK. 



This was incorporated March 25th, 1833. Its capital is 
100,000 dollars. It began to issue bills Aug. 10th. 



PRECAUTIONS AS TO STRANGERS. 

* 1673. Any who let houses or lands to those, whom the 
town disapprove of, shall be fined, or any who entertain stran- 

*T. R. 



66 ORNAMENTAL TREES. NEUTRAL FRENCH. 

gers, shall pay 20s. a week, unless security be given for their 
honesty and aliiiity. 

1700, May 27lh. John Wainwright, having leased a farm 
to Samuel Cass of Hampton, New Hampshire, gives a bond 
of £200, to indemnify the town if any of the Cass family 
should come upon them. 

1789. Persons, recently moved hither, are warned away, 
without any respect to their character, profession, or condi- 
tion. This custom, as a legal one, continued years afterwards. 



ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

179S. Lombardy Poplars begin to be set out in various 
parts of the town. One thing, which soon brought them into 
disrepute, was, that they were infested with poisonous asps, 
and another, that they injured the soil near them. They be- 
came unfashionable in ten years. They were preceded by 
Weeping Willows, which have recently renewed their appear- 
ance, and by Pine and Spruce trees. One hundred and sixty 
years ago, the Elm and Mulberry were favorite ornaments, and 
have continued in a greater or less degree. Horse-chesnut 
and Mountain Ash followed the Poplar. The Catalpa has 
been lately introduced. To the lover of nature, trees, clad 
with verdure and placed around dwellings and by the way- 
side, always afford a welcome prospect. 



NEUTRAL FRENCH. 

f 1757, Nov. 21st. Voted £20 for their assistance. 

1758. The Selectmen are instructed to supply them. 

1762. A plan is to be devised for supporting them at less 
expense. The number of them was about twenty. There 
was a priest among them, who used to bring along wooden 
ladles for sale. They were industrious. Both sexes of them 
wore shoes of wood. They left Ipswich in 1766. They were 
part of the Catholic inhabitants, who were compelled to leave 
Nova Scotia, after it was conquered by the English. 

*T. R. 



PAUPERS. ALMS-HOUSES. 67 



PAUPERS. 



1666. An individual supported by the town, is to be let out. 

1678. A Deacon of the Church is empowered to supply 
a poor person at the town's expense. 

1700. Voted to be at the charge of sending Goodwife 
Dent to Scotland, her native place. Slie did not go. 

1727. Two men, having been blown off from Canso and 
having put in at St. Peter's of Newfoundland, where they paid 
money for the passage of an old man, Richard Cole, who had 
lived at Ipswich and who was with them, to his home in 
England, desire to be reimbursed. 

1738. This place pays £400 a year for its poor. 

1741. The Overseers are to give public notice when the 
time is for letting out the paupers, as cheap as they can be. 
This is still a practice in our small towns, where there are 
no alms-houses. It is open to the serious objection of having 
the disorderly among the poor often thrown into hands un- 
fitted to hold a proper restraint upon them. 

* 1742. Voted that Mr. Pickering have a contribution for 
the poor in Chebacco. 

f 1759. Materials are to be provided, so that the paupers 
committed to the house of correction may be employed. 

1760. £66 135. 4d. are voted to buy a house for two men, 
reduced to poverty. 

1766. Paupers are increasing here. 

1778, Dec. 31st. Voted that application be made to the 
Selectmen for cutting down decayed wood, which belongs to 
persons in Great Britain, " for use of the poor and the soldiers' 
families in this distressing time for want of wood." 

1786. Charges for poor £300. 

1792. They are above £500. 



ALMS-HOUSES. 

1701. Voted that some convenient house be built on the 
common to accommodate the poor. 

1702. Voted that a cottage be made for this purpose. 
1717. It is agreed to have an alms-house, composed of 

logs, 40 feet long, 16 wide, and 6 high. 

* Chebacco P. R. t T. R. 



68 



ALMS-HOUSES. 



1735. All the poor are to live in one house, provided by 
the Selectmen, except such as are exempted. 

1770. The alms-house at the south-east end of the 
county-house, is decayed. 

1784. The Selectmen are to sell the alms-house for the 
most it will fetch. 

1785. A committee are instructed to finish the alms-house. 
1795, May 6th. Voted to buy John Harris's house, other 

buildings, and land, for the poor, at £250, This was done. 

1818, Jan. 1st. Voted that the Town Treasurer hire 
10,500 dollars to purchase a farm for the paupers. April 6th. 
Voted to sell the place previously improved as an alms-house 
establishment, and with the proceeds of it to enlarge the 
buildings on the farm recently bought. This farm formerly 
belonged to the noted Doctor Thomas Berry. It is in the 
north part of the town nigh Rowley River. 

1820. The whole number in the alms-house, when visited, 
was forty-seven. Of these, twenty-three were brought to 
poverty, directly or indirectly, by intemperance. 
1832. The report of this year is as follows. — 
The main building was an old farm-house, 34 by 48 feet, 
two stories high. Other buildings are, one 20 by 50, and 
another 20 by 26, both of one story. The farm contains 340 
acres, 50 of which are marsh. The land is excellent for 

150 tons of the former and 600 

year. One fifth of the paupers here 

The State poor are not inclined to 

All the clothing of those 

and made up here. Sal- 



bay and grain, yielding 
bushels of the latter in a 
entirely earn their living, 
remain, because required to work, 
in the alms-house is manufactured 



ary of the superintendent is 225 dollars, and of a hired man 
215 dollars. 



Dr. 

Whole expenditures for 

the establishment last 

year ...... $1,300-77 

"Whole expenditures for 

poor out of the house 158-73 

Interest on cost of the 

farm 57000 



$ 2,029-50 



Cr. 
For produce sold from 

the farm $1,069-15 

For State paupers • . . 116-75 

1,185-90 



1,185-90 



$ 2,029-50 
1,185-90. 



Balance against the town $ 843-60. 



SETl'LEMENTS AND TOWNS SET OFF. 69 

1833. There were thirty-six in the ahns-house. Of these 
•was one insane and another 7ion compos. It is calculated 
that they have maintained themselves this year, and earned 
150 dollars towards paying the interest. The average ages^ 
of the thirty-six were seventy-one years, and of twelve among 
them eighty-five years and a half, making one thousand and 
twenty-seven years. The purchasing and continuing of this 
establishment is sound economy for the town and mercy for the 
poor. These, having stated employment, and wholesome and 
regular food as well as clothing, are more happy in mind and 
more healthy in body. Such of them as are slaves to vicious 
indulgences have something else to occupy their attention, 
at least for a part of the time, besides the gratification of their 
evil propensities. While much is thus well done for their 
bodies, should not the inquiry be made, whether enough has 
been done for their souls ? The poor, however they become 
so, whether by adversity or crime, are the Providential care 
of the public, who are bound to provide for their spiritual as 
well as temporal necessities. 



SETTLEMENTS AND TOWNS SET OFF. 

* 1635, May 6th. The General Court order the bounds of 
Ipswich and Quascacunquen to be laid out. " Some of the 
cliief of Ipswich desired leave to remove to Quascacunquen, 
or Newbury, to begin a plantation there, which was granted 
them." 

1638, Sept. 6th. Among the proprietors of Winnecunett, 
about to be settled and next year called Hampton, are several 
of Ipswich. 

f 1639, March. The settlers of Rowley, under the Rev. 
Ezekiel Rogers, pay Ipswich and Newbury £800 for farms 
within the limits set out for Rowley. 

X 1640, May 13th. The desire of the Rev. Nathaniel Ward 
and others for a settlement at Pentucket or Cochichawick is 
granted, if they decide in three weeks from the 21st, and 
build at one of these places before next court. It appears 
that the situation chosen was Pentucket, or Haverhill, and that 
this settlement was laid out before October. 

* Col. R. t Winthrop. i Col. R. 



70 SETTLEMENTS AND TOWNS SET OFF. 

1641, Oct. 8th. "Divers families in Linne and Ipswich" 
having purposed to inhabit Long Island, their leaders are 
called before the General Court and dissuaded from proceed- 
ing any farther, because it would strengthen the Dutch, whom 
Winthrop called " our doubtful neighbour." 

1643, Oct. "As, Sept. 4th, J 639, land, lying near Ips- 
wich River was granted for a village to some inhabitants of 
Salem and Ipswich, and the order mentioned only Salem peo- 
ple, and forasmuch as the said inhabitants of Ipswich hav^e for 
near two years procured and maintained one to dispense the 
word of God unto tliem, which they intend to continue," it is 
allowed that gentlemen of these two towns be considered as 
the settlers of this village. 

1644, Oct. 31st. On petition of Zaccheus Gould, it 
is thought well, that there should be a village about his 
farm, and that Ipswich should assist therein. This farm was 
within Topsfield bounds. 

1645, Oct. 4th. As the Court had permitted a village " at 
or near New Meadows ; as the inhabitants of Ipswich, who 
have farms near thereunto, desire that a minister may be 
settled there, they are to be free from ministerial and other 
taxes at Ipswich, or else Ipswich is to help them maintain a 
minister or other charges incident to the place." The village 
here mentioned is the same as is spoken of under 1643, 
and was incorporated in 1650, by the name of Topsfield. 

1660, May 31st. Some persons of Ipswich are granted 
a plantation of six miles square, near Quabog Ponds, if 
twenty families and an approved minister be there in three 
years. This settlement was afterwards called Brookfield. 

1667, May 15th. As only six or seven families had gone 
to Quabog, Ipswich is allowed a year from next midsummer, 
to comply with the conditions of their grant. A reason for 
such delay was probably the very unsettled state, in which 
the political affairs of the colony then were. 

1675, May 12th. Jeremiah Belcher and others of this 
place are granted a plantation six miles square, if they reserve a 
farm of three hundred acres for the colony, and have twenty 
families and a minister settled there in six years. 

* 1696, June 26th. Rev. Wm. Hubbard writes to Gov- 
ernor Archdale of Carolina, that a considerable number in 



* Archdale's Carolina. 



EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 71 

Ipswich intend to emigrate thither. This emigration took 
place. It appears to have been about _Oct. 11th, when 
several were dismissed from Salem-viliage chuFcli, who were 
bound to the same part of our country. 

* 1729, Dec. 17th. Granted to inhabitants of Ipswich and 
Newbury, a township equal to six miles square, at Miller's 
River or Paquoiag, if not interfering with the grant of a 
township to Joseph Andrews and others of Salem. 

1735, June 10th. A Township of six miles square is 
granted to Lieut. Abraham Tilton and others of Ipswich. 
The preference of shares in such territory is assured to the 
descendants of soldiers, who served in the expedition of 1690 
against the French, f There were sixty-three equal shares ; 
one for the first minister ; another for support of the ministry ; 
a third for the use of a school, and the rest for sixty proprie- 
tors. All these, except eight, belonged to Ipswich. The 
place was originally called Ipswich-Canada, but, in 1764, it 
w^as incorporated by the name of Wincliendon. The condi- 
tions of the grant were, to have sixty small houses, with a 
convenient meeting-house, and to settle a learned and orthodox 
minister in five years. The provision, thus made for school- 
ing and for the ministry, was common in such grants. 

1 1784, May 5th. David Hammond, Moses, Hannah, and 
Nathaniel Bradstreet, and Timothy Harris, are set off to 
Rowley. The next year, Oct. 5th, for the completion of 
this allowance, they pay £65 for town claims upon them. 

1793, June 21st. The Hamlet becomes incorporated by 
the name of Hamilton. 

1819, Feb. 15th. Chebacco is incorporated and is called 
Essex. Thus reduced in territory, and thus having sent her 
children far and near, and thousands more, of whom we have 
no account, Ipswich yet remains possessed of no small por- 
tion of land, and yet helps to enrich many places with her 
surplus of steady, enterprising population. 



EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 

Only a small part of these are known. Lest these, compara- 
tively few, be less and less remembered, we give them a place 
here . 

*Prov. R. t Whitney's Worcester Co. t T. R. 



72 EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 

1634. William Perkins removes to Roxbury, where he 
married Elizabeth Wootton, Aug. 30th, 1636, — was of Wey- 
mouth 1643, of Gloucester 1651, where he preached, and of 
Topsfield 1655. He was son of Win. and Catharine Perkins 
of London, born Aug. 25, 1607, and died May 21st, 1632. 

1635. May. Rev. Thomas Parker, Mr. Nicholas Noyes, 
Mr. Henry Sewall, Wm. Wliite, Wm. Moody, and Richard 
Kent, to Newbury. 

1636. Henry Short, John Spencer, and Nicholas Easton, to 
the same town. The last followed Mrs. Hutchinson to New- 
port. He became President and Governor of Rhode Island 
colony. 

1638. Samuel, son of Gov. Thomas Dudley, helps settle 
Salisbury, was a deputy there, became minister of Exeter. — 
May 2d. Wm. Jeffrey with N. Easton had gone to Winnecu- 
nett. The magistrates of Ipswich have power to remove 
them. Sept. 6th. Wm. Foster, for his religious opinions, is 
ordered to leave the jurisdiction by next March. 

1639. About this year. Gov. Tliomas Dudley moved to 
Roxbury. Richard Jennings, born in Ipswich, England, and 
who came over with Rev. N. Rogers, returns home. 

1640. Edward French and Robert Mussey to Salisbury. 
Matthias Currin to Southold, Long Island. 

1641. Rev. John Ward, Mr. John Fawn, and Hugh 
Sherratt, to Haverhill. The last died Sept. 5th, 1678, aged 
one hundred years. 

1644. John, son of Christopher Osgood, to Andover. 

1645. James Ward, who graduated this year at Harvard 
College, returns to England with his father. Richard Bel- 
lingham. Governor, to Boston. Nathaniel Bishop had moved 
to Boston ; Simon Bradstreet, Governor, to Andover. 

1646. Matthias Button, a Dutchman, and Theophilus 
Shatswell, to Haverhill. William Fuller to Hampton. 

John Winthrop, jr. 1633. He comes to settle Agawam. 
He arrives in Massachusetts with his wife, Nov. 2d, 1631 ; 
became freeman 1632. She died 1634 ; was Martha, daugh- 
ter of Rev. Henry Painter, of Exeter, England ; was buried in 
Ipswich. There is no memento to tell where the dust of this 

excellent woman lies. 1634, May 14th. Mr. Winthrop 

is chosen Assistant and so continues till his removal from the 
colony, 1649. He visited England 1634, and was at his 
uncle Emanuel Downing's of London. 1635, Oct. 6th. 



EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 73 

He came home with a commission from Lords Say, Brook, 
and others, to commence a plantation at Connecticut. He 
was appointed Governor of this settlement the preceding Jidy 
ISth. Nov. 3d. He sends a bark of thirty tons and twenty 
men, with provisions, to take possession of the mouth of Con- 
necticut River and to erect a building there. 17th. He was 
Lieutenant Colonel of Essex regiment under John Endicott. 

1636, June 23d. His father addresses him by letter as 

Governor of Connecticut, and he seems to have been there 

superintending its concerns. 1638, Jan. 22d. His father 

writes to him at Ipswich. June 25th. He has leave to set 
up salt-works at Ryal-side, then a part of Salem, now of Bev- 
erly, and to have wood enough for carrying on the works, and 
pasture for two cows. It appears from this that Mr. Win- 
throp, jr., had given up his care of Connecticut Plantation. 

1639, Feb. 11th. He is granted Castle Hill and all the 

meadow and marsh within the Creek, if he lives in Ipswich. 

1640, Oct. 7th. The General Court grant him Fisher's 

Island at the mouth of Pequod River, so far as it is in their 

power, reserving the right of Connecticut and Saybrook, • 

1641, Aug. 3d. He sails for England. 1644, June 28th. 

He is granted a plantation at or near Pequod for Iron Works. 
Nov. 13th. He is granted the hill at Tantousq, about sixty 

miles to the westward, where black lead is. 1645, Jan. 1st. 

He conveys his farm, called Castle Hill, to his brother-in-law, 

Samuel Symonds. 1646, May. He and others had 

recently begun a plantation in the Pequod country, belonging 
to Massachusetts. Thomas Peters, intending to join him in 
this enterprise, is appointed by the General Court to help him 
govern the people there. Thus it was that Mr. Winthrop, 
who was continually striving to benefit his adopted country by 
the invention and experience of his science, leaves Ipswich, 
the place which he chiefly aided to settle. Such were his 
example, influence, and exertion for the public good, that his 
departure nmst have produced regret in many a heart. His 
course, subsequent to this removal, was so illustrious, that we 
need give no further account of him here. 

1648. Rev. Francis Dane to Andover. Sept. 18th, Ed- 
ward Gillam, jr., sells his place to his father, Edward, which 
was given to the former by his father-in-law, Richard Smith, 
1647. This Edward, jr., was of Exeter, N. H.,- in 1652. 
Stephen Jordan soon removes to Newbury. 
10 



74 EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH, 

1650. John Hoyt, brickmaker, to Haverhill. 

1653. Bryan Pendleton to Portsmouth, where he becomes 
noted. 

1654. Doct. Giles Firman, was son of Giles, who had been 
an apothecary at SiHibLuy in England, and who died Deacon 
of Boston Cliurch, 1634. He was born 1614- 15, educated at 
Cambridge, England. He spelt his name Gyles Fyrmin. 
He had a grant of land at Ipswich, 163S — 9, on condition 
of living here three years; became freeman 1639; married 

a daughter of the Rev. Nathaniel Ward. * 1639, Dec. 

29th. He writes to Governor Winthrop, that he was strongly 
set upon studying .divinity, and that his profession of physic 
was of little profit to him. f 1641, Oct. 8th. He is ap- 
pointed to grant summons and attachments in civil actions at 

Ipswich. • X 1642, Nov. 3d. He is an Elder of the church 

here. He continued in Ipswich and practised as a physician 
till about 1654, when he returned to England. Here he be- 
came eminent as a divine, as well as in his other profession. 
He died in April, 1697, in his eighty-third year. 

Joseph Rowlandson begins to preach at Lancaster. — • 
He supplies here till Sept. 1660, when he becomes ordain- 
ed. During his senior year at Harvard College, he wrote what 
was termed by the Quarterly Court " a scandalous libel," and 
posted it up on Ipswich meeting-house. He was tried here 
and sentenced, Sept. 20th, 1651, to be whipped or pay £5y 
and charges, 305., for thus writing prose and verse against the 
government and a few individuals of this town. In describing 
one of these individuals, he said, "When he lived in our coun- 
try, a wet eele's tayle and his word were something worth y^ 
taking hold of." He made an apology, and the rest of his 
fine was remitted by the Court, March 25th, 1656. He was 
the husband of Mrs. Rowlandson, a relation of whose suffer- 
ings, as a captive among the Indians, forms a noted book. 

1655. Thomas, father of the preceding, moves with his 
wife, Bridget, and family to Lancaster. Among his children 
was Thomas, killed there by Indians, in 1676. 

1656. Wm. Paine was of Ipswich 1633; became freeman, 
1640. He was on the chief committees of the town, and was 
feoffee of the Grammar School. To this he bequeathed Little 
Neck, and £20 to Harvard College. He removed to Boston 

* Hutchinson's Coll. f Col. R. t T. R. 



EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 75 

about 1656; died Oct. lOtli, 1660. He left a widow, Hannah, 
a daughter, wife of Samuel Appleton, and a son, John. 

1657. William, son of Deputy-Governor Symonds, had 
settled at Pieston, afterwards Wells, in Yorkshire, Maine, 
was Deputy from that place, 1676 ; died May 22d, 1679. 
Left a widow, Mary, daugliter of Jonathan Wade of Ipswich, 
and children. Cornelius Waldo to Chelmsford, where he was 
deacon. 

1659. Mr. Richard Dummer soon to Newbury. 

1660. John Warner, born 1616, and Wm. Pilchard, to 
Quabog. Daniel Warner had gone to Hadley. 

Nov. Ezekiel Cheever, who came hither Dec. 30th, 
1650, to teach the Grammar School, removes to Charlestovvn, 
and thence to Boston. 

1661, May 22d. Edmund Marshall, formerly of Salem, 
now of Ipswich, weaver, sells an estate to Abraham Warren, 
planter, of the former town, and appears to be about moving 
away. 

1662. William Hubbard came to New England by 1630, 
was of Ipswich 1685, freeman 1638. He held chief offices of 
the town, was feoffee of the Grammar School,. Deputy to the 
General Court 1638, 1639, 1643, 1644, 1645, 1646, and 

Justice of the Quarterly Court. 1638. The General Court 

grant him three hundred acres of land. 1651. He was 

empowered to marry people. 1656. For land granted 

him in 1652, and for £50 paid by him in England for the coun- 
try, he has a grant of one thousand acres. 1657. He is 

on a committee to examine complaints, that the families of 
ministers suffer for want of support. He removed to Boston 
about 1662, when he gave his son Richard a large farm at the 
Hamlet. He died between June 8th and Aug. 19th, 1670, 
leaving sons, Rev. William, Richard, and Nathaniel. What 
Johnson said of him, was no exaggeration, " A learned man, 
being well read in State matters, of a very affable and humble 
behaviour, who hath expended much of his estate to helpe on 
this worke. Altho he be slow in speech, yet is hee downright 
for the businesse." 

1663, Oct. 6th. John, son of Thomas and Elizabeth 
Emerson, is ordained over Gloucester Church. 

1664, April 24th. Thomas Kemble of Boston, merchant, 
sells Haclakendine Symonds five hundred acres of land on 
the west side of " Damary Cotty River," which he bought of 



76 EMIGKANTS FROM IPSWICH, 

an Indian Sagamore " Witta Noies." Mr. Symonds removed 

to the eastward about this date. June 12th, 1688. He 

sells Coxhall, in the county of York, being six miles long and 
four broad, lying at the head of Wells and Arundel, to Roger 
Haskins and thirty-five others. He was brother of the preceding 
William Symonds, and was living in 1695, aged sixty. 

1665. IVathaniel Saltonstall had removed to Haverhill. He 
was son of Richard, and became an eminent character. Not 
long after this year, Daniel Davison goes to Newbury, where 
he was a Sheriff. Richard Kimball settled at Bradford, where 
he was killed by Indians in 1676, and his family taken captive. 

1666. Wm. Bartholomew came hither from London, 1635, 
and was made freeman the same year. He deposed at 
the trial of Mrs. Ann Hutchinson, that she was a passenger in 
the same ship with him, and had expressed herself as being 
favored with revelations from Heaven. He sustained the prin- 
cipal trusts in town. He was feoffee of the Grammar School, 
Deputy to the General Court, 1635, 1637, 1638, 1641, 1647, 

1650. He was chosen County Treasurer, 1654. 1666, 

May 23d. He had taken up his residence in Boston, where 
lie was on a committee to relieve Englishmen, who became 
prisoners of the French at the capture of St. Christopher's, 
and who had come to Boston. He appears to have resided 
at Marblehead, 1674, and died at Charlestown, Jan. 18th, 
1681. Henry Bartholomew, of Salem, was his brother. 

1670. Daniel Epes takes the Grammar School at Salem. 
Among his various offices, he was chaplain in the expedition 
against Port Royal, 1707. 

1672. Capt. John Ayres, late of Ipswich, now of Quabog, 
sells property. He was killed at " Squakehege," by Indians, 
1675. 

1677. Nathaniel and Jonathan, sons of Mr. Jonathan 
Wade, had settled at Mystic. 

1675. George Norton had removed to Springfield. 

1676, April 20th. Thomas Stacy, miller, wife, and nine chil- 
dren, from Ipswich, are received by the First Church of Salem. 

1677. Samuel, son of Ezekiel Cheever, becomes preacher 
at Marblehead. 

1678, Nov. 27th. John, son of Wm. Norton, is ordained at 
Hinghain. 

1680. John, son of the Rev. Wm. Hubbard, had become 
an inhabitant of Boston. His wife's name was Ann. Lawrence 



EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 77 

Davis, having come from Portland, on account of the Indian 
War, 1675, and resided here, now returns. 

1681. Roger Derby and his wife Lucretia to Salem. 

1682. Rev. John Rogers becomes President of Harvard 
College. 

1683. Samuel, son of Mr. Samuel Appleton, was of Lynn. 

Richard, son of Sir Richard Sakonstall, came to Water- 
town, 1630, and was freeman next year. Having accompa- 
nied his father to England, he returns and settles at Ipswich, 
1635, when he sets up the first Corn-Mill in this town. 

1636. He is Deputy to the General Court till May, 

1637, when he is chosen Assistant, and so continues to 1649 ; 

reelected, 1664, 16S0, 1681, 1682. 1641. He is chosen 

Serjeant Major of Col. John Endicott's regiment. 1642, 

May 18th. The General Court clear him from blame in having 
written a book against the propriety of the Standing Council. 
Oct. 18th. The Elders, assembled at Ipswich, concur in the 
same justification. Rev. Mr. ISorris, of Salem, had taken 
ground opposite to that of Mr. Sakonstall. The Council, 
about which so great a controversy existed, was composed of 
three members, who were to hold their office for life or good 
behaviour, and to exercise whatever authority the General Court 
conferred on them, during its recess. It became unpopular, as 
too aristocratical for charter privileges, and ceased, after three 

years, in 1639. * 1643, July 14th. Mr. Sakonstall, with 

others, writes against assisting La Tour, lest it should be con- 
strued as an indicationof War with D'Aulnay. Governor Win- 

throp replies to his objections. f 1644, May 29th. Mr. 

Sakonstall is elected Reserve Commissioner of the L^nited 
Colonies. 1645, May 4th. He is on a committee to exam- 
ine witnesses about " the French business," and report next 
session. Aug. 16lh. A protest, of his composition, and signed 
by himself and Wm. Hathorne of Salem, in opposition to the 
hostilities commenced by some of our colonists against D'Aul- 
nay in behalf of La Tour, is handed to the Commissioners of 
the United Colonies. Oct. 4th. Mr. Sakonstall is one of 
several, who petition to become a company for the carrying on 
of an extensive peltry trade. At his solicitation, two persons 
are bound to answer for enslaving some natives of Guinea. 
1658. Oct. He had gone to England and returned, in 

* Hazard. t Col. R. 



78 EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 

1664. Previous to his making this visit, his wife was ad- 
vised by her physicians to take a voyage across the Atlantic 
for her heahh. Her husband, of course, wislied to accompany 
her. But, after the Revolution in the mother country, as 
many of the principal colonists wavered about continuing here, 
he made a vow, that he would not forsake Massachusetts while 
its religious privileges were preserved uncorrupted. Thus he 
was in a sore dilemma. He applied to Mr. Cotton for advice. 
This gentleman convinced him that his marriage promise was 
of more force, than his patriotic vow. So, very willingly 

absolved, he took a voyage for the benefit of his wife. 

1671. He had revisited England and returned. He was 
an efficient friend to Harvard University. Secretary Raw- 
son wrote of him, " One of the College's most considerable 
benefactors, and above many naturally caring for the good and 

prosperity thereof" 1672. Mr. Saltonstall gave £50 to 

Walley and Goffe, the exiled judges of Charles I. 1680. 

He had been again to England and now comes back, and sub- 
sequently lived part of his time at Marshfield and the rest at 
Ipswich. 1683. He went back to England and had return- 
ed, 1686, when he visited Ipswich about supplying its inhab- 
itants with another Grist-Mill and a Fulling-Mill, according to 
his long agreement with them. As he and they did not think 
alike of the terms mutually proposed, they came to no decisive 
conclusion. He soon left this country and died at Hulme, April 
29th, 1694, aged eighty-four, leaving an estate in Yorkshire. 
He had three daughters married in England, and a son, Na- 
thaniel, settled at Haverhill. Mr. Saltonstall was indeed a 
promoter of the best good of Ipswich and of the colony. He 
was endowed with respectable talents, had a large share of 
intelligence, was a succourer of the distressed, a defender of 
the wronged, and the benefactor of his fellow men. His 
natural benevolence and enterprise were graced and rendered 
more efficient by his piety, which led him to purpose and act, 
as answerable at the bar of his Maker. 

1685. Mr. John, son of Rev. Thomas Cobbet, had settled 
at Newbury. 

1689. Simon, son of Mr. Francis Wainwright, had gone 
to Haverhill, where he was killed by Indians, 1708. 

John Pinchon, who married Margaret, daughter of Rev. 
Wm. "^Hubbard, lived at Ipswich. He afterwards returned to 
Springfield. 



EMICRANTS PROM IPSWICH. 79 

1692. Mr, Samuelj son of Rev. T. Cobbet, was of Bristol, 
in New Plymouth colony. He joined Ipswich church, 1674. 
His wife was Sarah. 

Joiin and Elizabeth of " Muddy River within the bounds of 
Boston," children of John Fairfield late of Ipswich. John 
Procter, who had removed from this town to Salem Village, is 
executed for witchcraft. 

1693. Rev. William Hubbard certifies to the good charac- 
ter of Sarah, wife of Wm. Buckley, who formerly lived here. 
This certificate was given on her trial for witchcraft, when she 
was cleared. 

1696. Joseph, son of John Leigh, deceased, had settled 
at Concord, and had married Mary Woodhouse. 

1699. Nathaniel, son of John Rogers, President of Harvard 
College, is ordained at Portsmouth. 1697, Sept. 14tli. He 
received a call from Salem Village Church, where he preached 
from 1st of Feb. to 1st of Oct. 

1700. John, son of Col. Thomas and Elizabeth Wade, born 
Feb. 15th, 1676, graduated at Harvard College 1693, preaches 
at Berwick, Me., ordained there Nov., 1702, and died in a year 
after, much esteemed for his talents, piety, and usefulness. 

1707. Jeremiah, son of Rev. John Wise, is ordained at 
Berwick, Me. 

1713. Benjamin, son of John Choate, begins to preach at 
Kingston, N. H., and left there before 1725; graduated at 
Harvard College 1703. 

1717. Nathaniel Appleton is ordained at Cambridge, 
where he was an eminent divine. 

1718. Israel How becomes physician of Andover, and resid- 
ed in the South Parish. 

1727. Josiah Dennis is ordained at Yarmouth, East Pre- 
cinct. When this part of that town was incorporated, 1793, 
the people, out of respect for him, had it called Dennis. 

Thomas, son of Daniel Howsen, had gone to Hadley. 

1728. Joseph Whipple, of the Hamlet, is ordained at 
Hampton Falls, N. H. 

1732. Daniel, son of Daniel Rogers, graduated at Harvard 
College 1725, is ordained at Littleton. 

1733. Thomas, and other children of John French, had 
removed to Deerfield. 

1742. Moses Stevens, blacksmith, settles at Canterbury, 
Conn. At his decease he was aged ninety-four. 



80 EMIGRANTS FROM IPSWICH. 

1748. Samuel Langdon, who joined Chebacco church, 
1741, and who taught school in town, is dismissed to Ports- 
mouth church, over which he becomes ordained. The " An- 
nals of Portsmouth " say he was born in Boston, 1722. 

Daniel, son of Rev. John Rogers, is installed over the new 
church at Exeter. He bad been, for a considerable time, 
tutor and fellow of Harvard College and preached for the First 
Parish of Ipswich, occasionally, over six years. 

1750. Andrew Oliver, formerly admitted to the First 
Church here in full communion, is dismissed to the South 
Church in Boston. 

1753. Daniel Warner is dismissed to the church at Pom- 
fret, Conn. ; and Sarah, wife of Jacob Foster, to Billerica 
church. 

1754. John, son of John and Lydia Dennis, is recom- 
mended by the First Church, to the church about to be gath- 
ered at Charlestown, N. H., where he was settled as minister, 
and left, 1761. He had been often employed to preach in 
the several parishes of Ipswich, was teacher of the Grammar 
School here, was chaplain at Fort St. George, 1740, and at 
Fort Frederic, 1744-5. He was born Nov. 3d, 170S, and died 
at Ipswich, Sept. 2d, 1773. 

1755. Joseph Ay res and wife are dismissed to the church 
at Mansfield, under Rev. Mr. Salter. 

1756. Daniel Wood from South Church to Dracut church. 
1758. Stephen Emerson from First Church, to church at 

Newmarket, N. H., and Richard Harris to Harvard church. 

1762. Edmund Heard and his wife, Priscilla, to the church 
at Holden. 

1763. John Treadwell is ordained at Lynn, returned to Ips- 
wich 1782, taught the Grammar School here ; was Represen- 
tative to the General Court, 1785-6; removed to Salem, 
where he became a Senator and Judge of the Common Pleas 
Court. He died Jan. 5th, 1811, aged seventy-three. His 
wife, Mehitable, who was a Dexter, died July 1st, 1786. 

1765. Samuel Perley, of West Ipswich, is ordained over 
the Presbyterian church at Hampton Falls. He fitted for 
college and studied divinity with Rev. George Leslie. He 
married Hepsibah Fowler, of his native parish. *He was in- 
stalled at Moultonborough, N. H., 1778, at Groton,N. H., 1779, 

* Mr. John Farmer. 



DISMISSIONS FROM CHURCHES, hc. 81 

where he remained about five years ; at Gray, Me., 1784, and 
continued there in office till 1791, and died Nov. 28th, 1831, 
aged eighty-nine. 

1770. Isaac Choate to Leicester. 

1778. Joseph Cummings is settled as minister of Moul- 
tonborough, N. H. ; died 1790. 

1780. About this time, Doctor Joshua Fisher, who came 
hither from Dedham, and had been on the Committee of Cor- 
respondence during the Revolution, removes to Beverly. 

1785. John, son of Rev. John Cleaveland, is ordained at 
Stoneham ; afterwards installed at Wrentham. 

1791. Nathaniel Howe, of West Ipswich, is ordained at 
Hopkinton. 

1792. Oliver Dodge, of the Hamlet, is ordained at Pom- 
fret, Conn. 

1793. Nathan Bradstreet, whose father's farm was set 
off to Rowley in 1785, is ordained colleague with Ebenezer 
Flasg, of Chester, N. H. He resigned, 1818, bought a farm 
in Westford, Mass., and removed thither, 1820, where he died 
suddenly about 1827, aged over fifty. 

1794. Daniel Dana is ordained at Newburyport. 

1796. Joseph, son of Wm. McKean, had taught the Gram- 
mar School here two years, and studied divinity with Dr. Dana, 
and now takes an academy at Berwick ; became minister of Mil- 
ton in 1797, and afterwards Professor at Harvard College. 

1797. John Crocker, jr., removes to Londonderry, N. H. 

1801. Samuel Dana is ordained at Marblehead. 

1802. Mark Newman is dismissed from the First Church to 
the church in Andover, under Jonathan French. 

1805. Levi Frisbie accepts the office of Latin tutor, and 
afterwards became Professor, at Harvard College. 



DISMISSIONS FROM CHEBACCO CHURCH TO 
CHURCHES IN THE FOLLOWING TOWNS. 

1732. Jonathan Andrews and wife Sarah to Scarborough. 
1734. Ebenezer Burnam and wife Dorothy to Windsor, 
Conn. Mary, wife of John Howard. 1736. Hannah, wife 
of John Butler, to Lyme. Stephen Story and wife Mary to 
Norwich. Margaret, wife of James Perkins, to Lyme. 1737. 
Elizabeth (Fraile), wife of Henry Walker, to Hopkinton. 
11 



82 DISMISSIONS FROM CHURCHES, &LC. 

1738. Wm. Bennet and wife Sarah to Windsor, Conn. 
George Stimson to Hopkinton. 1739. John Martin, jr., and 
wife Elizabeth, to Lunenburg* Thomas Butler, jr., and wife 
Abigail, to Windsor, Conn. Joseph Foster and wife Abigail 
to Kingston, N. H. 1740. Martha, wife of Thomas" Brown, 
to Lunenburg. 1741. Elizabetli (Martin), wife of David 
Goodridge. 1742. Dorcas (Andrews), wife of James Ely, to 
Lyme, Conn. 1743. Martha (Butler), wife of Winthrop 
Marston, to Hampton, N. H. James Colman and wife Rachel 
to Lunenburg. 1744. Nathaniel Foster, jr., to Newbury. 
1745. Thomas Butler and wife Martha to Hopkinton. 1746. 
Jeremiah Burnam, jr., and wife Abigail, to Hopkinton. Mary 
(Bennet), wife of Eliphalet Wood, to Norwich, Conn. 1747. 
John Burnam, 3d, and uifeBethiah, to Norwich, Conn. Mary, 
wife of Wm. Goodhue, jr., to HoUiston. Elizabeth, wife of 
Daniel Pecker, jr., to Boston. 1760. Hannah, wife of John 
Ingalls, to Dunstable. 1763. Sarah, wife of Jonathan Low, to 
Lunenburg. 1769. Jeremiah Andrews to Concord. Abigail, 
wife of Joseph Low, to Fitchburg. 1783. Jacob Perkins to 
Cockermont, N. H. 1786. Mary, widow of John Marshall, 
now wife of Mr. Alvard, to South Hadley. 1788. Martha, 
wife of Jeremiah Kinsman, to Fitchburg. 1790. Rachel, wife 
of Jonathan Herrick, to Hopkinton, N. H. Thomas Story to 
Hopkinton, N. H. 1792. Jeremiah Story to Hopkinton, N. H. 
1793. William Story to GofFstown, N. H. Ehzabeth, wife of 
Captain Joseph Leach, to Dunbarton, N. H. 1796. Captain 
Daniel Giddings to Clermont, N. H. Simon Wells and wife 
Martha, now of New Gloucester. 1798. Major John Bur- 
nam to the church to be formed at Londonderry, N. H. 



DISMISSIONS FROM THE HAMLET CHURCH. 

1773. Samuel Dike to Bridgewater. 1774. Captain 
Joseph Cummings to Topsfield. 1784. Abraham Cum- 
mins;s to Medford. 



A FEW OF THE EMIGRANTS TO IPSWICH, NOT 
OTHERWHERE MENTIONED AS SUCH. 

1703. Mr. Nathaniel Shepard, from Lynn ; married 
Elizabeth Wade. 1706. Mr. Thomas Hammon. 1708. 



EDUCATION. 83 

Mr. Theophilus Colton ; married Elizabeth, widow of Andrew 
Diamon, who was an Ehot of Boston. 1723. Doct. John 
Perkins from Boston. 1731. Leonard Cotton taught school 
at Chebacco ; liad sons baptized at the Hamlet, 1732-4. 
1747. E. A. Holyoke begins to study medicine under Doct. 
Thomas Berry. He left for Salem in 1749. 1748. Doct. 
John Calef. 1771. Mr. John Rogers and wife Abigail 
from Reading. 1775. Mr. Wm. McKean from Boston, 
whither he returns, 1783. 1789. Doct. Parker Clark from 
Newburyport ; married Elizabeth Wainwright. Doct. Samuel 
Adams from Killingly, Conn. He married Abigail, daughter 
of Wm. Dodge ; removed to Bath, Me., 1798. 



EDUCATION. 

No doubt but that the primitive settlers of Ipswich had 
their children taught as soon as they had taken possession of 
its soil. They were deeply impressed with the importance of 
having the young well educated, as a main support of the 
political and religious liberty, for which they had exchanged the 
joys of their native home, for the perils, uncertainties, and toils 
of a wilderness. They judged, and correctly so, that of the 
two, a portion in virtuous knowledge and in wealth, the for- 
mer was of much greater value. 

Grammar School. On the records of this school there 
is the following note, though it has the appearance of having 
been copied. 1636. "A Grammar School is set up, but 
does not succeed." 

* 1651, Jan. 11th. The town give all the " Neck beyond 
Chebacco River and the rest of the ground up to Glou- 
cester line," to the Grammar School. They choose five 
Trustees of this donation. 16th. This land is leased to 
John Cogswell, jr., and his heirs and assigns for ever, for 
£14 a year ; i. e. £4 in butter and cheese, £5 in pork and 
beef, £5 in corn, at the current price. 

t 1652, Jan. 26th. " For the better aiding of the schoole 
and the affaires thereof, Mr. Samuel Symonds, Mr. Na- 
thaniel Rogers, Mr. Jonathan Norton, Major Daniel Den- 

* Grammar School R. \ T. R. 



84 EDUCATION. 

nison, Mr. Robert Paine, Mr. William Paine, Mr. Wm. Hub- 
bard, Dea. John Whipple, and Mr. Wm. Bartholomew, weare 
chosen a committee to receive all such sums of money, as 
have and shall be given toward the building or maintaining of a 
Grammar schoole and schoole master, and to disburse and 
dispose such sums as are given to provide a schoole house and 
schoole master's house, either in buildings, or purchasing the 
same house with all convenient speed, and such sums of 
money, parcels of land, rentes or annuities, as are or shall be 
given towards the maintenance of a schoole master, they shall 
receive and dispose of to the schoole master, that they shall call 
or choose to that office from time to time, towards his mainte- 
nance, which they shall have power to enlarge by appointing 
from yeare to yeare what each scholler shall yearly or quar- 
terly pay or proportionably, who shall allso have full power to 
regulate all matters concerning the schoole master and schol- 
lers, as in their wisdome they thinke meet from time to time, 
who shall allso consider the best way to make provission for 
teaching to write and cast accounts." Mr. Wm. Hubbard 
gives an acre of land to the school. 

1653. Robert Paine gives the use of a dwelling-house and 
two acres of land to the master. He had built a school-house 
and given it to the feoffees. 

1660. Wm. Paine left by will Little Neck for the same 
object. 

1661. The barn erected by Ezekiel Cheever, and the 
orchard planted by him, were, after his removal to Charles- 
town, bought by the feoffees and presented for the use of the 
master or otherwise. 

1662. The town vote to have the persons for ordering 
the school increased to nine. 

1665. The school-house having been repaired, was plas- 
tered or " daubed with clay." 

1683, Oct. 4th. Robert Paine and his wife Elizabeth 
give the house and land for the school, to the town. 
' 1696, March 24th. The town grant the school ten acres 
of marsh at Castle Neck for the house belonging to the school, 
" seeing it was declared, at a general town-meeting formerly 
upon division of Plumb and Hog islands, every house should 
have a lot." 

1705. About this year, the school begins to be taught in 
the town-house, and so continues till 1794. 



EDUCATION. 85 

1714, April 8th. Committees of the town and the feoffees 
agree, that the town add £25 to the income of the Grammar 
School and have it a free school, wliere scholars may be 
taught in English Studies, as well as fitted for college. 

1713, May 8th. Voted that each scholar shall pay 205. 
and what this falls short of £60, the town will make up for 
one year. 

1720, March 8th. The town, having become dissatisfied 
with the small rent, which was paid by the heirs of John 
Cogswell for the school farm, are about commencing a suit 
against them. The Rev. Messrs. John Rogers and Jabez 
Filch excuse themselves, as feoffees, from having any thing 
to do with this suit, because they deem it unjust. 

1723. The town offer the tenants of the farm, that if they 
will support the school-master, nothing further shall be done. 

1726. The town appear to have ceased from the prose- 
cution and agree to take £14 a year, as previously. 

1734. They petition the General Court for a grant of 
some unappropriated lands, for the use of the school. It was 
not allowed. 

1756, Jan. 22d. The town propose to petition the legis- 
lature with the four feoffees, who had the right to appoint 
their successors, that there be no more than four feoffees, who 
shall belong to Ipswich and resign if moving away, and that 
the town choose three of their eldest selectmen, not of the 
feoffees, to act with them in regulating the school rents. 
This appears to have been granted. 

1761, March 26th. According to a petition of the feoffees, the 
General Court give them leave to sell about twenty-four acres 
of land at Brush and Bartholomew hills, Burch Island and 
Chebacco woods, for the benefit of the school. 

1794. About this time, the present school-house was 
erected by proprietors. 

1828, Sept. 19th. On application of the South District, 
the feoffees voted, that if they will finish the unfinished part 
of the Grammar School-house, so as to accommodate both 
schools, and be at half the expense of repairs, and leave it in 
a proper condition, they shall have a lease of the lower room 
for twenty-one years. These conditions were complied with. 
Owing to the increased salary of teachers, the Grammar School 
has not been kept since 1818, so steadily, and of course has 
not been so useful of late years, as it was formerly. It would 



86 EDUCATION. 

be matter of high satisfaction, if a school so ancient, which 
received the prayers, charities, and exertions of some, who 
were among the best of our fathers, could, in some proper 
way, be kept open constantly, and thereby add to the number 
of our publicly educated men. 

Incoyne of the Grammar School. 1797.1139-66,3. 1815. 
^205-78,4. 1826. ,f 165-231. 1831. ^163-61. 

Teachers of the Grammar School. 1650, Dec. 30th. 
Ezekiel Cheever, to Nov. 1660. 

1662, Aug. 1st. Thomas Andrews ; died 1683. 

1683. Noadiah Russel ; left February 18th, 1687, to 
preach at Middleton, Connecticut, where he was ordained. 

1702. Daniel Rogers, probably began after Mr. Russel 
left, and seems to have continued till 1716. 

1716, Feb. 16th. Ebenezer Gay, salary £56. 

1717, June 4th. Benjamin Crocker, £80 O. T., to 1726. 
Recommenced 1746, £120 O. T., to 1753, and again 1759 
to 1761. 

1726, May 29th. Henry Wise, to June 20th, 1728, £55. 

1729, June 20th. Thomas Norton, jr., to 1740. 

1740. Daniel Staniford, to March 1746. 

1753. John Dennis, left 1754 to preach at Charlestown 
New Hampshire. 

1755, May 6th. Samuel Wigglesworth, jr., of the Hamlet, 
to May 2d, 1259. 

1761, April 20th. Joseph How. Salary £33 6s. Sd. 

1762, May 17th. Daniel Noyes, £46 13s. Ad., to 1774, 
and May 24th, 1780, to 1781. 

1774, April 15th. Thomas Burnam 4th, £50, to 1779. 
1785, Nov. 28th, to 1792 and part of 1793. 1806, April 
11th, to 1818. 

17^79, April 5th. Nathaniel Dodge, to 1780, and a short 
time in 1785. 

1781, Oct. 18th. Jacob Kimball, to 1783. 

1783. Rev. John Treadwell, to 1785. 

1792, April. Daniel Dana, to 1793, £65. 

1793, Aug. 8th. Joseph Dana, to 1794. 

1794, July 24th. Joseph McKean, to 1796, £80. 
1796, May 3d. Samuel Dana, to 1800. 

1800, March 25th. Amos Choate, to 1806. 
English Free Schools. These have long been one of 
the highest hopes of our land. Without them the breath of 



EDUCATION. giy 

liberty would cease. They have been nurseries, where the 

chihlren of poverty have learned their mental power and 

prepared to enjoy the high stations of their free government 

Such schools deserve the fostering care of Stale Legislatures* 

They should never be left to the cruel mercies of town or 

distria free contributions. Even with all, that is now done 

to diffuse knowledge through our country, not a few towns 

could be pomted out, where larger boys have scarcely three 

months schoohng m a year. This, however, is owing in part 

to the subdivisions of the money so as to have a scliool for 

each principal neighbourhood. In this respect, convenience 

IS too often and too extensively indulged, at the expense of 

general improvement and the public welfare. 

1642, Nov. The town vote that there shall be a free 
school. 

1650. John Cross gives an annuity of 10s. for ever, out of 
his larm, and conditionally £100, for use of this school 

1664, March 15th. Voted to invite Mr. Andrews to come 
and instruct. 

1696 June 15th. As Nathaniel Rust, jr., taught at Che- 
bacco last summer, and they wish him to settle as their mas- 
ter, he IS granted a quarter of an acre of land to set his 
house on, and they are granted six acres for the use of their 
school. 

1702, July 9th. Chebacco is allowed to set a school-house 
on the common. 

1713 Oct. 13th. William Giddings is chosen schoolmaster 
by Chebacco Parish. 

1714, April 8th The town vote to have a children's 
school in the watch-house. 

ni9. The same place is occupied to teach readino-, 
writing, and cyphering. *' 

1730, Marcli 10th. The Hamlet vote to build a school- 
house m their centre. March 30th. The town vote £100 
to pay three schoolmasters, who are to teach readin- and 
oT%^V"/'"1' |°"th, Chebacco, and Hamlet parishes. 
Hamlet ' "" '" ''^'°'^" ^^ '"'^'"^^ ^^ ^^'^ 

1724, March 3d. William Stone, an aged man, who had 
taught some IS allowed to have a room in the alms-house to 
mstruct youth in reading and writing. 

1731, March. Leonard Cotton keeps school at Chebacco 



88 EDUCATION. 

1732, March 14th. Henry Spillar is allowed a room In 
the alms-house for teaching youth to read, write, and cypher. 
This was done because a vote had been passed, that no school 
should be kept in the town-house. 

1734. Henry Spillar, having served the town by keeping 
school, being past bodily labor, and having a helpless son over 
thirty, desires aid, and is granted £15. 

1740, March 4th. Voted £150, including school rents, for the 
use of a grammar, reading, and writing school, and that Che- 
bacco and Hamlet Parishes draw their part. This connecting 
of the school for the languages with one for English studies 
had been done previously. For a long period, the phrase, 
Grammar School, meant only a place to prepare youth in Latin 
and Greek for College. 

1741, March 11th. Mr. Samuel Langdon had recently 
kept school at the Hamlet. 

1742, Voted that £18 O. T. of school rents be allowed to 
Chebacco, the same to the Hamlet, and £28 to parts of the 
First Parish, which have no benefit from the Grammar School. 
18th. Each scholar is to pay 3d. a week in new-emission 
money. 

1756, March 11th. Voted that the reading and writing 
schoolmaster be employed three months and a half at Che- 
bacco, the same at the Hamlet, two in the West Parish, and 
three in the two town parishes. 

1757. The Hamlet vote that scholars find the wood 
and the master's board. This became a custom among them. 
It seemed to prolong the instruction of their children. It was 
public spirit worthy to be imitated. It lasted about twenty 
years. 

1761. Land is given to Chebacco for a school-house near 
Lime Kiln. £250 are raised for the schools. 

1768. The centre, west, and east parts of the Hamlet, 
draw their school money separately, so that they begin to 
have three schools instead of the one near the meeting-house. 

1769. £100 are voted for reading and writing schools. 

1771, Feb. 1 1th. Voted that Mr. John Dennis be the read- 
ing and writing master on the north of the river, at ten dollars 
a month. 

1773. £140 for reading and writing schools. 

1774, Feb. 8th. The commoners vote that all their income 



EDUCATION. 89 

of lands, clam-flats, and interest money, after charges are paid, 
be applied for the use of the schools in the different parishes, 
according to their Province tax. Such beneficence was con- 
tinued. 

1783. £140 for reading and writing schools. 1784. 
The town grant lands for a school house, beginning at the cor- 
ner of Joseph Fowler's lane. 

1785. For reading and writing schools, seven years from 
this, the cost was £160 annually. 

1794 to 1796, £230. 1797 to 1801, $166^. 1802, 
^900. 1810, ^1200. 1820, $1000 annually for such 
schools. 

1823, April 7th. As Wm. Burley, Esq., of Beverly, 
deceased, a native of Ipswich, had left by will, that fifty dol- 
lars of his estate should be paid annually for ten years, to this 
town for the instruction of poor children in reading and the 
principles of the Christian religion, the inhabitants pass a 
vote expressive of their respect for his memory. 

1833. $'1200 are raised for town schools. Besides this, 
several hundreds are paid each year for private schools. 

Rules. 1740. The selectmen are to visit the schools 
quarterly. 

1792. Voted, " that in both schools of the town parishes, 
the Catechism of the Assembly of Divines with Dr. 
Watts's explanatory notes, and the Catechisms by the same 
author, be constantly used as much as three or four times a 
week, according to the different grades of the scholars, until 
the same are committed to memory." This practice lasted 
till 1826. 

Report of Schools. 1811, March 12th. This is given 
of them all, except those of the North and the N. North 
districts, as follows. Southeast district, one hundred and 
six scholars ; at the Falls, one hundred and seven ; North, 
eighty-three ; (these three belonged to Chebacco ;) Southeast, 
fifty-eight ; Argilla, thirty ; Southwest, thirty-five ; South, 
forty-three ; Middle, seventy-three ; Line Brook, forty-six, — 
581. The studies were spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, 
and for a few, grammar. 

1833. There are eight hundred scholars from four to four- 
teen. Besides the preceding studies. Geography and History 
have been pursued in the schools by the larger pupils. 
12 



90 EDUCATION. 

Progress of Common Education. There is a marked 
difference between the means of learning now and those 
possessed by the first settlers of Ipswich. Though the 
greater part of them were noted for intelligence, yet, 
taken together, they fell far short of the attainments in 
knowledge, acquired by the same number in our day. Three 
quarters of a century back, a large part of the wills left by 
men, some of whom had considerable property, were signed 
with a cross. This remark was still more applicable to 
the wills of females, though some of them were wealthy 
and respectable. Such facts were not peculiar to the people 
of Ipswich. They existed in all sections of our country. Till 
about 1769, it was an unheard-of thing for girls to be instruct- 
ed here by a master. They learned to read and sew of school 
dames, and this was, for the most part, the height of their 
ambition. Since our Independence, education has quickened its 
previously slow progress. Writing, for forty years back, has been 
a much more general acquisition, than it had been for the same 
period before. Very seldom can young people now be found 
among us, who are obliged to make their mark. Arithmetic, 
though always attended to by some males, has been commonly 
learned by them within the last forty years. The same branch 
has been limitedly, though increasingly, studied by females for 
twenty years past. A quarter of a century back, grammar, and, 
fifteen years since, geography, began to be learned in some of 
our town schools. They have annually grown in favor with 
children and their parents. As our schools improve, so do the 
teachers employed in them. He, who could once astonish the 
village with the display of his " little learning," and pass for a 
Solomon-like instructor, would now be far excelled by many 
members of our lowest schools. Not only do our teachers 
advance in knowledge, but some of them follow their business 
conscientiously and understandingly ; and, while they cultivate 
the intellectual powers of their pupils, do not forget that they 
have souls, that they have moral affections to be improved. 
Let the guardians of this community exercise vigilance in the 
selection of well eduacted and well principled instructors ; let 
them be careful as to the advancement of scholars, and the 
increase of support for their schools, and Ipswich will still keep 
pace with her equals, and hold the reputable rank she has long 
sustained. 

BuRLEY Fund. 1825, May 25th. It is voted by the town. 



EDUCATION. 91 

that the trustees of the Burley Education Fund, have the care 
of this and all other sums given for a like purpose. 

1826, April 3d. Five trustees of this fund state, that they 
have been incorporated, and have received of Mr. Burley's 
executors five hundred dollars, and that they have invest- 
ed this money. Such a donation betokens feelings of attach- 
ment to the place of one's nativity, which we love to perceive 
wherever the trace of man is to be seen. It is a nucleus 
around which we should be glad to see much golden fruit 
gathering and enlarging. 

AcADEMV. This building is fifty-six feet long, thirty-five 
wide, and twenty-two high. It was erected by proprietors. 
Its cost was four thousand dollars, including land. Immedi- 
ately after its being finished, Rev. Hervey Wilbur occupied it, 
as instructor, from April, 1826, for one year. He was assisted 
by a preceptress. He was succeeded by James W. Ward, who 
continued from May, 1827, to March, 1828. 

Miss Zilpah P. Grant, assisted by Miss Mary Lyon, took 
the academy to educate young ladies, April 23d, 1828. 
The average numberof scholars, in 1833, was one hundred and 
forty-two. In some terms there have been nearly two hundred. 
There are eight assistant teachers. The board for each pupil, 
inclusive of washing, fuel, and lights, is one dollar and seventy- 
five cents, and the tuition ten dollars for the term of sixteen 
weeks. Young ladies, whose qualifications are sufficient, receive 
a diploma at the public exhibition, signed by Miss Grant and the 
Trustees. The advantages of physical, intellectual, moral, 
and religious education are enjoyed, in no common degree, at 
this seminary. The government here, though based on affec- 
tion, is both energetic and successful. Great pains are taken to 
have the scholars thorough in whatever studies they pursue. 
To this end private examinations are frequently held, to the 
high satisfaction of competent judges. The principal and her 
assistants have not labored in vain, nor spent their strength for 
naught. Benevolent and magnanimous in their views, motives, 
and exertions, they have had the satisfaction of perceiving 
many who have gone from under their tuition, moving in an 
extensive sphere of usefulness. The experiment triedin this 
Academy, is a fair indication of the advance, which females 
might make in knowledge, had they some institution, well 
accommodated with buildings, books, and apparatus. It is mat- 
ter of surprise, that no such place has been provided by 



92 HARVARD COLLEGE. 

the benevolent, where the talented poor and pious, as well as 
others, might have greater privileges of learning, than they 
now possess. While one college after another has been put 
in operation by charities of the beneficent, for the young men, 
which is as it should be, proportionable efforts have not been 
made for young women. Justice to these, as well as compli- 
ance with the improvements of the age, and with the necessi- 
ties of the church, require that such deficiency should be 
soon supplied. 

Sabbath Schools. Among the means of improving the 
young, and for rendering them useful in time and happy in 
eternity, these schools hold a prominent rank. One, of the 
First Parish, began in J 816, had one hundred scholars in 1827, 
two hundred in 1832, and three hundred and eighty-four vol- 
umes in 1833 ; of the South Parish, began in 1816, had sev- 
enty scholars in 1827, two hundred in 1832, and volumes four 
hundred and fifty ; of the Methodist society, began in 1826, 
had one hundred and thirty scholars in 1833, and three hun- 
dred and ninety volumes. 

Lyceum. This commenced in 1830, and lasted two years. 

Town Libraries. Ipswich Social Library contains three 
hundred volumes, and the Religious Library three hundred. 

Newspaper. The Ipswich Journal was commenced July, 
1827, by John H. Harris, and continued to Aug. 1828. 



HARVARD COLLEGE. 

1644. The Deputies and Elders of all towns, are desired 
to use their influence, so that every family allow one peck of 
corn, or 12d. for this University. 

1652. The General Court request, that for raising up 
suitable Rulers and Elders, a person in every town solicit 
subscriptions to aid charity scholars at Cambridge. 

1664. The rate of Ipswich for the College is £7 6s. Id., 
and the same next year. 

1677, May 23d. The General Court send a letter to this 
town, desiring them to subscribe for the new brick Building at 
the College, begun two years ago, but not finished during the 
war for want of money ; the old edifice being partly fallen 
down. 

1679. Subscriptions for this object are to be collected 
here. 



HARVARD COLLEGE. 



93 



1681. A committee are to gather up what was behind for 
the College. £19 155. in grain is put on board John Dutch's 
sloop, namely, seventy-eight bushels and a half of corn, and 
thirty-one and three quarters of malt, for Cambridge. 



Graduates of ipswich from 
harvard college. 
1642. 



1645. 
1649. 
1652. 
16.53. 
1656. 

1659. 



1660. 
1663. 

1665. 
1669. 

1671. 
1684. 
1685. 

1686. 

1687. 
1689. 
1693. 
1695. 
1699. 
1700. 
J 702. 
1703. 
1707. 

1709. 

1710. 
1711. 
17 J 2. 

1713. 
1717. 
1718. 
1720. 



Doct. Samuel Bellingham. 

Rev. Wni. Hubbard. 

Doct. James Ward. 

John Rogers, Pres. of H. C. 

Rev. Joseph Rovvlandson. 

Richard Hubbard, Esq. 

Robert Paine, preacher. 

Rev. John Emerson. 

Hon. Nathaniel Saltonstall. 

Ezekiel Rogers. 

Rev. Samuel Cheever. 

Rev. Samuel Belcher. 

VVm. VVliittingham. 

Samuel Cobbet. 

Samuel Symonds. 

Samuel Bishop. 

Samuel Eppes. ' 

Hon. Daniel Eppes. 

John Norton. 

Rev. John Rogers. 

Rev. John Dennison. 

John White. 

Francis Wainwright, Esq. 

Daniel Rogers, Esq. 

Rev. Nathaniel Rogers. 

Wm. Paine. 

Rev. John Wade. 

Doct. John Perkins. 

Rev. Francis Goodhue. 

Rev. Jeremiah Wise. 

Rev. Wm. Burnham. 

Rev. Benjamin Choate. 

Francis Wainwright, mer- 
chant. 

Col. John Wainwright. 

Daniel Ringe, merchant. 

John Dennison, lawyer. 

Rev. John Rogers. 

Rev. Nathaniel Appleton, 
D. D. 

Benj. Crocker, preacher. 

Henry Wise, merchant. 

Fran. Cogswell, merchant. 

Rev. Joseph Whipple. 



1721. Rev. Nathaniel Rogers. 
172.3. Rev. Josiah Dennis. 
1725. Doct. Joseph Manning. 

TJio's. Diamond, merchant. 

Rev. Daniel Rogers. 

Rev. Daniel Rogers. 

Doct. Samuel Rogers. 

Josiah Smith. 

Thomas Norton, lawyer. 
1728. Doct. Joseph Wise. 
J 730. Rev. John Dennis. 
1735. Re^ Aaron Smith. 

1737. Rev. Edward Cheever. 

1738. Edward Eveleth. 
Daniel Staniford, teacher. 

1742. John Wainwright, preach- 
er. 
Col. John Dennison. 
Andrew Burley, Esq. 

1744. John Annable, teacher. 

1745. Rev. Nehemiah Porter. 
1749. Rev. Ezekiel Dodge. 
1751. Doct. Samuel Eppes. 
17.52. Doct. Sam. Wigglesworth. 
1758. Joseph How, teacher. 

Rev. John Treadwell. 
1761. Col. Edward Wiggles- 
worth. 

Adam Porter. 
1763. Rev. Samuel Perley. 
1766. Ebenezer Potter, teacher. 
1768. Rev. Joseph Cummings. 
1772. Dan. Staniford, preacher. 

Doct. Samuel Smith. 

Thomas Burnam, teacher. 
1774. Doct. Josiah Smith. 

1777. Nathaniel Dodge. 

1778. Nathan Dane, LL. D. 
1782. Nathaniel Rogers, teacher. 
1784. George Stacey. 

1786. Dudley Hubbard, lawyer. 
Porter Lummus, lawyer. 
Rev. Nathaniel Howe. 

1787. Ephraim Kendall. 

1788. Rev. Oliver Dodge. 
Doct. John D. Treadwell. 



94 



MANUFACTURES. 



1790. Rev. David Smith. 

Daniel Staniford, teacher. - 

1794. Rev. Joseph McKean. 
Joseph Perkins, lawyer. 

1795. Amos Choale, Register of 

Deeds. 
John Heard, lawyer. 

1796. Rev. Samuel Dana. 
1796. Jona. Ingersoll, teacher. 

JNathaniel Lord, Reg. of 
Probate. 

1802. Levi Frisbie, Professor. 

180fi. Jo. G. Cogswell, Professor. 

1810. John Dudley Andrews, 
lawyer. 
Rev. Edward Andrews, 
Joseph Swasey Farley. 

1812. Geo. W. Heard, merchant. 

1818. Doct. Geo. Choate. 

1825. Nathaniel J. Lord, lawyer. 

1828. Joseph Hale. 



FROM DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 

1788. Joseph Dana, Professor. 
Rev. Daniel Dana, D D. 
1791. Rev. Nathan Bradstreet. 
1793. Mark Newman, book-sel- 
ler. 
1799. Rufus Choate, lawyer. 

FROM BROWN UNIVERSITY. 

1772. Rev. Joseph Appleton. 

1776. Rev. Ehenezer Dutch. 

1777. Francis Quarles, preacher. 

FROM BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

1813. Nathan D. Appleton, law- 
yer. 

1831. John Patch. 

FROM AMHERST COLLEGE. 

1832. Otis P. Lord. 



There is a considerable number more, who graduated from 
Harvard College before 1725, and who are supposed to have 
belonged to Ipswich. But as we have no positive proof of 
this, they have been omitted. No doubt, as the preceding 
members of various classes took their first degree, different 
expectations were indulged as to their course and reputation. 
Their life, as well as that of scholars in general, has shown, 
that the anticipations in reference to them, while young, have 
not been altogether reahzed. While the promise, whether 
large or small, given by some in their outset, has been more than 
redeemed, it has not been so with others. In all such experi- 
ence, one truth is evident, that no talents will elevate to true 
greatness without steady and virtuous effort. 



MANUFACTURES. 

In proportion as these flourish in any place, so does its pros- 
perity abound. They are arts essential to the comfort of society 
and should never be frowned on so long as they are useful. 
The too prevalent inclination to hold them in low repute is 
erroneous, and calculated to keep them from the advancement 
which they should make, and from being so profitable as they 
might be. We are told of a young Roman, who was made by his 



MANUFACTURES. 95 

enemies to take a seat which they considered a degraded one, 
and who said, " It is not the seat which honors the man, but the 
man the seat." So with any honest occupation. It is not the 
trade which dignifies the mechanic, but he, if worthy, who 
dignifies his trade. It is very probable that some of the fol- 
lowing trades were practised here before the time of their being 
seen on record, and that part of them were more extensively 
carried on than appears from the list. 

Grist-Milh. 1635. R. Saltonstall has leave to set up a 
mill, with the right, if the town shall need another, to erect 
it, if he choose. 

1636. Toll at mills was one sixteenth of the grain, which 
still continues to be so. 

1687. Nehemiah Jewett is allowed to have a mill on the 
south side of Egypt River. 

1692. Thomas Boreman has leave for one on Labor-in- 
vain Creek. 

1693. John Burnam, jr., has liberty to set a mill on Che- 
bacco River, at the launching-place. 

1695. John and Francis Wainwright are to have one near 
Joseph Clarke's house. 

1696. Edmund and Anthony Potter and Abraham Til- 
ton, jr., have permission to set a mill on Mile Brook, near the 
house of John Potter. 

1697. John Adams, sen. and jr., and Michael Farley, have 
leave for one. 

1715. Robert Calef is allowed to have another at the Falls 
in Ipswich River. 

1833. There are three runs of stone in two different 
buildings, for grist-mills. 

Saw-Mills. 1656. Voted that there be a saw-mill on 
Chebacco River, and liberty to cut timber, if one-fifteenth of 
what is sawed there be allowed to the town, and that no lim- 
ber be cut within three miles and a half of the meeting- 
house, and the inhabitants be charged no more than four per 
cent. 

1665. Jonathan Wade is to have one on the same river. 

1667. Thomas Burnam has a like privilege, near the 
Falls, so as not to injure Mr. Wade's. 

1671. Wm. Story has permission to have a mill on Che- 
bacco River. 

1682. Jonathan Wade is granted a site there at the Falls. 



96 MANUFACTURES. 

1687. John, son of Thomas Burnam, has leave to move 
his mill on Chebacco River, so that it may be near G. Story's. 

1833. There are two saw-inills in Ipswich. 

Ful!inQ--Mills. 1675. John Whipple is to have one at 
the SmalT Falls. 

1677. Richard Shatswell is allowed to have one. But as 
he did not comply with the conditions of his grant, he is de- 
sired, 1681, to take away his dam. 

1687. Nicholas Wallis has leave for a mill. 

1692. Joseph Calef has a similar grant. 

1693. He, and Thomas and Andrew Potter, are allowed to 
place one on Mile Brook. 

1697. John Adams, sen. and jr., and Michael Farley, are 
to have another. 

1833. There is one fulling and carding mill in town. — 
The business of it is much less than formerly. 

Clothier. 1727. Samuel Slacey, for accommodating him 
to carry on the clothier's trade, is granted land for a house, 
fronting Mr. Farley's. 

Hemp-MUl. 1657. Richard Shatswell has leave to set 
up a mill at the Falls, for the breaking of hemp. 

Wind-Mill. 1677. A mill of this kind, is mentioned, as 
having previously existed. It was on the hill which bears its 
name. 

BasTiet-Maker. 1639. Six acres of land are granted to 
Thomas Bridan " to plant osiers." 

Tanneries. 1634. Nicholas Easton, a tanner. 

1641. Thomas Clarke has leave to set down two tan-vats 
by the river. 

1734. Thomas Brown had begun a tan-yard at the west 
end of the town, for one of his sons. 

1832. About 10,000 hides are tanned, which bring 25,250 
dollars ; sold in Essex county ; employ ten men at one 
dollar and twenty cents a day each, and consume ninety cords 
of bark. 

1833. There are three tanneries. 
Curriers. 1638. Nathaniel Bishop. 

1665. Henry Keerse has liberty to settle here and work 
at his trade, as a currier. 

heather-Dressers and Wool-Fullers. 1833. Two Estab- 
lishments. 

Malt-worfcs. As the making of malt was an extensive 



MANUFACTURES. 97 

business at Ipswich, England, it would be expected, that some 
of its inhabitants who emigrated hither, would enga<^e in such 
employment. 

1641, Dec. "Mr. Appleton hath liberty to have a malt- 
house ready by 1st of April next, and to malt such corne as 
shall be brought to him from the people of this town, at such 
rates as shall be thought equal for him to have. And no man 
(except for himself) is to have made any of old wheat for the 
space of five years." 

1670. Voted that walnut wood may be felled for the malt 
kilns, so as to dry malt for this year as formerly. 

1696. As John Low had done making malt, James Bur- 
nam is allowed to have a malt-house near the old gravel-pit. In 
the preceding works oat-meal was prepared in large quantities. 
As beer became superseded by cider and ardent spirits, such 
works had less employment, and finally ceased after long ser- 
vice. 

Brewery. 1663. John Paine is allowed to set up a brew- 
house and warehouse, by the water side near John Layton's 
house. The last brewery in this town, which had been in 
operation several years, ceased in 1800. 

Saltpetre. 1642. As there is great danger from for- 
eign foes, each town is to have a house for making saltpetre. 
Edmund Gardner is appointed to see that this order is com- 
plied with in Ipswich. 

1666. Richard Woody of Boston, and Henry Russel of 
Ipswich, had been preparing to make saltpetre, for which they 
are empowered to take materials and to have carts pressed 
by paying damages. 

1667. Four persons are designated to see, that every fam- 
ily comply with the order of the General Court for making 
this article. 

1776. Line Brook parish vote, that Daniel Chapman, of 
Boxford, shall have the dirt under their meeting-house, to 
make saltpetre. This was considerably manufactured at the 
Hamlet in the first of the Revolution. It was made on the 
farm of President Holyoke's last wife. When waited on to 
know if she would consent, that her oak wood should be cut 
down to help make it, she earnestly replied, " It is for liberty, 
take as much of the wood as you want." Saltpetre then 
brought 7s. Qd. per lb. at first, but fell to 35. 
13 



98 MANUFACTURES. 

SaU-Worlcs. 1652. "Granted Moses Pengry a parcel 
of land by the warehouse, below Obadiah Wood's fence, to 
set up his salt pans and works, and fence in his wood ; also, 
liberty to fell wood out of the swamp near the town for his 
use." 

1769. The town vote £8 to assist James Hudson to carry 
on the salt-works which he has lately erected. 

1777. Rev. N. Whitaker, of Salem, was granted, by the 
proprietors, a piece of marsh on Jeffrey's Neck, for salt-works. 
He did not set them up. 

1830. Such works are begun by a company on Plumb 
Island. A creek is closed up to supply salt water. Vats are 
made in the ground without any covering. The water is 
raised by wind-mills, twenty or thirty feet and let fall through 
a quantity of brush wood, into the vats. The plan was unsuit- 
ed to a climate like ours, and totally failed. Much consequent 
loss was sustained. 

Rope-Mnker. 1648. Simon Thompson. 

Sail-Maker. 1833. One. 

Coopers. 1639. Samuel Boreman. 

1649. " Ordered that no person shall transport out of 
town, staves or casks made of white-oak, taken off from the 
Cornmon.'^ 

1672. Shoreborn Wilson. 

1833. Three. 

Gunsmiths. 1635. Wm. Fuller. 

1685. Voted " that Thomas Manning, gunsmith, of Salem, 
may be an inhabitant, and carry on his trade. 

Carpenters. 1633. Thomas Hawlett. 

1658. Walter Roper. 

1661. Wm. Wildes and Ezekiel Woodward and others. 
Ipswich has been noted for its many and skilful carpenters. 

1833. Twenty-six. 

JfTieehvrights. 1638. Richard Kimball, jr. 

1685. "^Granted land on Rock Hill to Thomas Fuller for 
a shop to make wheels." 

1833. Four. 

Hatters. 1692. Samuel Wood. 

1833. Three. 

Glovers. 1690. Nathaniel Rust. 

1778. John Chapman, succeeded by his apprentices, 
P. Rust and B. Averill. 



MANUFACTURES. 99 

Cordwainers. 1664. Wm. Buckley. 

1831. 17,000 pair of shoes made annually, — $15,640, 
— einjDloying one hundred and eighty-one hands. 3,200 pair 
of boots, — ,^9,600, — occupying twelve workmen. 

1833. Fourteen permanent boot and shoe makers, who 
hire a considerable number as journeymen. 

Glazier. 1664. John Brown, jr. 

1833. Painters and glaziers, iour. 

Tailors. 1647. John Annable. 

1678. Thomas Clark. 

1833. Two men tailors, besides females. 

Weavers. 1647. John Dennison. 

1678. Thomas Lull. 

JBalcers. 1638. Thomas Emerson. 

1833. One male baker. 

Stniths. 1667. "Granted the two smiths liberty to fell 
wood for coaling, three miles off from the town." 

1682. All smiths in town have leave to cut down pine 
trees at Castle Neck to make coals. 

1833. Seven. 

Tin-Malcers. 1833. Two. 

Soajp-Makers. 1678. Granted Nathaniel Brown ten rods 
of land for a building to make ashes and soap. 

1833. One soap and candle maker. 

Brick-Yards. 1683. Thomas Day had one. 

1687. Andrew Burley is granted land for another at Jef- 
frey's Neck. 

Maso7is. 1833. Three. 

Lime. 1770. This article had long been made in several parts 
of the town from clam-shells. Cart-loads of these shells w'ere 
brought from the shores where they were left after the bait 
was taken out. Then they were put into kilns, at the bottom 
of which were apertures. Layers of wood and shells were 
alternately placed in the kiln. When the former was fired 
and consumed, the latter were left, as a powder, which was 
run through a sieve. After stone lime came into use, that of 
shells was dispensed with. 

Ship-buildi7ig. 1668, March 19th. "One acre of ground 
near Mr. Cogswell's farm is granted to inhabitants of Ipswich, 
for a yard to build vessels, for the use of the inhabitants, 
and to employ workmen for that end." This land was in 
Chebacco. 



100 MANUFACTURES. 

1676. Edward Randolph, in writing home to England, 
mentions this town as a place for ship-building. 

1734, March 20th. Thomas Lord is granted land near 
Wm. Hunt's, on the south side of the river for a ship-yard. 
There is a tradition that the first square-sterned vessel built in 
Ipswich, was at Treadwell's Island, one hundred and fifty 
years since. 

1833. There is one ship-yard. 

Corn-stalk Molasses. 1776. As West India molasses 
was very scarce on account of the war, several persons eiect 
mills to grind corn-stalks. The juice of these was boiled down 
till it came to the consistence of molasses. Thus pi'epared, it 
had a tartish taste. It was better for puddings, than for any other 
culinary use. 

1778. A load of it is carried from the Hamlet to a Salem dis- 
tillery, where it yields nearly as much spirit as the same quan- 
tity of foreign molasses. Such a substitute for sweetening lasted 
till the close of the war. It was common in various parts of New 
England, and was an object of satire in one of the English songs. 

Distillery. This was set up for distilling rum from molasses, 
about 1750, and ceased operation in 1830. 

Clothing. 1641. Heads of families are required to employ 
their children and servants in manufacturing wild hemp, plen- 
tiful all over the country. 

1645. As woollen clothes are scarce, each town is ordered 
to increase its sheep. 

1654. As a similar scarcity existed, no sheep are to be 
transported, and none killed under two years old. 

1656. The Selectmen are to divide their towns into class- 
es of five, six, and ten, and appoint a class-leader, for the 
purpose of spinning. They are to assess each family a quarter, 
half, or whole spinner, according to its other occupation. Each 
family, which can furnish one spinner, shall spin for thirty 
weeks in a year, three lbs. of linen, cotton, and woollen, 
(monthly,) and so proportionably, for a half or quarter spinner, 
on fine of \2d. a month for each pound short. The Commons 
are to be cleared for sheep. The seed of hemp and flax is to 
be saved. 

1792, March 13th. The town vote that Doct. John Man- 
ning have land for building a woollen manufactory. While 
this was erecting, some workmen designed for it were employ- 
ed in the old county house. 



MANUFACTURES. 101 

1794. Doct. Manning has an additional grant for the same 
object. This year the I'actory went into operation, and ceas- 
ed in ISOO. Coarse clothes and blankets were made here. 
They afforded but little, if any profit. 

Cotton Factory. 1827, June 19th. Joseph Farley has 
leave to fill up the town way, as a watering-place, between 
the lace factory and his saw-mill, because he is about to erect 
a new dam and a manufactory where his saw-mill is. This 
manufactory was erected of stone, in 1828 and 1829. It is 
owned by a company of Ipswich. It commenced operations 
in 1830. In 1832 it had 3000 spindles and sixty looms. It 
spun No. 30 to 32 yarn, used 80,000 lbs. of cotton, made 
450,000 yards of cloth annually, worth from nine and a half 
to ten cents. It employs on an average eighteen males and 
sixty-three females. 

JMochinists. 1833. Five, besides those in the cotton factory. 

Cabinet-ware. 1832. There were eight shops, employ- 
ing eighteen hands, who made 422 bureaus, — ^'5,064, — in 
a year. Besides the time spent in making these articles, one- 
third more was taken up in custom work, on tables, chairs, and 
other furniture. 

Harness-Makers. 1833. Two. 

Lace. This, of thread and silk, was made in large quan- 
tities and for a long period, by girls and women. It was 
formed on a lap-pillow, which had a piece of parchment round 
it with the particular figure, represented by pins stuck up 
straight, around which the work was done and the lace 
wrought. Black as well as white lace was thus manufactured 
of various widths, qualities, and prices. The females of almost 
every family would pass their leisure hours in such employment. 

1790. No less than 41,979 yards were made here annually. 
After the first lace factory commenced, the pillows and bobbins 
were soon laid aside. What of these survive a century hence, 
will be viewed as curious emblems of industry, and memen- 
tos of labor performed in months, which is now done by a fac- 
tory in one day. 

Boston and Ipswich Lace Factory. This was incorporated 
in 1824, with a capital of ^'150,000. It became unprofit- 
able, and closed in 1828. 

Neiv England Lace Factory, This was incorporated in 
1827, with a capital of ^'50,000. Not yielding sufficient 
encouragement, it was mostly stopped in 1833. 



102 TRADE. 



TRADE. 



In this, as in every calling, honesty is the best policy. 
They who make haste to be rich by unjust dealing, generally 
lose their reputation and die poor. It is far better for peace 
of conscience and durable estimation, to have one penny of 
honest gain, than one pound of fraudulent profit. 

1640. As trade and commerce are embarrassed for want 
of money, no persons are to be compelled to pay future debts 
in cash, but in corn, cattle, fish, and other articles. 

1641. The town have a committee for furthering trade 
among them. Ipswich is allowed to have one member of a 
company to traffic with the Indians for beaver and wampum. 

1645. Several inhabitants here and elsewhere, petition 
to be a " company of adventurers," that whatever trade they 
may discover, shall be for their sole advantage twenty years ; 
that they may have letters, with the public seal, to the French 
and others ; have a caravan advanced up the country as far as 
they wish ; have no trading-house within twenty miles of 
theirs, and locate their establishment fifty miles from every 
English plantation. This petition was granted so far as not 
to infringe on a previous one. 

1648, May 10th. As grain is scarce, no wheat, rye, bar- 
ley and corn are to be transported to foreign parts before 
12th of 6th month, except corn brought in as merchandise. 

1654. No malt is to be imported. 

1655. A committee is appointed for Essex county to 
devise means for obtaining supplies for the inhabitants. 

1678. The town choose a committee to promote trade. 

1693. Leave is granted to twenty-three inhabitants to 
build shops on the bank of the river, from the bridge to Samuel 
Ardway's shop. 

1706, Aug. 18th. Trade much decayed. The same was 
said of it before and during the Revolutionary contest. 

1808, Aug. 18th. Trade suffers much from the embargo. 
1833. It is flourishing. There are eight shops and thirteen 
stores. The coasting business began here about 1768. Then 
a company of sixteen persons had a sloop of seventy tons built 
and called the Friendship. They sent goods in this vessel 
to Maine, and received in exchange lumber and wood. — 
Then the last article cost there from 2s. to 35. a cord, and 



EXCISE. INTEREST 5I0NEY. WAGES. 103 

was sold in Salem and Boston for 8s. or 9s. Previously to 
the formation of said company, lumber and wood were brought 
in occasionally from Wells, and also rafts of the former article 
came hither from Merrimack River. 



EXCISE. 



So far as this is laid in the form of a penalty, to prevent 
immoral indulgences, or otherwise in a proper manner, to 
meet the expenses of government, it should not be eluded by 
deceptive arts, but be willingly paid. 

1668. Each hogshead of cider, ale, and beer is assessed 
2s. 6d., and each hogshead of mum sold in licensed houses 5s. 

1726. Every gallon of distilled liquors and wine, at retail, 
8d. 

1755. Each family, who use wine or rum and arrack, 
pay 6d. a gallon on the first, and 4d. on the two last. 

1794. By act of Congress duties are laid on carriages. 
They ended 1802. The same are enacted 1813, and closed 
1817. 

1798. Stamp duties on notes of hand and other business 
papers. They ceased 1803. 1813. The same were revived, 
and repealed 1817. 



INTEREST MONEY. 

As yet, such is the wholesome check of public opinion, that 
comparatively few, who are more covetous than careful of their 
character, more set upon worldly possessions than upon the 
welfare of their souls, will consent to take greater interest in 
cases of common risk, than the law permits. 1643. None are 
allowed to have higher than eight per cent. 1693. Six be- 
comes the legal rate, and has continued. 



WAGES. 



These should be just. They should never be withheld 
from the poor, so that they shall be forced to run in debt, and 



104. CURRENCY. 

thus pay dearer for their supplies. Whoever takes advantage 
of their necessities, shows a disposition most unhke that of his 
Maker, most abhorrent in his sight. 

1641. As money is scarce, and cattle, corn, and other things 
fallen, workmen are to have less wages and to receive pay in 
produce. 

1663. For laying a thousand shingles 7*. 6cl. are allowed. 

1672. As they demand wine or liquors over their wages, 
and many refuse to labor without, which " tends much to the 
rooting of young persons in an evil practice, and by degrees to 
train them up to a habit of excess," any person who allows men 
and boys wine or strong liquors, except in cases of necessity, 
shall pay 20s. 

1675. Each individual is to have Is. 6cl. a day for helping 
to get in the corn of those who are in the public service. 



CURRENCY. 

For twenty years our fathers obtained their supplies mostly 
in the way of barter. During this period they had no silver 
or gold money, except what came from abroad, and long after 
it they had none of paper. When paper currency began to be 
popular, it met with strenuous opposition from the Crown. It 
is yet to be seen whether the introduction of bills, as a sub- 
stitute, in the great degree they now are, for specie, into our 
country, will be a greater blessing than a curse. 

1635. Musket bullets begin to pass for an equal number 
of farthings. 

1637. Wampum is to be current, six for Id. 1640. It 
begins to pass, four white for Id., two blue for the same. 

1642. Each rial of eight, 4s. 8c?. 

1650. Wampum, eight white for Id., four black or blue 
for this sum, " if without break or deforming spots." 

1652, May 26th. To prevent deception in money, the 
General Court order, that, after September, none of it shall be 
current, except the receiver consent, unless it be 3d., 6d. and 
12d. pieces, coined at the mint-house in Boston. The first of 
these pieces had N. E. on one side, and III, VI, XII, according 
to their value, on the other. This making of money independ- 
ently of England and while there was an interregnum, was 



CURRENCY. ] 05 

afterwards visited with the Royal displeasure. It was continued 
till after 1667. 

1652, Oct. 19th. To prevent the washing and clipping 
of coins, each of them is to have a double ring, a central tree, 
and " Masatvsets " on one side, and " New England, Amer- 
ica," surrounding the year of its being made, on the other. 

1654. Robert Lord is appointed searcher of coin at Ips- 
wich. This referred to a late law, forbidding any specie to 
be exported, except for necessary expenses. 

1786, Oct. 17th. Massachusetts Legislature vote to have a 
mint for issuing copper, silver, and gold money. They gave up 
the right of coining when the Constitution was adopted, 1789. 
Their cents, having an Indian with a bow and arrow, are seldom 
seen. 

1793. The present copper coin of the United States, and, 
1794, their silver and gold coins, began to be current. 

Paper Money. 1690, Dec. 10th. The General Court 
raise a committee to issue bills of credit. This was to pay 
the forces engaged in the Canada expedition. 

1691. Colony bills are limited to £40,000. 

1702. £10,000, from 2s. to £5 are issued to pay soldiers. 
1702, £133,-1713, £150,-1716, £175, in bills, equal 
to £100 in specie. 

1721. £50,000 are emitted. 

1722. £500 worth of 1^/., 2d. and 3^. bills are to be struck 
off, for small change. The Id. to be round, the 2d. square, 
and 3^/. angular. 1722, £270,-1723, £340,-1730, 
£380, equal to £100 in specie. 

1723. Dec. 15th. Before this there had been £100,000 
loan by government. 

1733. £75,500 are voted to pay public debts. 

1737. £20,000 of new tenor are emitted to exchange for 
old bills at the rate of one new for three old. 

1740. The Governor states, that Massachusetts had issued 
in 1714, 1716, 1720, and 1727, £260,000; that £60,000 
or £70,000 were yet unredeemed. 

1750. £3000 worth of Id., 3d., A\d., Qd., 9d. and 13d. 
bills are to be emitted. 

1775, July 27th. The Provincial Congress order £100,000 
to be issued from Is. to 40s. 

1781. Paper money so depreciated that seventy-five dol- 
lars of it go for one of silver. 
14 



106 LAND BANK. MONOPOLIES. VALUATION, fec. 

1782, March 20th. By a resolve of the General Court, the 
inhabitants of this and every other town, are required to famish 
an account of their old emission bills and forward it to the 
Secretary of State. Oct. 21st. There were .f 30,000,000 
of such money fallen upon the hands of the Massachusetts 
people. The General Court ask redress of Congress. 

1790, Nov. 8th. The treasiu-er of Ipswich is empowered 
to sell the old and new emission bills for the most they will 
bring, the price thereof to go towards lessening their debt. 

1797, March 14th. The Town Records begin to compute 
money in dollars and cents, instead of the long-standing method 
of pounds, shillings, and pence. To see this ancient custom 
thus put out of the way, was not pleasant to aged persons, 
whose business associations with it had long and strongly been 
formed. 



LAND BANK. 



There were eight stockholders in this bank, belonging to 
Ipswich, 1763. 



MONOPOLIES. 



1777, April 17th. This town vote to observe a recent law of 
the General Court, forbidding monopolies, and to prosecute its 
transgressors. They instruct the Selectmen not to approbate any 
innholder or retailer, who will not comply with the Price Act. 



VALUATION. 

1831. The property of Ipswich is handed in by its asses- 
sors to the State, at ^505,995 and is doomed ^577,142. 



TAXES. 



Taxes. These, pertaining to the town, county, and state, 
are so light, compared w'ith what are paid in most other parts 



TAXES. 107 

of the world, and are so accompanied with great benefits, they 
should not'be, when fairly assessed, railed against, as intolerable 
burdens. "1662. T. £65 '3s. 4d. 1678. T. and C. £265 
3s. 5c?, 1722. T. £237 Is., — sometimes paid one third, 
and at others half, in money, and the rest in produce, — C. £20 
175. Sd. 1733. T. £320 and C. £50. 

The following are town taxes. 1767. £311 3s. 8d., and 
for high-ways £350. 17S0. £21,500, and high-ways £9000, 
in depreciated bills. 1795. £850, and high-ways £300. 
1820. t '^500, and high-ways $1400. 1832. $3000, and 
1833, $2000. 

Colony Taxes. These will be placed first and then 
followed by what Ipswich was assessed. 

1633. Of £400, £8. -1634. Of £600, £50. Salem 
is taxed only £45, which shows, that Ipswich had increased 
fast in population and property. 1645. Of £616 15s,, £61. 
This is to be paid half in cattle and half in money. 

1650. As usual in all towns, the constable goes to Boston 
and pays the country tax to the Colony Treasurer. 

1675. Of £1547 5s. 5d., £70. This year, Ipswich paid 
the fourth highest tax. 

1677. The Selectmen of each town are empowered to 
rate by " will and doom" persons of estate, whose property is 
out of the reach of the law. Three rates are laid this year, 
two of them to be discharged by money and one by " country 
pay," or produce. If this be paid in money, one third is to be 
discounted. 

The colony or province rates of Ipswich will now be men- 
tioned alone. 

1682. £209 12s. 6d., one third in money, the rest in pro- 
duce. 

16S4. The Colony Treasurer complains, that much of the 
grain paid for taxes in distant towns, is lost on its way to 
Charlestown and Boston. He is to receive Is. on '£l, "he 
standing the loss of measure and charge of warehouse room." 

1689. £332 Is. 6d. in pay, one half discounted for cash, 
and £178 5s. lOd. in money. 

1691. £1713 19s. 6d., — large because of war expenses. 
They who pay their rates in produce must be at the expense 
of its transportation to Boston. 

1727. Ipswich is assessed £26 Os. Id. on every £1000 of 
Province tax, and stands next to Salem, in Essex county. 



108 FISHERY. 

1743. £27 125.5^/. 1751. £22 9s. 6rf. on £1000. 

1775, Feb. 27th. The town vote, that all the collectors, 
having Province money for 1773, shall pay it to Michael 
Farley, and he pay it to Henry Gardner, Receiver-General. 

Sta.te and County Taxes. The proportion of this town's 
tax of ,f 75,000 for the State, 1823, is ^243-75. County tax 
for 1830, l|705 ; for 1S33, $385-45. 



FISHERY. 

This business, requiring but little capital, and bringing in 
much profit, has long been considered as a source of wealth to 
New England. 

Wears. 1635. Richard Kent is allowed to build another 
wear on Chebacco River and enjoy the profits. John Perkins, jr., 
had made a wear on the same river, to have the profits of 
it seven years, beginning 1636, and to sell alewives at 5s. for 
1000. He disposes of this place to Mr. Wm. Cogswell. 

1674. Nathaniel Rust and Samuel Hunt are permitted to 
set up a wear about the Falls, if it do not hinder the mill nor 
passage thereto. The form of a wear was as follows. Stone 
walls were built down the stream, till they came in contact at 
an agle of forty-five degrees. At this angle a cage was placed, 
composed of hoops with twigs fastened to them. The walls 
conducted the fish down to the cage, and thus they were taken 
in great numbers. 

Cod and other Fishery. 1641. The town raise a 
committee to " dispose of the Little Neck for the advancing 
of the Fishery." The fishermen have leave to enclose this 
Neck, where a fishing stage is. Every boat that comes there, 
shall have room to make its fish, and its crew have liberty to 
plant an acre of ground. 

* 1648. Among the fishing vessels of Ipswich, four had 
spent the summer at " Monhiggan." 

f 1670. Fishermen are allowed to take wood from the 
common for needed buildings and fuel. Each boat's crew 
have leave to feed one cow on the connnon. 

1696. Lots are to be laid out at Jeffrey's Neck for flake- 
room and stages. 

* Hubbard. t T. R. 



FISHERY. 109 

1706, Dec. lOtb. John Higginson of Salem writes to Sy- 
inond Epes, of Ipswich. "I hear a rumour of several whales, 
that are gotten. 1 desire you to send me word how much we 
are concerned in them, and what prospect of a voyage. When 
they have done, I desire you would take care to secure the 
boats and utensils belonging to them." 

1707, Sept. 22d. Mr. Higginson writes again about whale- 
boats and crews at Ipswich, and remarks, " We should be in 
readiness for the noble sport." Hence it appears that the 
whale-fishery was engaged in here upon a small scale. 

* 1715. A committee of the proprietors meet at Jeffrey's 
Neck and confirm to the owners of thirteen fishing boats the 
use of the room occupied by these boats. 

f 1723. Flats are granted to set a house on to accommo- 
date the fishery. 

1730. The town vote, that owners of fishing vessels shall 
give an account of the crews, to the Clerk, on penalty of 20s. 
for every person's name omitted. 

1747. A passage had been made through two mill-dams 
for alewives. 

J 1758. The fishery had declined one half in Massachu- 
setts. Only six fishing schooners now belong to Ipswich. 

II 1782, Jan. 1st. The town vote that their Representa- 
tives endeavour to have an application made to Congress, so 
that they instruct their Commissioners for peace, to have the 
right of the United States to the fishery, an indispensable 
article of the treaty. 

1S04. The fishery of shad and alewives in Mile River is 
to be regulated. 

1825. The privilege of catching shad and alewives in 
Ipswich River is let. This privilege is one dollar a barrel. 
There are 350 barrels of alewives caught annually on an 
average. They are disposed of for the West India market. 

Clams. <§> 1763. The commoners forbid any more clams 
to be dug, than are necessary for the use of people in town, and 
of fishing vessels. They allow one barrel for each of a crew 
to the banks, and in proportion for boats in the bay. 

1771. Owners of vessels are to pay 6d. a barrel. The 
poor may dig and sell clams out of town for 25. a barrel. 



■ Jeffrey's Neck R. t T. R. t Douglass. i| T. R. 

§ Commoners' R. 



110 COMMERCE. 

1789. The town vote to have the clam-flats, as well as 
sand-banks which had been given them by the commoners, 
let out, the clams at Is, a barrel. There are 1000 barrels of 
clams dug in Ipswich annually. They are sold in Boston and 
other places, for bait, from ^5 to ^'6 a barrel. 



COMMERCE. 

This has generally thriven and greatly increased the wealth 
of communities, favored with a good haven. But Ipswich, not 
being so accommodated has never had much shipping, nor 
much trade with foreign ports. Its main dependence for the 
support and occupation of its inhabitants, has been iis soil. 

Wharves. 1641. Wm. Paine is allowed to build one for a 
warehouse. 

1660. Daniel Hovey another 

1662. Thomas Clark and Robert Peirce are to have a 
wharf. 

1668. Francis and John Wainwright one. 

1632. Simon Stacey another. 

1685. Samuel Hunt has leave for a wharf. 

1686. Andrew Sergeant has the same liberty. 

1687. One to be at the upper end of the cove. 

1693. Wm. Hay ward and Joseph Fuller are allowed to 
erect a wharf. 

1722. Another is to be at Hunt's Cove, for landing hay. 

1726. The request of several persons for a wharf to land 
such articles as hay and wood, is granted. 

1730. Ammi II. Wise is allowed to have one for his vessels. 
Wm. Urann has a similar grant. 

1732. Joseph Manning is allowed to erect a wharf. The 
town agree to have one at their expense, as a landing-place at 
6d. a load. 

1750. Daniel and Thomas Staniford are granted land at 
Crope's Neck for a wharf and warehouse. 

1756. Wm. Dodge is allowed to build one. 

1764. Nathaniel Farley and others are to have another on 
Little Neck. 

1818. Geo. W. Heard is granted land for a wharf and a 
convenient way to it. 

1831. The superficial feet of wharf are 2400. 



TAVERNS. Ill 

Other Commercial Concerns. * 1673. Some seamen 
are to have firewood free of expense from the comnions. 

f 1683. Ipswich is annexed with other towns, to Salem, as 
a port to load and unload. 

J 1775, Dec. 4th. The town determine to fit out two 
vessels, for procuring a supply of grain, at their own risk, and 
give leave to any persons to adventure with them, on the fol- 
lowing terms : The freighters shall pay one third of the corn and 
rye, and one quarter of the wheat, which may be brought back. 

1777, Jan. 21st. The town vote to pay for the vessel that 
was lost at Virginia, 1776. Tiiis vessel was undoubtedly one 
of the two preceding. 

II Tonnage enrolled and registered at Ipswich Custom-House, 
is as follows : 1797, thirteen vessels, 450 tons ; 1S07, twen- 
ty-three, 1362 ; 1817, twelve, 1740 ; 1827, twenty-five, 
3273 ; 1S32, twenty-three, 2619. 

Light-House. — Landmarks. 1771, March 12th. The 
town vote, that a committee petition the General Court for 
a light-house on some part of Gloucester. 

<§) 1772, Aug. 20th. The commoners grant £20 to Wm. 
Dodge and others " to erect suitable landmarks for the ben- 
efit of vessels bound in and out." 



TAVERNS. 

These, when well kept, are the home of the traveller. 
But when they are resorted to by the idle, intemperate, and 
licentious of the place where they are situated, and thus 
become lures to draw the young from virtue and lead them to 
perdition, they are public nuisances, and no eye of authority 
should wink at their abominations, but every energy should be 
put forth for their immediate suppression. 

H 1635, Sept. 3d. Robert Andrews is licensed by the 
General Court, to keep an ordinary. Tradition says, that the 
first tavern was kept in a one-story house, a few rods east of 
the " old brick house," at Smith's corner. 

1636. Mr Andrews is allow^ed to sell wine by retail, " if 
he do not wittingly sell to such, as abuse it by drunkenness." 

* T. R. t Col. R. t T. R. II Custora-House R. 

§ Commoners' R. TI Col. R. 



112 PRISON. HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 

1637. A law forbids " sack or strong water " to be sold at 
any ordinary, because it had been abused. 

1638, March 12th. Mr. Samuel Symonds is appointed to 
sell " strong water." 

1644. John Backronely sold wine. 

1646. The price of a license to retail " strong water," 
wine, and beer, at Ipswich, is £2. 

* 1671, June 8th. The town allow John Spark to draw 
beer at Id. a quart, if he entertain no inhabitants in the night, 
" nor suffer any person to bring liquors to drink in his house, or 
wine." 

1672. An inhabitant, because of his immorality, is ordered 
to be complained of, as unfit to sell liquors. Two men are 
forbidden to spend their time and money, as they had done, 
in the ordinaries. Orders similar to this were long repeated 
afterwards. 

1681, Feb. 22d. Ipswich is allowed two public houses. 
Sept. 14th. Leave is granted to Obadiah Wood to sell cake 
and Id. beer. 

1690. Samuel Giddings is permitted to open a public 
house at Chebacco. 

1691. Ipswich is allowed to have another tavern. 

1693. The house kept by John Spark is occupied by 
John Rogers, the saddler, and had the sign of a black horse. 

1732. John Thomson is innholder at the Hamlet. 

1753. Richard Rogers is the same in town. There are 
several other names of persons, who kept taverns at Ipswich. 

1833. There are three public houses. 



PRISON. — HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 

Whoever looks upon these necessary appendages of orderly 
society, must be reminded, that human nature is far from 
being perfect. When well fitted and properly conducted, 
they are likely to promote, in a greater or less degree, the 
prevention of crime. But if otherwise, they are schools of 
iniquity, which let out upon the community villains made 
more villanous, more skilled to deprave the morals and dep- 
redate on the property of the public. 

•T. R. 



COURTS. 113 

* 1652, May 22d. As there is but one prison in the whole 
colony, another is ordered to be built at Ipswich. 

1656. Tlieophilus Wilson is keeper of the house of cor- 
rection. His compensation is £3 a year, 5s. for each prisoner, 
and all prisoners are to pay him for their board and attendance ; 
those not able to meet this charge are to be kept on bread 
and water. The selectmen are required, by law, to supply 
the house of correction with flax and hemp for work. 

f 1684. The towns which send juries to Ipswich are to 
help build a house of correction here ; and those which send 
juries to Salem are to help build one there. 

1696. Thomas Fossey is keeper of Ipswich prison. 

I 1751. The town vote to petition the General Sessions, 
" that the late prison be effectually repaired, and established, 
as heretofore, a prison and house of correction." 

1760. A committee report, that there be a petition to the 
same court, to have a house of correction built here, and to 
permit the dissolute poor of the town to be put in the jail, till 
the house of correction shall be erected. 

1771. A new jail is built on the place of the old one, 
which site is now occupied by the Rev. Mr. Kimball's house. 

ISIO, Feb. 21st. The county had recently erected a 
stone jail here, which cost nearly 27,000 dollars and was the 
only competent one in the shire for securing prisoners. This, 
being to the southeast of the former a considerable number 
of rods, is kept by Mr. Michael Brown. The prisoners com- 
mitted here in 1823, were 13, — 1826, 31, — 1829, 20, — 
1833, 18. Nearly the whole of them were intemperate, and 
one-fourth of them could neither read nor write. 

1828. The old house of correction, at Norton's Bridge, 
is discontinued, and a new one, on the premises of the jail, is 
occupied, and comes under the care of the keeper of the 
prison. The following commitments to the house of correc- 
tion took place : — in 1828, 114,-1829, 136,-1830, 74, 
— 1831, 117,-1832, 165,-1833, 98. Nine-tenths of 
the individuals thus committed were addicted to intoxication. 



COURTS. 

In no courts in the world is justice more impartially dis- 
pensed, than in our own. They yet remain for a protection 

* Col. R. t Qt. Ct. R. t T. R. 

15 



114 IMMORALITIES AND CRIMES. 

to the poor as well as rich. Still, as human institutions, they, 
of course, are liahle to err. Such a character, both in its lights 
and sliades, has always belonged to our civil tribunals. 

* 1636, March 3d. A court is to be held once a quarter in 
Ipswich, with which Newbury is connected, and which is to 
be kept by ma2;istrates of or near the place wliere held. 
Previously to this, the General Court took cognizance of petty 
as well as of capital offences. 

1637, May 17th. D. Dennison and S. Appleton are to 
assist in the Ipswich Court. 

1638, May 2d. S. Symonds and Wni. Hubbard are ap- 
pointed to hold a similar trust. 

1640, Oct. 7th. It is ordered that mortgages, bargains, 
sales, or grants of land, be put on record, and S. Symonds is 
chosen recorder for the jurisdiction of Ipswich Court. This 
business, which belongs to the registry office, was long con- 
nected with the transactions of the Quarterly Court. 

1641, June 2d. Two quarter courts in a year are to be 
held at Ipswich. 

t 1693, May 2d, Tuesday. It appears that the first Su- 
preme Court, which sat in Ipswich, now convenes here to 
try persons charged with witchcraft, all of whom are cleared. 

1833. For a long period, the Probate, Common Pleas, 
and Supreme Courts have been held in this town. 



IMMORALITIES AND CRIMES. 

Vigilance and retribution for transgressions of wholesome 
laws, denote a healthful state of morals, and prevent the 
abounding of iniquity. Woe to the people, who become so 
familiar with one trespass and another against the Divine dec- 
alogue, as to tolerate them, and consider it more reproachful 
to visit them with punishment, than to excuse them because 
popular. 

% 1633, Sept. 3d. An inhabitant of Ipswich is sentenced 
to pay £10 and stand with a white sheet of paper on his 
back, whereon DrunJcard is written in great letters, and to 
stand therewith so long as the court think meet, for abusing 
himself shamefully with drink and enticing his neighbour's 
wife to incontinency and other misdemeanors. This neigh- 



* Col. R. t Oyer and Terminer Ct. R. t Col. R. 



LETTERS OF IPSWICH COURT. 115 

bour is fined 155. for drunkenness. There, as in numerous 
other lamentable cases since, intoxication led to the conmiis- 
sion of crime. 

1639, March 5th. A person for lewd attempts, is to be 
severely whipped in Boston and Ipswich, and to wear the letter 
V on the breast of his outer garment. For his apparent 
reformation, he was allowed to leave off the V in June. 

* 1663, May 5th. A female of Newbury is sentenced by 
the Ipswich Court, for perjury, to stand at the meeting-house 
door of the former town next lecture-day, from the ringing 
of the first bell till the minister be ready to begin prayer, with 
a paper on her head, having on it, written in large capital let- 
ters, " For taking a false oath." 

f 1665, May 3d. A woman of Ipswich is tried for burn- 
ing General Dennison's house ; not found guilty ; fined as a 
thief, and to be whipped for lying. 

X 1667, March 26th. A man of this place, is prosecuted 
for digging up the bones of the Sagamore, and for carrying 
bis scull upon a pole. 

1677, March 27th. Several persons are tried here and 
sentenced to be branded and fined, for robbing Wm. Lattimore 
on the high-way. 

16S4, April 15th. An individual of Salem, twice before con- 
victed of theft, is sentenced at Ipswich for burglary, to be brand- 
ed with B, to pay treble damages, and to be whipped fifteen 
lashes at the former town next lecture-day. He was branded 
here, and sent to Salem to have the rest of his punishment. 

1817, July 18th. On Friday night, the house of Colonel 
Jonathan Cogswell was entered, his desk was broken open, and 
one hundred dollars were taken. The perpetrator of this was 
not discovered. It is indeed true, that the way of transgres- 
sors is hard. Even if not detected by man, they carry in their 
bosom the smothered, but tormenting fires of guilt. 



LETTERS OF IPSWICH COURT. 

1663, April 4th. This Court send a letter to Lynn Church, 
clearing two of their brethren from the charge of perjury, in 
a recent land case. May 5th. In answer to a reply of the 
Rev. Samuel Whiting, the Court apprehend that their purpose 

* Qt. Ct. R. t Col. R. t Qt. Ct. R. 



116 TRIALS AND EXECUTIONS FOR MURDER. 

in writing was misunderstood ; that they did not mean any 
" Erastianisme," or denial of the church's power to censure or 
decree. This word Erastianisme is from Doctor Thomas 
Erastus, who contended in England about 1647, that the 
church had no power either to censure or decree. 



TRIALS AND EXECUTIONS FOR MURDER. 

It is well known that such punishment was more necessary, 
to render the property and lives of the community safe, be- 
fore the erection of state-prisons, than subsequently. Even 
now, in cases of extreme atrocity, this punishment, as required 
by law, seems just and requisite. The criminal, who has for- 
feited his life and has a reasonable time to prepare for eternity, 
is more likely to repent and have this preparation, when as- 
sured that he must soon stand before his omniscient Judge, 
than if he was permitted to live out all his days within the 
walls of a penitentiary. It is a fearful fact, that capital crimes 
increase in our country, in a greater ratio, than its population 
does. Our chief hope for turning back so dark and porten- 
tous a flood, is the increase of pure religion in our nation. 

* 1637, Sept. 28th. John Williams is hanged in Boston. 
" He was a ship-carpenter, who, being lately come into the 
country and put in prison for theft, brake out with one John 
Hoddy, whom, near the great pond, in the way to Ipswich, 
he murdered, and took away his clothes and what else he had, 
and went in them to Ipswich, where he had been sent to 
prison, and was there again apprehended ; and though his 
clothes were all bloody, yet he would confess nothing, till 
about a week after the body of Hoddy was found." At the 
same time, Wm. Schooler is hanged in Boston for the mur- 
der of Mary Sholy, on the way from Newbury to Piscataquay. 
He was examined for this crime by the magistrates of Ips- 
wich, over a year before he was proved guilty. 

f 1701, July 17th. Esther Rogers of Newbury, for kill- 
ing a child Nov. 12th, 1700, is hung and placed on a gibbet 
at Pingrey's Plain in Ipswich. Tradition informs us, that she 
confessed this to be her second illegitimate child, and that the 
first was secreted, she not knowing whether it was dead or 
alive. She appeared very sorrowful for her iniquities, and 

" Winthrop. t Col. P. 



TRIALS AND EXECUTIONS FOR MURDER. 117 

acknowledged her sentence to be righteous. She continued 
in deep distress for her sins, after she set out for the gallows ; 
but, when passing a hill, she was divinely enabled to cast her 
soul upon Christ and to enjoy the consolations of a hope in 
him. This hill from that time, has been called " Comfort Hill," 
because she there was comforted by the promises of religion 
to the penitent. 

About 1725, Elizabeth Atwood, single woman, of Ipswich, 
was hung for murdering her child. She gave no signs of being 
properly affected by her crime, or by the realities of eternity. 
She put on, as many others in a similar condition have done, 
a mock courage, which set at defiance the retributions of both 
God and man. As an evidence of her callousness, tradition 
tells us that, as it was customary for the executioner to have 
the clothes of those wdiom he executed, she fitted herself out 
in the very worst of her apparel, and on her way to the gal- 
lows, she laughed, so that a woman who attended her saw 
it, and exclaimed, " How can you be so thoughtless on such an 
occasion ? " and that she immediately replied, " 1 am laughing 
to think what a sorry suit the hangman will get from me." 

* 1772, May 5th. Sarah Goldthwaite, single woman, of 
Lynn, was committed to jail last Thursday, charged with the 
murder of her male child, found with stones round its neck in 
a pond. June 23d. She was tried last week at Ipswich and 
cleared. In connexion with this case, more than one murder 
was strongly suspected. A young woman much out of health, 
who was supposed to have knowledge about the death of the 
child, which would make her a dangerous witness, appears to 
have been taken from her room and carried to a secret place 
in the woods, where she was found dead. They who are 
concerned in committing one iniquity, put themselves in the 
way of committing another. 

f 1778, July 2d. Ezra Ross, a single man, and belong- 
ing to the west part of Ipswich, is hung at AVorcester, for 
being concerned in the murder of Mr. Spooner, at the instiga- 
tion of his abandoned wife. The day of his execution was 
kept as a season of fasting and prayer for his untimely end, in 
his native parish. 

1795, Aug. 6th. Pomp, a negro, was hung at Ipswich, for 
kilhng his master, Captain Charles Furbush, of Andover. 

* Essex Gazette. t Line Brook Ch. R. 



113 OTHER MODES OF PUNISHMENT. 

Before his execution, he was carried into the meeting-house at 
11 o'clock. Mr. Frisbie prayed and Mr. Dana preached from 
the words, " He that sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his 
blood be shed." Mr. Bradford of Rowley prayed at the 
gallows. Pomp remained unaffected through tlie whole of so 
awful a scene. He was directed to call on God for mercy, 
and he formally complied. His mind had been so little instruct- 
ed and his heart so left to moral darkness, that he appeared 
to have no realizing perception of his guilt or of his danger 
in being suddenly sent into eternity. The little while he 
was under the care of the Ipswich ministers, they faithfully 
did wliat they could to correct the gross errors of his long 
neglected education. 

1802, Nov. Cato Haskell is sentenced for manslaughter, 
to be branded on the forehead with M, and imprisoned a year. 
He belonged to this town, and had killed Charles Lewis, from 
Virginia, Oct. 12th, with a scythe. They were both colored 
men. Cato broke jail and was not recovered. 



OTHER MODES OF PUNISHMENT. 

Stocks. These were common in towns where courts were 
held, as early as 1638. They were employed in Ipswich, as 
a terror to the disorderly, down to 1794. They stood behind 
the First Parish meeting-house, with the whipping-post, and, 
generally, with the gallows, when erected. 

Pillory. This was sometimes seen on the meeting-house 
hill, when persons were punished for making haste to be rich 
by fraudulent practices. Having stood upon it as the sentence 
required, a gazing-stock to the multitude, they would, for the 
most part, have one or both ears cropped, to mark their offence 
wherever they should go. 

Wearing a haltf.h. When individuals had done some- 
thing which bordered on a capital crime, they would be 
seated on a gallows, with a rope round their neck at one end, 
and tied to the gallows with the other. This was usually 
accompanied with whipping. In the early settlement of our 
country, persons were made to wear a halter, open to public 
view, for months and years. 

Cage. This was about ten feet wide and sixteen long, and 
partly covered. It contained sabbath-breakers and other 
transgressors on lecture-days, so that they might be exposed 



SLAVES. 119 

to the sight of the whole congregation, passing and repassing. 
It was used in several towns till after 1718. As Ipswich was 
one of the places where courts were held and where criminals 
in the northern part of Massachusetts were tried and punished, 
it is not likely that this town was destitute of a cage " for 
unclean birds." 

Cleft Stick. This was used in the early settlement of 
the colony, to confine tongues convicted of slander. 

Ducking AND Gagging. 1672, May 15th. The General 
Court say, that as there is no express punishment for " exorbit- 
ancy of the tongue in railing and scolding," it is ordered " that 
railers and scolds be gagged, or set in a ducking-stool, and 
dipped over head and ears three times." The same reason 
for assigning a cage to this town, is applicable, as to the 
above mode and apparatus of administering summary justice. 
That we may form some idea of a ducking instrument, the 
following is quoted from the history of Ipswich in England, 
for which this place was named. " In an apartment of the 
custom-house at Ipswich, is an original ducking-stool. It is in 
the form of a strong-backed chair, with a wrought iron rod, about 
an inch in diameter, fastened to each arm in front, meeting in 
a segment of a circle above. There is, also, another iron rod 
affixed to the back, which curves over the head of the person 
seated in the chair, and is connected with the others at the top, 
to the centre of which is fastened an iron ring, for the purpose 
of slinging the machine into the river. In the chamberlain's book 
are various notices of money to porters for taking down the duck- 
ing stool. In 1597 three unfortunate females underwent this op- 
probrious ceremony. The fee for inflicting the punishment was 
Is. 6f/." 

Of the various sorts of public punishment, none of them, 
except hanging, has been administered since convicts were 
sent to the State Prison. Blessed must be the day when 
such a renovation of human nature shall have taken place, that 
no one can be found to transgress, no prison have an inmate, 
no punishment have a subject. 



SLAVES. 



These were owned for a considerable period, though in no 
great number, by inhabitants of Ipswich. They were Indians 



120 POPULATION. 

as well as Africans. Besides these, in the early age of the 
colony, criminals were sold into servitude for a term of years, 
according to their offences. 

* 1755. Tlie slaves in this town above sixteen, are sixty- 
two. 

1774. Conscience and consistency, as to the claims of 
freedom, so prevail in Massachusetts, that slaves of twenty- 
one, who sue for emancipation, have a verdict of juries in their 
favor. This greatly loosens the bonds of slavery in Ipswich 
and other places. 

17S0. The State Constitution declares, that " all men are 
born free and equal." This clause is inserted as an abolition 
of human bondage. It gives liberty to the slaves here and else- 
where. Thus fell one of tiie greatest abominations ever charge- 
able upon the home of the Puritans. Well, unspeakably 
well, would it have been for no small portion of our Republic, 
could it have been influenced by the same enlightened views, 
and by the same righteous inotives. But we are aware that 
it is not so. The cries of oppressed multitudes still throng Heav- 
en's tribunal for awful retribution upon our land. Millions, 
holding their fellow-beings in servitude, are bequeathing to 
their children a heritage of peril, iniquity, blood, and carnage. 



POPULATION. 

. As the tide of emigration has long flowed from Ipswich, 
with little comparative reflux, the people of this place have not 
become numerous. 

f 1646. There are one hundred and forty-six families. — 
These would make, if reckoning, as is commonly done, five 
and two-thirds to a family, about 793 inhabitants. 

J 1677, Dec. 20th. Twenty-five Tythingmen are appoint- 
ed, each of whom, by act of the General Court, is to have the 
charge often families. This would give 1,417. 

According to the census of 1800, there were 3,305, — 1810, 
3,569, — 1820, 2,550. The diminution of this from the pre- 
ceding census, was because Chebacco parish had become incor- 
porated. 1830, 2,951 inhabitants. The greater part of the 
men are farmers. From the appearance of business ifnd the 

♦ Mass. Hist. Coll. f Johnson. t Col. R. 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 131 

erection of new buildings, in 1833, there is a prospect, that 
this ancient town may retain more than usual of its young peo- 
ple, and advance in numbers as well as in property. 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

These were well understood by many of our ancestors, who 
continually strove to have them far removed from the spirit 
and dominion of monarchy. 

* 1635, March 4th. Nicholas Easton and Henry Short, 
having been illegally chosen, are not allowed to hold their 
seats as Deputies. John Spencer is reported as regularly 
elected. May 6th. J. Spencer is on a committee to con- 
sider the act of Mr. Endicott in defacing the colors at Salem, 
and to report how far he is censurable. 

f 1643, July. Three of the magistrates and the elders of 
Ipswicii and Rowley, had written to the Governor and As- 
sistants against affording aid to La Tour, as implying war upon 
D'Aulnay. 

1647, Jan. 6th. The petition of Dr. Child and others, 
for having men, not church members, eligible to offices of civil 
government, and for Episcopalians to enjoy equal privileges 
with Congregationalists, and for laws to be the same here as 
in England, is circulated in Ipswich, and is much liked by 
the young people. On this occasion, S. Symonds wrote to 
Governor Winthrop, " This town has very few malignants," 
meaning the supporters of Dr. Chjld, who were then consid- 
ered generally as great disorganizers. 

X 1654, June 20th. S. Bradstreet, S. Symonds, and D. Den- 
nison meet here " about a narrative in the way of remonstrance 
of all matters respecting that which is charged on the General 
Court, concerning the breach of the Confederacy, for the vin- 
dication of this Court's actings in such respects." The Con- 
federacy here mentioned was the Union, which existed among 
New England Colonies except Rhode Island. The narrative 
was to be forwarded to Oliver Cromwell. 

1661, May 24th. As Charles II. was urging our fathers to 
a retraction of their anti-royal policy, John Eliot, missionary 
to the Indians, is required by the General Court to confess, 

* Col. R. t Hutchinson's Coll. t Col. R. 

16 



122 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

that he had gone too far in expressing himself against kingly 
government in his book, called " Christian Commonwealth," 
published nine or ten years before in England. Mr. Eliot's 
confession is ordered to be posted up in several towns, among 
which was Ipswich. 

June 7th. Mr. Cobbet, D. Dennison and S. Symonds, are 
appointed by the Legislature, to report on the relations which 
the colony hold to the King. They dt) this, the 10th, 
according to charter rights, and their report is accepted. 

June 10th. The Court having read and considered several 
petitions, presented and subscribed by freemen and others of 
Ipswich, Newbury and Sudbury, about submission to the de- 
mands of His Majesty, reply, that they shall " not be wanting 
in the prosecution of such means as may be most conducible to 
our peace." 

1665, May. Messrs. Carr, Cartwright, and Maverick, the 
King's commissioners, send to the non-freemen of Ipswich and 
other towns, desiring them to be present at the next Court of 
Elections, to witness what they would try to do for their relief 
of civil disabilities. 

1666, Sept. 11th. As a petition had been presented by 
people of Boston, Salem, Ipswich, and Newbury, to the Gen- 
eral Court, desiring that the King's order might be obeyed, for 
sending over to England certain persons, whom he charged 
with disloyalty, and that other means might be taken to con- 
ciliate him, the Court notify the chief of such petitioners to 
appear before them next October. There were seventy-three 
of Ipswich, who thus applied, and John Appleton was sum- 
moned to answer in their behalf. 

* 1667, June 25th. Wm. Stevens is charged with speak- 
ing against " His Majesty, our Sovereign Lord and King, 
Charles II." On trial he confesses the truth of the accusation, 
is disfranchised from being a freeman, and from holding any of- 
fice during the Court's pleasure, and to pay £20 fine and costs 
of the trial, and to be imprisoned one year. There were several 
cases of this kind tried about the same time. 

1678, Oct. 2d. All persons who had neglected it are 
required take the oath of allegiance to Charles II. There were 
one hundred and twenty-one of Ipswich, who had not com- 
plied with this custom. 

*Qt. Ct. R. 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 123 

Resignation of the Charter. * 1685, Feb. 11th. 
" The deputies desiring to know the town's mind with respect 
to the papers, that Mr. Randolph left, whether they were wil- 
ling to make a free resignation, as in the declaration ; there 
was not one person, that voted, when tried, that he was wil- 
ling. It was also voted, that all those, that were desirous to 
retain the privileges granted in the charter, and conferred by 
his Royal Majesty now reigning, should manifest the same by 
holding up their hands, which vote was unanimous in the 
affirmative." A decision against the Charter had been 
recently and conditionally made in England. The General 
Court declined to allow this decision. Randolph, aware that 
he could not succeed with them, encouraged the people to 
vote for the surrender of the Charter. In this he was disap- 
pointed. While he was thus busy, and while our fathers were 
dreading the despotic stretch of kingly power, news arrives 
that Charles II. was dead. This event revived the hopes 
of Massachusetts, and led them to expect better treatment 
from James II., successor to the British Crown. 

Taxation resisted, f 16S7, Aug. 23d. Sir Edmund 
Andros having caused a tax of Id. on £l to be levied, Ips- 
wich pass a vote, that, as it was against the rights of English- 
men to have rates laid upon them, without their consent in an 
Assembly or Parliament, they would petition the King 
before they complied with the Treasurer's order. The Gov- 
ernor was much displeased at such a stand. He had the prin- 
cipal men here apprehended. 

September. These persons are so grievously prosecuted 
by Andros, they ask him and his council to overlook their neg- 
lect of the Treasurer's instructions and their words, which had 
been construed as disloyal. 

% 1689, Dec. 24th. Ipswich votes, " That the Rev. John 
Wise and the Selectmen draw up the town's abuses with 
respect to the rates taken and the calumnies cast upon the 
town and persons, who have suffered by the late Government 
in Sir Edmund Andros' rule, and present them to the town 
next lecture-day after lecture." 

<§) " We, John Wise, John Andrews, sen., Robert Kinsman, 
Wm. Goodhue, jr., all of Ipswich, about 22d of Aug., 1687, 

* T. R. I Narrative of the Miseries of New England. 

+ T. R. § The Revolution in New England Justified. 



124 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

were, with several principal inhabitants of Ipswich, met at Mr. 
John Appleton's, and there discoursed and concluded, that it 
was not the town's duty any way to assist that ill method of 
raising money without a General Assembly, which was appar- 
ently intended by abovesaid Sir Edmund and his Council, as 
witness a late act issued out by them for such a purpose. The 
next day in a general town-meeting of the inhabitants of Ips- 
wich, we, the abovenamed J. Wise, J. Andrews, R. Kinsman, 
W. Goodhue, with the rest of the town, there met, (none con- 
tradicting,) and gave our assent to the vote then made. The 
ground of our trouble, our crime, was the copy, transmitted to the 
Council, viz. ' At a legal town-meeting, Aug. 23, assembled by 
virtue of an order from John Usher, Esq., for choosing a com- 
missioner to join with the Selectmen to assess the inhabitants 
according to an act of His Excellency the Governor and 
Council, for laying of rates. The town then considering, that 
this act doth infringe their liberty, as free English subjects of 
His Majesty, by interfering with the Statute Laws of the land, 
by which it was enacted, that no taxes should be levied upon 
the subjects without the consent of an Assembly, chosen by 
the Freeholders for assessing of the same, they do therefore 
vote, that they are not willing to choose a commissioner for 
such an end without said privilege, and, moreover, consent not, 
that the Selectmen do proceed to lay any such rate until it be 
appointed by a General Assembly, concurring with Governor 
and Council.' We, the complainants, with Mr. John Apple- 
ton and Thomas French, all of Ipswich, were brought to 
answer for the said vote out of our own county, thirty or forty 
miles into Suffolk and in Boston, kept in jail for contempt and 
high misdemeanor, as our mittimus specifies, and, upon de- 
mand, denied the privilege of Habeas Corpus, and from prison 
overruled to answer at a Court of Oyer and Terminer in Bos- 
ton. Our judges were Joseph Dudley of Roxbury, Stoughton 
of Dorchester, John Usher of Boston, and Edward Randolph. 
He that officiates as Clerk and Attorney in the case, is George 
Farwell. The jurors only twelve, and most of them (as is 
said) non-freeholders of any land in the colony, some of them 
strangers and foreigners, gathered up (as we suppose) to serve 
the present turn. In our defence was pleaded the repeal of the 
Law of Assessment upon the place; also the Magna Charta 
of England, and the Statute Laws, that secure the subjects' 
properties and estates, he. To which was replied by one of 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 125 

the judges, the rest by silence assenting, that we must" not 
think the laws of England follow us to the ends of the earth j or 
whither we went. And the same person (J. Wise abovesaid 
testifies) declared in open council, upon examination of said 
Wise, ' Mr. Wise, you have no more privileges left you, than not 
to be sold as slaves,' and no man in Council contradicted. By 
such laws our trial and trouble began and ended. Mr. Dudley, 
aforesaid Chief Judge, to close up the debate and trial, trims 
up a speech that pleased himself (as we suppose) more than the 
people. Among many other remarkable passages to this 
purpose, he bespeaks the jury's obedience, who (we suppose) 
w^ere very well pre-inclined, viz. ' I am glad,' says he, ' there be 
so many worthy gentlemen of the jury so capable to do the 
King's service, and we expect a good verdict from you, seeing 
the matter hath been so sufficiently proved against the crim- 
inals.' 

" Note. The evidence in the case, as to the substance of 
it, was, that we too boldly endeavoured to persuade ourselves we 
were Englishmen and under privileges, and that we were, all 
six of us aforesaid, at the town-meeting of Ipswich aforesaid, 
and, as the witness supposed, we assented to the aforesaid vote, 
and, also, that John Wise made a speech at the same time, and 
said we had a good God and a good King, and should do well 
to stand to our privileges. The jury return us all six guilty, 
being all involved in the same information. We were remand- 
ed from verdict to prison, and there kept one and twenty days 
for judgment. There, with Mr. Dudley's approbation, as 
Judge Stoughton said, this sentence was passed, viz. John 
Wise suspended from the ministerial function, fine £50, pay 
cost, £1000 bond; John Appleton, not to bear office, fine 
£50, pay cost, £1000 bond ; John Andrews, not to bear 
office, fine £30, pay cost, £500 bond ; Robert Kinsman, not to 
bear office, fine £20, pay cost, £500 bond ; Wm. Goodhue 
the same ; Thomas French, not to bear office, fine £l5, pay 
cost, £500 bond. These bonds were for good behaviour one 
year. 

" We judge the total charges for one case and trial, under one 
single information, involving us six men, abovesaid, in expense 
of time and moneys of us and our relations for our necessary 
succour and support, to amount to more, but no less, than 
£400 money. Too tedious to illustrate more at this time, and 
so we conclude." 



126 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

This narration was drawn up at tlie request of the govern- 
ment, which succeeded that of Andros, so that it might be sent 
to England among the charges against him. Several years 
afterwards, the town made up the loss which the narrators 
incurred, as previously described. 

Revolution. * 1689, May 9th. The bloodless over- 
throw of Andros' government having been effected on the 
18th ult.. Rev. John Wise and Nehemiah Jewett meet with 
other Representatives in Boston, to consult with the Council 
about the public affairs of the colony. No town was proba- 
bly more glad than Ipswich, that Andros was constrained to 
relinquish his authority by the threatening attitude of the 
people in Boston and the vicinity. The occasion of so sudden 
a change was, that news arrived, that the Prince of Orange 
had landed in England to put down the sway of James II., 
whose officers in Massachusetts had rendered themselves 
obnoxious to most of the colonists. Had William failed 
in this enterprise, there would probably have been a reac- 
tion upon our fathers as oppressive, as what they expe- 
rienced after favoring Cromwell and then falling into the 
hands of restored and avenging Royalty. 

Mason's Claim, f 1631, Jan. 4th. John Mason pre- 
sents to the General Court the King's letter about his claim 
to territory from Naumkeag River in Salem, to the Merri- 
mack. This subject had been long agitated. Jan. 11th. 
The Court order a copy of this letter to be handed to Gen- 
eral Dennison and other magistrates of Essex, so that the 
tenants of the land may convene at Ipswich or Newbury with 
all convenient speed. June 3d. The Court, in answer to 
the King's letter, say, " We have published his pleasure to 
the villages on the south of Merrimack, some part whereof 
Mr. Mason claims. But neither the inhabitants there nor we 
know Mason's bounds. We are in hope, that what may be 
presented to His Majesty on behalf of said inhabitants will 
obviate the clamour and groundless pretence of the cora- 
plainers." 

% 1682, Jan 9th. The expenses of Ipswich are mentioned, 
for a committee who had met about Mason's demand. <§> Feb. 
The General Court petition the King to protect the people 
of Ipswich and Cape Ann against Mason's claim. In a peti- 

• Col. R. t Ibid. I T. R. § Col. R. 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 127 

tion of these towns to His Majesty, they say, " We have 
subdued the wilderness with great pains and cost ; our lands 
have passed through several hands ; we were confirmed in our 
rights by law of 1657 for settling inheritances, which was not 
designed against Robert Mason, of whom and of whose claim 
we were then wholly ignorant. So we continued till sur- 
prised by order of the General Court, according to your letter 
of Sept. 30th, 1680, requiring us to furnish agents and evi- 
dences, as to our lands. We implore your Majesty to confirm 
us in our rights, or order Mr. Mason to try his claim in courts 
of justice here." Messrs. Jonathan Wade and Daniel Epes 
were instructed by the General Court to obtain signers to this 
petition. * Nov. 27th. As Thomas Lovel, a selectman, has 
been to Mr. Mason about a compliance, and advised others, 
that it would be best to comply, — voted, that he be excluded 
from his office. 

f 1683, Feb. 1.5th. The Legislature appoint justices to keep 
a court in Essex for the trying of the case. May 16th. 
The General Court allow John Wallace and Content Mason, 
relict of John Tufton Mason, to give deeds as her husband 
had done. This shows that Mr. Mason had his claim con- 
firmed here without going to England. Some paid a quit-rent 
of 2s. a year for every house built on the land of his grant, 
which was in their possession. There is no doubt but that 
the Mason grant from Naumkeag River to the Merrimack, was 
made by the Council of Plymouth before the settlement of 
Massachusetts. The grant however, subsequently made to 
the Massachusetts Company, included his. Thence arose 
misunderstanding and difficulty when Mason's heir pressed for 
ten townships in the same colony, which he considered to be 
his legal right. It is not to be wondered at, that Ipswich and 
the rest of these townships felt anxious while they were 
claimed by Robert T. Mason, whose wish it was to have them 
called Mariana and held by him and his heirs " in free and 
common soccage." When the case was decided, that such 
places should pay quit-rents, they were relieved from the fear 
lest it should be much worse. Knowing the evil attendant on 
this subject, they composed their minds to meet it, however 
otherwise than they wished. 

Other Political Concerns. J 1731, Sept. 7th. " The 

*T. R. tCol. R. tT. R. 



128 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

representatives read a communication from the House, and 
considerable debate ensued. On motion made and seconded, 
the question was put whether the town would choose a com- 
mittee to prepare instructions for our representatives on the 
weighty affair of supplying the Province treasury, and report 
their opinion thereon." It passed in the negative, as it did 
in other towns. There was a general objection to supplying 
the treasury, as here proposed, because it was for the payment 
of Governor Belcher's salary, which had been due, and which 
was ordered by the King to be £1000. This royal inter- 
ference in our Province affairs was considered by most of our 
people, as contrary to their charter rights. 

* 1740, June 19th. On the question whether John Col- 
man of Boston and Company be forbidden to issue bills of 
credit, as the Governor wanted such persons to be, Richard 
Rogers was with a majority of the House, that they should not 
be forbidden. 

f 1754, July 19th. An extract from the bill relative to the 
excise on liquors, being read and debated, the question was 
put whether the town be in favor of it, and they voted in 
the negative. 

1755, Jan. 28th. The plan, for a general union of the 
Colonies, before the Legislature, is read to the town, and they 
vote against it, and instruct Colonel John Choat, the repre- 
sentative, to use his influence to prevent its passage, because 
it materially affected charter privileges. 

Oct. 21st. Instructions are given by Ipswich to Dr. 
John Calef, their representative to the General Court. These 
instructions mention the distressing and ruinous measures, 
taken by Parliament against America ; request him to maintain 
charter rights ; and state, that for this country to be justly 
under the particular laws of England, which militate with the 
charter, three things were necessary ; one, that our fathers 
should have emigrated hither, as a national act, second, at 
national expense, and, third, should have been sent to settle 
some territory owned by the nation ; — but our fathers came of 
their own accord, at their own expense, and had to buy or 
fight for their land. The instructions further say to the 
Doctor, " You are to do all you can to repeal the acts passed 
or may be passed." 

* Prov. R. t T. R. 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 129 

1766, Nov. 25th. The question being put, whether the 
town would give instructions to their representative, as to the 
compensation and act of indemnity and the bill pending, as to 
the Whale Fishery, it passed in the negative. The compen- 
sation, here mentioned, referred to damages done in Boston, 
on account of the Stamp Act. 

1768, Aug. 11th. "Voted, that the town of Ipswich 
highly approve the ,conduct of those gentlemen of the late 
House of Representatives, who were for maintaining the rights 
and liberties of their constituents and were against rescinding 
the resolves of a former House. Voted, that the thanks of 
this town be given to the worthy and much esteemed ninety- 
two gentlemen of the late House of Representatives, for their 
firmness and steadiness in standing up for and adhering to the 
just rights and liberties of the subject, when it was required 
of them, at the peril of their political existence, to rescind the 
resolves of the then former House of Representatives." The 
Representatives, here mentioned, were highly applauded 
through the colonies. " The glorious Ninety-two," was a 
popular toast out of Massachusetts. As to the matter of 
rescinding, on June 21st, the Governor lays before the House 
a letter from the Earl of Hillsborough of April 22d, which 
expresses his Majesty's displeasure for their resolve for 
" writing to other colonies on the subject of their intended 
representations against some late acts of Parliament, and that 
it was the King's pleasure, that the House rescind the vote, 
which gave birth to the circular letter of Feb. 11th, 1768, 
from the Speaker." A clause in the Earl's letter required 
the Governor to dissolve the General Court, if the said vote 
was not rescinded. June 30th. The House resolve not to 
rescind this vote, 92 to 17. Dr. John Calef of Ipswich 
was among the minority, for which he subsequently apolo- 
gized. He, with other worthy men, was loth to pursue a 
course, which they feared would bring upon their country the 
displeasure of England without adequate benefit. It is not 
strange, in aWiew of human fallibility, that some were found 
rather to cleave to the mother government, than run the hazard 
of a revolution, which, if not successful, would render the 
condition of our people more unhappy. Still, it was well for 
us, that the majority thought and acted differently. 

Sept. 19th. As proposed by Boston, Ipswich choose 
Michael Farley to represent them in Convention " to devise 
17 



130 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

such measures, as the peace and safety of his Majesty's good 
subjects in the Province, may require." This convention 
met Sept. 23d, and petitioned the Governor to call a consti- 
tutional Assembly. He refused and forbade them proceed in 
business. They answered him, that they claimed the right to 
meet and discuss public concerns. 

1770, March 19th. The town " voted, that we are de- 
' termined to retrench all extravagances, and that we will, to 
the utmost of our power, encourage our own manufactures, and 
that we will not, by ourselves or any for or under us, directly 
or indirectly purchase any goods of the persons who have im- 
ported or continue to iqiport, or of any person or trader, who 
shall purchase any goods of said importers contrary to the 
agreement of the merchants in Boston and the other trading 
towns in this government and the neighbouring colonies, until 
they make a public retraction, or a general importation takes 
place. And, further, taking under consideration the excessive 
use of tea, which has been such a bane to this country, voted, 
that we will abstain therefrom ourselves, and recommend the 
disuse of it in our families, until all the revenue acts are re- 
pealed." In the warrant for the meeting, at which these 
votes were passed, tea is called " that pernicious weed." 

1772, Dec. 28th. A committee report, according to a 
letter from Boston, accompanied with the " State of the Rights 
of the Colonies and Infringements on them," for substance, 

1. That infringements on our colonial rights are as stated 
by our brethren in Boston. It is of the utmost importance for 
this Province and others to stand firmly for their rights. — 

2. All people of the American Colonies have a right, accord- 
ing to the British constitution, to dispose of their property as 
they see fit. — 3. Parliament, by assuming the right to legislate 
for the Colonies and to raise a revenue from them, acts con- 
trary to the wishes of the people and the opinion of eminent 
men in Parliament. — 4. As a great grievance, the Governor 
is made independent of the Province for his support, and so 
the Judges of the Superior Court, the King's Attorney, and 
Solicitor-General are all to be thus independent. — 5. It is 
matter of alarm, that commissioners have been appointed by 
late acts of Parliament (for preserving his Majesty's dock- 
yards, magazines, ships, ammunition, and stores,) to inquire 
out persons who burnt the schooner Gaspee at Providence, 
because there is a remedy for such offences without commis- 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 131 

sioners, — 6. Every part of the British dominions have a 
right to petition the King and Parhament, and to continue to 
do it till their grievances are redressed. This town are ag- 
grieved, that petitions of this Province have been so little re- 
garded. — 7. We instruct our representative to maintain in the 
General Court, at its next session, the rights of the Province, 
to make exertion that the Governor and Judges be paid by 
the Legislature, and not by the Crown ; that the Earl of Dart- 
mouth be informed, that the dissatisfied of this Province are 
not a small faction, but most of the people, who are dissatisfied 
because the Governor and Judges, and Board of Commissioners 
of the Customs, are independent of the Legislature here, and 
also, because of enormous powers vested in the Court of Ad- 
miralty, of posting regular troops in the Province, raising a 
revenue in America, and appropriating this revenue without 
the consent of the people in person or by their representatives ; 
and " that his Lordship be assured, that the good people of 
this Province are and always have been firmly attached to his 
present Majesty and his royal family, and are desirous, to the 
utmost of their ability, to support government and promote 
quietness and good order." The representative of Ipswich is 
instructed to use his influence, that an agent of the House, 
separate from the Governor and Council, represent the con- 
dition of the Province to the King or his ministers, and, if the 
Governor refuse to allow grants of the House for such an 
agent, the representative is to try for the House to recommend 
to the several towns to pay the agent. — 8. We thank Bos- 
ton for proceeding as they have, in their printed pamphlet, 
for informing the public of alarming encroachments on our 
Province rights, and for seasonably endeavouring to obtain the 
sense of the country. — 9. We will choose a committee to 
correspond with the committee of Boston and other towns on 
affairs of the Province. 

This report, so fervently and fully breathing the spirit of 
liberty, which bore our country over the troubled waters of 
civil commotion to the attaiimient of freedom, is accepted. 
A committee of correspondence is chosen. 

1773, Dec, 20th. Resolves of Ipswich. 1st. " That 
the inhabitants of this town have received real pleasure and 
satisfaction from the noble and spirited exertions of their 
brethren of Boston and other towns to prevent the landing 
of the detested tea, lately arrived there from the East India 
Company, subject to a duty," which goes to support persons 



132 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

not friendly to the interests of this Province. 2d. That they 
highly disapprove of the consignees of the East India Compa- 
ny, because of their equivocal answers to a respectable commit- 
tee of Boston, and refusal to comply with the wish of their 
countrymen. 3d. That every person, who shall import tea 
while the act for duty on it continues, shall be held as an 
enemy. 4th. That no tea be sold in town while this act is in 
force ; that if any one sell it here, he shall be deemed an 
enemy. — Voted, that these resolves be sent to the committee 
of correspondence of Boston. 

1774, Aug. 29th. By [request of Marblehead, Ipswich 
chooses a committee to unite with others, who intend to meet 
here September 6th, to concert measures in these distressed 
times. September 21st. Voted, that the representatives join 
with those from other towns and form a Provincial Con-" 
gross. September 26th. Instructions to the representatives of 
Ipswich, who were to meet with the Legislature, October 5th, 
at Salem, by order of the Governor. As it is a day of much 
darkness, this Province in particular suffering under ministe- 
rial vengeance, it requires wisdom and firmness so to act as, by 
the blessing of God, to convince our enemies, that we shall 
stand for our rights. We instruct you not to countenance 
" that unconstitutional Council appointed by the King, in sub- 
mitting to act with them in one particular, and that, if the 
Governor will not allow the Council chosen by the people to 
sit, as the second branch of the Legislature, that you do not 
proceed to do one single act, unless it be to pass such resolves 
as may be judged necessary to testify your abhorrence of 
slavery and all attempts that but serve to have a tendency 
that way. We agree with the advice given by a Congress of 
this country, that a Provincial Congress be formed and meet 
together, to consult on what is to be done by this people 
as a body ; and we would have you unite witli such a Con- 
gress. We think it would be better to have each town send 
more persons to this Congress, than the law allows representa- 
tives to the General Court, and we would have you exert 
yourselves for this. * October 3d. Dr. John Calef, having 
been waited on by a committee of Ipswich, so that his views 
of late acts of Parliament might be known, gives them leave 
to have it published in the " Essex Gazette " of Salem, that he 
regretted voting, June 30th, 1768, in favor of the royalists ; 

* Essex Gazette. 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 133 

that his purpose is to maintain the charter rights against the 
late acts of Britain. Such pubhc acknowledgments from indi- 
viduals in many towns were very common. November 21st. 
The town vote, unanimously, to approve the proposals and 
resolves of the Continental Congress. 

1775, Jan. 3d. Voted, that Michael Farley be a delegate 
to the Provincial Congress to be held at Cambridge on the 1st 
of February. Jan. 19th. Instructions to him. 1st. To use 
his influence so that Congress appoint an early Fast, because 
of degeneracy from the good ways of our fathers, and of in- 
creasing wickedness and infidelity in Great Britain. 2d. To 
inquire if any towns have neglected the resolves of the Pro- 
vincial Congress, and, if so, to publish them ; and if any 
persons have not complied with the Association agreement, to 
have their names advertised. 3d. While enemies amon"- our- 
selves say, that we are seeking after independence, when we 
are not, endeavour that the Congress alter the government so 
as to agree with our last charter. 4th. We approve of the 
wise recommendations of the late Provincial Congress, as to 
our manufactures. We should like some particular method 
pointed out for promoting them. 

1776, March 1 1th. A committee of correspondence is 
chosen. April 24th. A committee is elected " to meet with 
other seaport committees of the county at the tavern near 
Beverly meeting-house this day, and to consult on measures 
to be taken for our safety in this difficult time." May 4th. 
A committee of intelligence is chosen. June 10th. " Voted, 
that the representatives be instructed, if the Continental Con- 
gress should, for the safety of the Colonies, declare them in- 
dependent of Great Britain, the inhabitants here will solemnly 
pledge their lives and fortunes to support them in the measure." 
After the 17th of July, printed copies of the Declaration of 
Independence are read on Sabbath afternoon, at the close of 
public worship, in all the parishes, and this Declaration is re- 
corded on the Town book, according to the order of the State 
Council. October 7th. Voted, that the representatives unite 
with the House in framing a state constitution, which shall be 
laid before the people previously to its being enacted. De- 
cember 18th. A commhtee of inspection and correspondence 
is chosen. 

1777, June 9th. Instructions to the representatives. " You 
are to oppose the repeal of the Price Act. We do not think 



134 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

it a source of animosity between Boston and the country, nor 
a shackle to trade. You are to act against the General 
Court's forming a new plan of government ; to try for the 
removal of this Court to some convenient country town ; for 
having all the State's money redeemed with continental cur- 
rency, so that there be but one kind of currency in the United 
States ; for giving encouragement to the raising of flax and 
wool." 

1778, Jan. 12th. Voted to take under consideration 
" The Articles of the Confederation and Perpetual Union be- 
tween the United States of America, as proposed to the Legis- 
lature of this State." January 19th. Voted to instruct the 
representatives to vote, that the delegates from Massachusetts 
favor the Articles of Confederation. April 6th. Voted, that 
a committee meet with others here, at Treadwell's, on the 15th 
instant, to consider the constitution and form of government 
proposed. June 4th. There are one hundred and ninety-one 
votes here against the proposed constitution, and only one in 
its favor. 

1779, August 9th. Ipswich accepts the resolves of the 
Convention, lately at Concord, as to the high price of several 
articles of consumption. A committee is raised to regulate 
the prices of those articles not fixed by the Convention. 
Five persons are chosen to represent the town in the Conven- 
tion to be held at Cambridge for framing a new constitution. 
August 16th. Two persons are chosen to meet in Convention 
at Concord, October 12th, to regulate the prices of goods. 
Nov. 5th. Voted to accept the result of the Convention at 
Concord on the 12th of October. 

1780, June 15th. Voted not to accept the Constitution, 
unless the proposed amendments are allowed. The Constitu- 
tion was adopted by the people this year. 

1787, Dec. 3d. Michael Farley, John Choate, Daniel 
Noyes, and John Cogswell are chosen to meet in Boston on 
the second Wednesday of January, to consider the Constitution 
of the United States, as proposed by the National Convention. 
This Constitution was adopted in 1788 by all the States, 
except Rhode Island and North Carolina, both of which after- 
wards adopted it. 

1793, Sept. 16th. Ipswich approves the President's procla- 
mation for neutrality, while the European war lasts. 

1798, April 2d. The town meet on the subject of pe- 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 135 

titioning Congress, that merchant vessels may be armed, and 
that the Stamp Act may be repealed. 

1808, August 18th. A majority of the people here vote to 
send the following petition to Thomas Jefferson, President of 
the United States. It " humbly shows, that the inhabitants 
of this town have at all times, from its earliest settlement, 
manifested a respectful regard to the laws of the country, and 
practised and inculcated obedience to the constituted authori- 
ties ; that, under the greatest pressure of calamities which the 
public good has been thought to require, they have remained 
peaceful and submissive, and that no regulation of government, 
however burdensoine, has ever on this account been violated 
or evaded by any inhabitants of this town ; that the laws of 
the United States, laying an embargo on all ships and vessels 
in the country, have operated in a very grievous manner on 
all classes of our citizens ; that farmers, mechanics, fishermen, 
and manufacturers have, in their turns, experienced and still 
experience their ill effects ; and we cannot contemplate their 
further continuance without most disquieting apprehensions ; 
nor will we believe, that the regular expression of the wishes 
of a free people can be offensive to enlightened and patriotic 
rulers. Therefore, your petitioners beg leave to suggest, 
whether the great events which have lately taken place in 
Europe will not afford your Excellency an opportunity for 
relieving the people of this once prosperous country from their 
present embarrassed and distressed condition. And your pe- 
titioners believe, that a renewal of commercial intercourse 
between the United States and the kingdoms of Spain and 
Portugal and their colonies, would be productive of great ad- 
vantage, by affording to us an opportunity of disposing of great 
quantities of our surplus produce, and more particularly the 
article of fish now perishing on our hands. Wherefore, your 
petitioners, agreeably to the right which they enjoy by the 
constitution, which they, at all times and on all occasions, are 
ready and determined religiously to support, would respectfully 
pray, that the evils which they endure, in consequence of the 
embargo, may be removed, by a suspension, in whole or in part, 
of the operation of the laws laying the same, by virtue of the 
power by law vested in the supreme executive ; or that the 
power of convening Congress, given by the constitution to 
your Excellency, may be immediately exercised for the pur- 
pose of obtaining an object so important to the dearest interests 



136 POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

of the people. And as in duty bound will pray, — in behalf 
of the town," — (Names of the committee.) 

Sept. 2d. The following answer, of this date, was soon 
after received. " Your representation and request were re- 
ceived on the 1st instant, and have been considered with the 
attention due to every expression of the sentiments and feel- 
ings of so respectable a body of citizens. No person has seen 
with more concern than myself, the inconveniences brought on 
our country in general, by the circumstances of the times in 
which we happen to live, — times to which the history of 
nations presents no parallel. For years we have been looking, 
as spectators, on our bretln-en of Europe, affected by all those 
evils which necessarily follow an abandonment of the moral 
duty, which binds men and nations together, connected with 
them in friendship and commerce. We have happily, so far, 
kept aloof from their calamitous conflicts, by a steady ob- 
servance of justice towards all, by much forbearance and mul- 
tiplied sacrifices. At length, however, all regard to the rights 
of others having been thrown aside, the belligerent powers 
have beset the highway of commercial intercourse with edicts, 
which, taken together, expose our commerce and mariners, 
under almost every destination, a prey to their fleets and ar- 
mies. Each party, indeed, would admit our commerce with 
themselves, with the view of associating us in their war against 
the other. But we have wished war with neither. Under 
these circumstances were passed the laws of which you com- 
plain, by those delegated to exercise the powers of legislation 
for you, with every sympathy of a common interest in exer- 
cising them faithfully. In reviewing these measures, there- 
fore, we should advert to difficulties, out of which a choice was 
of necessity to be made. To have submitted our rightful com- 
rnerce to prohibitions and tributary exactions from others, would 
have been to surrender our independence. To resist by arms 
was war, without consulting the state of things or the choice of 
the nation. The alternative, preferred by the legislature, of sus- 
pending a commerce, placed under such unexampled difficul- 
ties, besides saving to our citizens their property and our 
mariners to their country, has the peculiar advantage of giving 
time to the belligerent nations to revise a conduct as contrary 
to their interests, as it is to our rights. In the event of peace 
or suspension of hostilities between the belligerent powers of 
Europe, or such change in their measures respecting neutral 



POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 137 

commerce, as may render that of the United States sufficiently 
safe in the judgment of the President, he is authorized to 
suspend the embargo ; but no peace or hostihties, no change 
of measures affecting neutral commerce is known to have 
taken place. The orders of England and the decrees of 
France and Spain, existing at the date of these laws, are still 
unrepealed, as far as we know. In Spain, indeed, a contest 
for the government appears to have arisen ; but of its course 
or prospects we have no information, on which prudence would 
undertake a hasty change in our policy, even were the au- 
thority of the executive competent to such a decision. You 
desire, that, in this respect of power, Congress may h& 
specially convened. It is unnecessary to examine the evi- 
dence or the character of the facts which are supposed to 
dictate such a call, because you will be sensible, on attention 
to dates, that the legal period of their meeting is as early as, 
in this extensive country, they could be fully convened by a 
special call. I should, with great w'illingness, have executed 
the wishes of the inhabitants of the town of Ipswich, had peace 
or a repeal of the obnoxious edicts, or other changes, produced 
the case, in which alone the laws have given me that authori- 
ty ; and so many motives of justice and interest lead to such 
changes, that we ought continually to expect them ; but while 
these edicts remain, the legislature alone can prescribe the 
course to be pursued. Th: Jefferson." 

Nov. 7th. A majority vote, that the President's answer is 
not satisfactory. 

1S09, Feb. 6th. Resolves are passed, disapproving the 
embargo and the course of Congress, in strong terms, and 
giving a pledge to stand by the General Court. The political 
parties here stood thus ; 346 against the national administra- 
tion, and 173 for it. Throughout the country, the animosity 
between such parties was, and continued for several years, 
exceedingly and perilously bitter. 

1812, June 5th. Voted to petition the General Court to 
alter the law, passed last session, for districting the Common- 
wealth to elect Counsellors and Senators, as unconstitutional, 
unequal, and unjust. June 25th. The town meet to consider 
" the present critical and alarming state of the public affairs of 
our country, now suffering under a grievous embargo and ap- 
parently with an unjust and unnecessary war." "They vote 
to communicate with Boston on these subjects. Julv 13th 
18 J J ' 



138 COCKADES. PAY OF REPRESENTATIVES, &;C. 

Four delegates are elected to sit in Convention, according to 
a proposal from Salem, with reference to the condition of the 
country. It is voted to approve the address of the House of 
Representatives, and to support the government of Massachu- 
setts in all its constitutional measures for restoring peace. — 
Voted to approve the address of a minority in Congress to their 
constituents, against the war. A committee of correspondence 
is chosen. 

1814, Feb. 9th. A memorial is voted for the Legislature, 
approving the Governor's communication and the answers of 
both Houses about the redress of political grievances. 

1820, Oct. 16th. The Hon. John Heard and Mr. Nathan- 
iel Wade are appointed delegates to meet in Convention, in 
Boston, third Wednesday of November, for revising the State 
Constitution. 



COCKADES. 

These, as a mark of attachment to the national administra- 
tion, being made of black ribbon with an eagle in the cen- 
tre, and fastened on the side of the hat, were worn by some in 
1797, and generally in 1798. As having the same significa- 
tion, and also as a sign of mourning for Washington, they 
were very fashionable soon after his decease, and went down 
at the close of 1800. 



PAY OF REPRESENTATIVES AND MAGISTRATES. 

* 1638. Every town is to pay its own deputies and magis- 
trates. Each deputy is to have 2s. 6d. a day and each magis- 
trate 3s. 6d., while in session. 

1645. Ipswich and other towns are to pay the board of 
such persons, while convened, in cattle, wheat, malt, and bar- 
ley. 

1646. It is enacted by the General Court, that no more 
than a member and his horse shall be maintained. It seems 
from this, that Representatives may have had, while at Court, 

* Col. R. 



VOTES FOR MAGISTRATES, hc. 139 

some of their families boarded and lodged at the public ex- 
pense. 

1684. As much was lost in measure by sending rates in 
produce from distant towns to Charlestovvn and Boston, the 
Legislature order, that the " salary men of the country " 
shall be paid out of the country rates where they live, 

1692. Each Representative has 55. a day. 

1729. The town allow 6s. a day since the arrival of Gov- 
ernor Burnet. 

1833. The present price, coming out of the State Trea- 
sury, is two dollars a day. If an alteration were made, so that 
each town should pay its Representatives, the House would 
lose much of its enormous and useless size. / 



VOTES FOR MAGISTRATES, &c. 

* 1643. Indian beans are to be used in voting. The white, 
yea ; the black, nay. 

1648. They are required to be sealed up and forwarded to 
Boston. 

1680. Indian corn is to be used and sealed up in a paper, 
containing the name of each candidate, and sent to Boston on 
election-day, when all freemen, who have not put in their 
corn, may do it in the Court-House, at eight o'clock in the 
morning. As well known, paper votes have for a long time 
been given for all officers. 

1780, Sept. 4th. The first meeting in Ipswich to vote for 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Senators, since the Dec- 
laration of Independence, is held. 

1788, Nov. 20th. The first votes given here for Represen- 
tatives to Congress, and for Electors of President and Vice- 
President, are recorded. With regard to the qualifications of 
each voter, perhaps they are as restricted as the spirit of our 
Constitution allows. But every one knows, who has carefully 
watched the course of popular elections, that not unfrequently, 
men, having neither character nor property to lose, under the 
influence of prejudice and passion, if not of liquor, and led on 
by some demagogue, cast their votes for officers unfit for any 
trust, and too often turn the scale against patriotic and worthy 

• Col. R. 



140 MILITARY CONCERNS. 

candidates. Here is one of the greatest perils to which our 
freedom is exposed, and on which there is reason to fear it may 
be wrecked and destroyed. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. 

Though man is morally bound to be at peace with his fel- 
low man, yet wars and bloodshed have accompanied his course 
all the way from Cain down to the present age. No doubt 
there have been cases, when individuals and nations had no 
alternative but either to fight or die. Still, in every warfare, 
wrong must be laid to one side or the other, if not to both. 
At the bar of Infinite Justice, it will appear that many con- 
tests, at the expense of human depravation, misery, and life, 
which hold their bright descriptions on the pages of history, 
were commenced in unprincipled ambition, or grovelling cov- 
etousness, or diabolical revenge, and are drawn in the darkest 
lines on the books of Otnniscient Remembrance. Welcome 
to surviving philanthropists will be the day, when the instru- 
ments of death shall be converted into implements of husband- 
ry, and when the benevolent Religion of the Gospel shall 
have full sway over the evil passions of mankind, and lead 
them to promote each other's safety and happiness. 

Fortifications and Watch-house. * 1633, November. 
" Ordered, that when all the plantations in the Bay have done 
two days' work each at the Fort (in Boston), there shall be an 
order sent to Salem, Agawam, and Saugus, to send in their mon- 
ey for three days' work towards it for each man, except magis- 
trates and ministers." 

1634, March. The Assistant from Ipswich is to solicit 
subscriptions for a movable fort, to be in Boston. Sept. 
Every plantation is to send workmen or money, three days 
each, towards the Boston fort. 

1637, March. Each town is to be supplied with a watch- 
house before the last of July. 

f 1639, Feb. J. Winthrop, jr., is granted Castle Hill, with 
the reservation of what the town " shall need for the building 
of a fort." 

* Col. R. t T. R. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. 141 

* 1640. The meeting-house here and in other places, is to 
be used for a watch-house. 

1642, Sept. Owing to danger from Indians, each town is 
to provide a retreat for their wives and children. 

f 1672, Feb. Some are paid for helping build a new fort 
here. 

1696. The town have the fort near the First Parish 
meeting-house repaired. 

1699, June 26th. It is voted, that the stones out of the 
fort be used in banking up the new meeting-house. 

1703, March 3d. The town vote to repair the watch- 
house. 

Soldiers, Training, Officers. J 1634. Every trained 
soldier, pikeman, and others, must be equipped for service. 

1635. Each company is to maintain its own officers. 

1636. The militia here are attached to one of three regi- 
ments, which are ail in the whole colony. 

1637. Daniel Dennison is appointed Captain of Ipswich 
by the General Court. Training is to be eight times in a 
year. 

II 1644. "The two counties of Essex and Norfolk are 
joined in one regiment," commanded by D. Dennison. 

1645. Youth from ten to sixteen years are to be exercised 
with small guns, half-pikes, bows and arrows. Thomas Whit- 
tingham is confirmed as Lieutenant, and Thomas Hewlett as 
Ensign, of the company here. 

<§> Dec. 19th. The inhabitants of Ipswich agree to pay 
D. Dennison £24 7^. annually as their military leader. 

IF 1648. In every company some under-officer shall be 
appointed by the captain to " exercise such children, as by 
their parents' or masters' allowance shall resort to the train- 

1652. No company is to have less than sixty-four privates, 
nor less than two drums. Each town is to have its military 
affairs ordered by a committee of magistrates and the three 
chief officers. 

** 1653. John Appleton is confirmed as Lieutenant of the 
troop of horse for Essex Regiment. 

ft 1664. Thomas French is confirmed as Ensign, Thomas 

* Col. R. t T. R. t Col. R. II Johnston. 

§ T. R. IT Col. R. •* Qt. Ct. R. tt Col. R. 



142 MILITARY CONCERNS. 

Burnam, Jacob Perkins, and Thomas Wait, as Serjeants, 
Thomas Hart and Francis Wainwright, as Corporals of the 
Ipswich conipany. 

1668. John Appleton as Captain, John Whipple as Cor- 
net, of Ipswich troop, are confirmed. 

1675. Thomas Burnam made Ensign. 

1676. John Whipple becomes Captain of the troop. 

1680. There are to be three companies in this town. 

1683. Samuel Appleton is appointed Captain, T. Bur- 
nam Lieutenant, Simon Stacey Ensign, of one company, — 
Daniel Eppes Captain, John Appleton Lieutenant, and 
Thomas Jacobs Ensign, of another, — John Andrews Lieu- 
tenant, and Wm. Goodhue, jr.. Ensign, of a third at Chebacco. 
Oct. As Captain Whipple had died. Captain J. Appleton 
resumes command of the troop. Cornet John Whipple 
becomes Lieutenant, and Thomas AVade Cornet. 

1689. July. T. Wade is elected Captain, J. Whipple 
Lieutenant, and John Whipple, jr., Quarter-Master of troop. 
Oct. Simon Stacey is confirmed as Lieutenant, and Nehemiah 
Jewett as Ensign, of the company on the north of the river, 
under Major Samuel Appleton. 

1690. The companies of Ipswich, Rowley, Gloucester, 
Wenham, Topsfield, and Boxford are to form one of three 
regiments in Essex county. 

1691. Samuel Ingalls is confirmed as Lieutenant, and 
Robert Kinsman as Quarter-Master of troop under T. Wade. 

1753. Captains, Lieutenants, and Ensigns of the militia, 
continue to wear gold lace on their hats, with red stockings 
and breeches of the same color, on parade. The Serjeant 
continued till the Revolution to go with a drummer, who 
beat at each corner, and to give notice that the company 
would meet for training on such a day, if fair, and, if not, the 
next fair day. 

* 1775, March 13th. Those on the alarm list, in the 
Hamlet, chose John Whipple, jr., Captain, John Thompson- 
2d Lieutenant, and Jonathan Lamson Ensign. 

1798, Aug. The officers of Ipswich Regiment agree to 
wear cockades and uniform on Sabbaths and public occa- 
sions. 

* Essex Gazette. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. 143 

1833. Two militia companies, one infantry company, and 
part of a troop of horse, compose the present military force. 

Artillkry Company. * 1645, May 14th. On petition 
of S. Bradstreet, D'. Dennison, J. Whittingham and others, a 
company, composed of persons belonging to Ipswich, Newbury, 
Rowley, Salisbury, and Hampton, are incorporated to improve 
in military tactics. This was in imitation of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Company, 

Wards, Watches, Guards, and Alarms, f 1634. Ips- 
wich, with other towns, is required to send its quota of men for 
a ward in Boston, while any ships ride there. A watch of two 
is to be kept in every plantation during night. 

X 1637, March 9th. Because of danger from Indians, a watch 
is to be kept in each town, and a ward on the Sabbath, and no 
person is allowed to travel alone above one mile from his house, 
except where houses are near together, without arms. 

II 1643. T. Hewlett is allowed 5s. for two loads of wood 
for watches. 

Ȥ) 1644. "Besides the country alarum there shall be one 
for each town ; a musket shall be discharged on alarm, to all 
centinels, who shall answer by going to the houses and crying 
' Arm ! arm ! ' " 

1645, May. Every town is to have a guard set a half hour 
after sunset, to consist of a pikeman and musketeer. Aug. 
Each town is to prepare for an attack from the Indians, to 
keep a daily guard on the outskirts and have scouts range the 
woods. 

1675, Oct. The inhabitants are to be disposed of, as need 
may be, in one or more garrisons, to defend themselves when 
invaded. 

1676, Feb. The soldiers of every town are ordered to 
scout and ward to prevent the skulking and lurking of the 
enemy about it, and to give notice of approaching danger. It 
is also ordered, that the brush in the high-ways and other 
places be cut up. The watch is not to disperse till sunrise, 
when the scouts go out. 

1689. A ward is to be kept in each town and to walk the 
rounds in time of worship, to guard against Indians. 

^ 1775, May 15th. Voted, that the Town Watch, of four 

» Col. R. t Ibid. t Winthrop. || T. R. § Col. R. II T. R. 



144 MILITARY CONCERNS. 

persons on guard, be continued ; that the watch on Castle 
Hill, of two men, give notice if the enemy come by water to 
seize sheep and cattle. Voted, that a suitable quantity of tar 
be obtained to be seta-fire on a beacon erected for this purpose, 
so that the town may be alarmed in the night, and tiiat the flag 
be hoisted in the daytime to give notice of the enemy. 

Ammunition, Arms, and Accoutrements. * 1634. D. 
Dennison and N. Easton have charge of powder at Ipswich. 
This town is to have its share of muskets, bandoleers, and rests, 
recently arrived, and to have the use of two sakers and a 
drake, for which they are to provide carriages. 

f 1635. As part of the Colony's military stores, lately 
received from Mr. Wilson in England, Ipswich has eight 
swords. 

J 1639. This town is to have two barrels of powder, and 
to sell it to those who have muskets at 2s. a pound, and return 
the money to the Colony Treasurer. 

1642. Ipswich is to have twelve saker-bullets. 

1643, May. Arms are to be brought to the meeting-house 
on Lord's day. 

1645. Each company is to have two thirds muskets and the 
rest pikes. The pikemen are to wear corselets and head- 
pieces. 

1648. Each soldier is required to have a stone fitted to 
the bore of his musket. 

1649. The Selectmen of each town are to provide for 
fifty soldiers, one barrel of powder, one hundred and fifty pounds 
of musket-bullets, and one quarter of a hundred-weight of match. 
Match continued for a considerable period to supply the place 
of flints in New England and Europe, 

1666. Every pikeman is to be furnished with corselet, buff 

or quilted coat. 

1681. A magazine is kept in the meeting-house, 

1683. Halberds are and have been used here, 

1691. The town agree to supply themselves with powder 

and flints. This is the first instance known of flints being 

named on the records of Ipswich. 

1696. The town vote to purchase three field-pieces. 

1697. Troopers use carbines. 

* Col, R. t Pynchon Papers. | Col. R. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. 145 

1702. The Selectmen are to have a room on the beams, 
by the clock of the meeting-house, for powder. 

1756, Nov. The town vote £50 for powder and other 
military stores. 

1777, Aug. Voted, that the Selectmen buy this town's 
proportion of fire-arms, gun-locks, flints, and lead. 

1514, Sept. 14th. Voted, that the Committee of Safety 
superintend military affairs and purchase what is needed. 

1515, May 8th. Voted, that the remnant of guns burnt in 
the shop of JMichael Brown be given him. 

We perceive that the ancient equipments differed consider- 
ably from those of our day. Should we now behold a com- 
pany fitted out, as they were formerly, they would be a novel 
and curious sight. 

Colors. These contained the cross, as in England, with a 
short interruption, from 1635 till the Revolution. 

1776, April 11th. The General Court of our State, order, 
that the colors of their vessels of war shall be white with a 
green pine tree, and an inscription " Appeal to Heaven." 
Soon after the Declaration of Independence, the thirteen stripes 
were introduced, as our national flag. An act of Congress, in 
1818, says, that this flag shall be of thirteen stripes alter- 
nately red and white, with a star in a field of blue for every 
State in the Union, and a star to be added for every new State. 

Powder-House. 1792, May 30th. Voted to have a 
brick powder-house built. This was done before Nov. 2d, and 
cost £33. 

ExERcisE-HousE. 1774, Nov. 21st. Voted the use of the 
land, to the eastwardly end of the Town House, for a building 
by subscribers, where they may meet for military discipline. 

Expeditions, Captives, Wounded, Killed, Compen- 
sation, AND Supplies. * 1637, April 10th. Of one hun- 
dred and sixty men, going against the Pequods, the quota of 
Ipswich is seventeen. May 17th. Of fifty men for the same 
service, this town is to raise six. Wm. Fuller is appointed gun- 
smith in this expedition, f July 13th. Francis Wainwright, 
a young man of this place, pursues some Pequods, expends his 
ammunition and they turn upon him. He breaks his gun over 
them and brings two of their heads to the camp. I John 
Wedgwood is wounded in the abdomen and taken by some of 

* Col. R. f P. Vincent's Relation. | Hubbard. 

19 



146 MILITARY CONCERNS. 

the Pequods. Thomas Sherman receives a wound in the 

neck from them. 

* 1639. The committee here for the Pequod soldiers, 
ake grants of land from two to ten acres, to the following indi- 



m 



viduals : Wm. Whitred, Andrew Story, John Burnam, 
Robert Cross, Palmer Tingley, Wm. Swynder, Francis Wain- 
wright, Robert Filbrick, John Andrews, and Robert Castell. 
Edward Lumas was one of such soldiers, and, long after this, 
had six acres of land allowed him by Ipswich for his service, 
f 1642, Sept. 1st. By warrant to Ipswich, Rowley, and 
Newbury, for disarming Pasconaway, who lived at Merrimack, 
these towns sent forty men next day, being Sabbath. This 
Sachem was not found, but his son was taken. Such an order 
was executed, because there was suspicion of a general con- 
spiracy of the Indians against the English. The following, no 
doubt, refers to this expedition. 

X 1643, Dec. 4th. " It is agreed that each soldier, for his 
service to the Indians, shall be allowed 12^/. a day, (allowing 
for the Lord's day in respect of the extremity of the weather), 
and the officers double." The number of these soldiers was 
twenty. They were out three days. 

II 1653, Aug. General Dennison orders out twenty-seven 
men from Ipswich and Rowley, as a scouting party, to dis- 
cover whether the report was true, that thousands of Indians 
were assembled at Piscataqua. This detachment was gone 
from Friday morning to Monday night. Each private was 
allowed Is., the serjeant 2s., and each of two troopers 2s. 6d. 
a day. 

<§> 1668. Edward Thomas, who had been in service against 
the Indians, is granted six acres of land. 

H 1672, Aug. 19th. General Dennison writes to the Gov- 
ernor, that the enemy had passed the Merrimack ; that he was 
sending up fifty men at night under Captain John Appleton 
to Andover. He spoke of his brother Bradstreet's things, as 
brought thence because of the enemy, and that great alarm 
prevailed. 

1673, Dec. 10th. Ipswich is to raise its quota of one hun- 
dred men for Essex county to oppose the Dutch. 



T. R. t Winthrop. t T. R. || Col. R. § T. R. 

irCol. R. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. 147 

* 1675. The following persons, who had belonged to Ips- 
wich, were killed by Indians. Aug. At Squakelieage, Ed- 
ward Coburn. Sept. Sth. Thomas Scott at the same place. 
ISth. Thomas Manning, Jacob Wainwright, Caleb Kimball, 
Samuel Whittredge, and others, at Muddy Brook, under Cap- 
tain Lathrop. 19tli. Benjamin Tappan. Oct. 10th. Free- 
grace Norton, serjeant, and John Petts or Pettis, at Hatfield. 
fOct. 7th. Thomas Wilson is allowed £l for what he lost by 
the enemy at Quabog. % Dec. 19th. The company from Ips- 
wich has three killed and twenty -two wounded in the great battle 
with the Indians. Luke Perkins states, that a company, in 
which he was this year, went out against the enemy, and they 
were returned unharmed. 

'§» 1676. Of six hundred infantry and cavalry, marching to 
resist the enemy, Ipswich supplies its proportion. Robert 
Dutch has clothes and arms injured by fire in service against 
Indians. May Sth. This town is to raise its part of eighty 
men, for Essex county, for an expedition of six days. || July 
Sth. A detachment from Ipswich had recently been up to 
Salisbury in pursuit of the enemy. H Oct. lltli. Of seventy 
soldiers, as the quota of Essex, for an expedition to the eastward, 
Ipswich is to have its part. John Cogswell, jr., is a prisoner 
among the Indians. 

1689, July 2d. Of three hundred men to be raised in the 
colony, this town is to have its proportion. ** This year 
" One Benedict Pulsifer gave the Mastif (Indian) a blow with 
the edge of his broad-axe upon the shoulder, upon which they 
fell to it with a vengeance, and fired their guns on both sides 
till some of each party were slain." f f Aug. 29th. Ipswich 
horse are ordered to Haverhill, as one place of rendezvous for 
forces going to meet the enemy. 

1690, May I4th. This town is to raise its part of twenty 
men in Essex Middle, to strengthen Albany and pursue the 
French and Indians ; and, June 4th, its part of thirty-one 
more in the same regiment, and of four hundred in the Prov- 
ince. 19th. Nathaniel Rust is appointed Quarter-Master 
for the Canada expedition. July 17th, Ipswich is to raise its 
quota of fifteen, and, 30th, of four hundred and eight recruits 
from Essex Middle Regiment, which are to be under Major 

• Col. P. t Salem Ch. R. t Hubbard. § Col. R. || Robert Pike's Diary. 
II Col. R. ** Maffnalia. tt Col. R. 



148 MILITARY CONCERNS. 

Samuel Appleton. Sept. 30th. Col. B. Church writes, that, 
about the 19th, one Dicks, of Chebacco, was killed near 
Casco. 

1691, June 2d. This town is to have its proportion of four- 
teen men from Essex Middle, who are to march for Wells. 
Nov. 25th. Robert, son of Rev. John Hale, now residing 
here, writes to his relatives in England, " Ipswich is still pre- 
served, but, as most other towns in this colony, has lost many 
of its most warlike men by war and sickness." 

* 1692, July 17th. As, for two days past, several persons 
of Gloucester declared, that they saw French and Indians 
skulking about a garrison, Major S. Appleton sends down sixty 
men to defend them. Rev. John Emerson, of Gloucester, in 
speaking some time afterwards of this appearance of the ene- 
my, considered it as supernatural. 

1695, March 19th. Lieutenant-Governor Wm. Stoughton 
sends orders to Symonds Epes for a man of his company to be 
impressed and sent to York in place of Archelaus Adams, 
whose time is out. 

1697, Feb. 5th. He writes to the same officer to have his 
regiment ready for marching to any point, which may be attack- 
ed by the enemy, f April 3d. William, son of Thomas and 
EHzabeth Wade, is killed at sea in a battle with the French. 
J Dec. 17th. Abraham Foster, a soldier, wounded in the 
public service, is to receive £8 out of the public treasury " for 
smart money." 

1700, March 16th. Ipswich is to furnish its quota of ninety 
men from Essex regiments, thirty of which are to be posted at 
Wells, fifteen at York, fifteen at Kittery, ten at Amesbury, and 
twenty at Haverhill, to guard against surprise from the enemy. 

1710. Wm. Cogswell is killed by Indians. 

1720. Samuel Clark, crippled by the Indians, is allowed 
£10 out of the Province Treasury. 

1737. John Hobbs, crippled by hard service and sufferings 
in the late Indian War, and incapable of labor, is allowed by 
the Province 40s. annually for five years. 

1747, April 23d. Joseph Crecey petitions the General 
Court, that he may be paid for taking care of sick soldiers at 
Cape Breton. 

1755, March 20th, and May 25th. In presence of part of 

* Magnalia. t T. R. t Prov. R. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. J 49 

the soldiers enlisted at Ipswich to march against the enemy at 
Nova Scotia and Crown Point, JMr. Wigglesworth preached 
two sermons, one on each of the above dates. Amono- these 
men of the Hamlet, were Amos Howard, who lost an arm • 
Elijah Maxey, who had a hand wounded so that it became 
useless ; Antipas Dodge, John Jones, and Joseph Simmonds, 
all three slain at Lake George. April 21st. Doctor John 
Calef is engaged to go with the regiment of Colonel Plaisted 
of Salem, against Crown Point. 

1758. Before the surrender of Cape Breton, a party of 
men from Ipswich in a schooner, were attacked there by French 
and Indians and were forced to retreat. After they got off, 
they found several hundred shot in their vessel's quarters. 

1759, June 16th. Philemon How, of West Ipswich, dies of 
a fever, in the army at Louisbourg. In the expedition against 
Canada, Captain Stephen Whipple of the Hamlet is wounded, 
Nathaniel Burnam, first Lieutenant, and Stephen How, second 
Lieutenant, both of Chebacco, are slain. Abraham Hobbs, of 
the Hamlet, was at the taking of Quebec, and heard General 
Wolfe say to his men, when the French were near them, " Now, 
my boys, do your best." 

* 1760, March 13th. The town vote, " that such private 
soldiers, as are in the war, exclusive of tradesmen and carpen- 
ters, shall be excused from their poll-tax." 

1774, Dec. 26th. A committee contract with minute-men, 
who may enlist agreeably to proposals of the Provincial Con- 
gress. 

t 1775, June 17th. Jesse Story, of Chebacco, is killed in 
Bunker Hill fight. J Sept. 15th. A detachment from Cam- 
bridge, on their march to Canada, under Benedict Arnold, 
pass through Ipswich. 

'^ 1776. Jan. 4th, Thomas Emmerson Cole ; 11th, Jona- 
than Cogswell 3d ; in the summer, Wm. Jones ; Aug. 8th, Da- 
vid Goodhue, die in the army : in the fall, Joseph Marshall, jr., 
was killed by a cannon ball at Lake Champlain : — all of Che- 
bacco. This year Joseph Lufkin, of the Hamlet, in the west- 
ern army, was killed by a tree, which fell on him and broke his 
neck, while the troops were cutting wood, preparatory to their 
encampment for the night. June 25th. Of 5000 men order- 
ed out, the quota of Ipswich is ten. 



* T. R. t Chebacco Ch. R. i Mass. Hist. Coll. § Chebacco Ch. R. 



150 MILITARY CONCERNS. 

* 1777, Jan. 21st. A committee report the service of 
soldiers belonging to this town, and money paid, from the 
battle of Lexington till Nov. 28ih ; namely, 1775, men for 
six weeks, eight-months' men at Cambridge, sea-coast men ; 
1776, eight-weeks' men, men in the Continental array, men 
four months at Dorchester, sea-coast men, men to Crown 
Point, men at New York two months ; — whole amount, £1737 
5s. January 24th. The town vote £1000 for recruits going 
to war. February 27th. In view of the resolve of the General 
Court for one seventh part of the males, from 16 to 60, 
to join the Continental army for three years or during the 
war, a committee report, that conditional sums be paid yearly, 
or unconditional sums for three years ; first year, £6 besides 
other pay ; second, £8; third, £10. The men who engage 
here on these terms, if killed or dying with sickness while iu 
service, shall have such money go to their heirs ; and £18, 
absolutely, for three years. April ISth. Voted £lS, besides 
Continental and State pay, to every able-bodied man who will 
enlist three years or during the war. May 2d. Voted £16 
to each man who will serve till January 10th, and, if enlisting 
for the same time, 405. more. May. Jeremiah White of Che- 
bacco dies in the army at Albany. August 18th. Voted, 
that the committee hire men, who shall be called to serve 
during the war. Sept. 17th. Voted, that the Selectmen 
supply the families of soldiers, who are in the Continental 
service. Sept. 19th. Joseph Burnham of Chebacco dies of 
a wound in the battle of Stillwater. Nov. 24th. Voted 
£1200 to pay for the past hire of soldiers. 

1778, Jan. 19th. By report of a committee, men had 
marched hence for Providence in April, and others to rein- 
force the army in August. March 3d. The Selectmen are 
to make up this town's quota for the Continental army. 
April 6th. £200 are voted for families of soldiers. April 
20th. Of troops ordered out, Ipswich is to find twenty-three. 
May 28th. Voted £600 for families of soldiers. This year 
James Rust, a prisoner at Halifax, Stephen Kent and Jonathan 
Andrews, soldiers at Albany, Abraham and Isaac Jones, Israel 
Andrews, Nathaniel Emerson, and Abijah Story, a black man, 
of the army, all of Chebacco, died. 

1779, June 28th. Voted £12,000, O. T., to hire recruits 
now called out. 

•T. R. 



MILITARY CONCERNS. 151 

1780, May 4th. Ipswich, as its proportion of supplies for 
the army, is to find one hundred and six shirts, tlie same num- 
ber of pairs of shoes and stockings, and thirty-three blankets. 
June 5th, this town is to raise sixty men for six months ; 
22d, and sixty for three months ; 23d, and twelve horses for 
the public service. July 3d. Voted £1200 to hire soldiers for 
the Continental army. Sept. 25th. The proportion of Ips- 
wich's beef for the army is 31,800 pounds. Dec. 19th. The 
town accept a report to pay their soldiers in hard money, as 
resolved by the General Court. Dec. 25th. Voted £1850 of 
new emission, or £74,200 of old emission, for army beef. 

1781, March 20th. Voted £500 for soldiers and remainder 
of beef. June 22d. Ipswich is to supply the army with 25,204 
pounds of beef, one hundred and six pairs of shoes and stock- 
ings, the same number of shirts, and forty-two men. August 
13th. Voted £400 to pay men hired for three months, and 
£200 for army clothing. August 20th. Voted £220 for sol- 
diers at Rhode Island, who had been there five months. This 
year, Matthew Whipple and John Boardman, prize-masters, of 
the Hamlet, were killed in the privateer Thorn. 

1782, Jan. 1st. Voted £440 to pay men, lately engaged 
to serve in the army, and other soldiers. March 7th. Ipswich 
is to raise nineteen men for the Continental army. March 14th. 
Lieutenant Samuel Burnam dies of a consumption, contracted 
by hardships in the war. 

1783, March 1st. News that Captain Moses Harris and 
William Rust had died on board the prison-ship in New York. 
This year John Wise died in the army. 

1786, Jan. Twenty-five men, who enlisted for forty days, 
but were out sixty, march to aid in quelling Shays's insur- 
rection. 

1794, Sept. 30th, Voted, that the men, detached from 
the militia, by resolve of Congress, in May last, receive ten 
dollars a month, and that each of them have four shillings a 
day for the time they meet, till they go into actual service. 

1814. Voted, that the drafted men, who, by themselves or 
substitutes, have been in actual service, shall have wages made 
up by the town, with government pay, to fifteen dollars a 
month, as long as they continue in service. 

From the preceding facts, and not the half has come down 
to us, it is perceived, that, with no small treasure, suffering, 
and blood, Ipswich has assisted in the defence of our country's 



152 BRITISH PRISONERS. PENSIONERS. LOVE AFFAIRS. 

rights, from its beginning to our own age. From the scenes 
of trial and woe, through which she, as well as other commu- 
nities, must have passed, while comj)elled to protect her terri- 
tory, homes, and families, against the invasion of desolating 
foes, we may justly wish, 

" Then perish war ! detested war ! 
Shalt thou make gods? light Ca3sar's star? 
What calls man fool so loud as this has done, 

From Nimrod's down to Bourbon's line ? 
Why not adore too, as divine, 
Wide-wasting storms, before the genial sun? " 



BRITISH PRISONERS. 

1813, Oct. 7th. Ten of these are committed, by order of 
the Marshal, to Ipswich jail, as a retaliation for American 
prisoners' being similarly treated at Halifax. Soon after, six 
more were committed for the same reason, and, Nov. 2d, 
another. Ten of them were released the last of December, 
because the same number of Americans had been released at 
Halifax, and the rest were removed in March, 1814. Such 
imprisonment gave rise to considerable newspaper debate. 



PENSIONERS. 

Under the law of 1832, there are twenty revolutionary 
soldiers on the pension-list. Such provision honors our nation, 
and goes against the long-standing remark, that Republics 
are ungrateful. 



LOVE AFFAIRS. 



* 1647. The General Court enact, that if any young man 
attempt to address a young woman, without consent of her 
parents, or, in case of their absence, of a neighbouring magis- 
trate of the County Court, he shall be fined £5 for the 



Col. R. 



MARRIAGES. 153 

first offence, £10 for the second, and imprisonment for the 
third. As might be expected, a regulation of this kind was 
probably often evaded, but the evasion was occasionally de- 
tected ; and then the poor swains were handled by something 
harder than silken chords. Among several prosecutions was 
the following, tried at Ipswich Court. 

1660, Sept. Daniel Blake is fined £5, and respited for 
£4, conditionally, " for making love to Edmund Bridge's 
daughter without her parents' consent." Cases of this sort 
were soon discontinued. 



MARRIAGES. 

1639. A law requires marriages to be either cried or put 
up, in public, as at present. 

1692, Ministers begin to be allowed to marry people, as 
justices had done. Preaching at some marriages was prac- 
tised in New England till within sixty years. 

1651, Oct. The Rev. Samuel Phillips of Rowley to Sarah 
Appleton. 

1672. Nathaniel Wade to Mercy, daughter of Governor 
Bradstreet. 

1 675. John Cogswell had married a daughter of Dr. John 
GifFord of Lynn. 

1693, May 1st. Daniel Eppes of Salem contracts to marry 
widow Hannah Wainwright. 

1694, June 20th. Mr. Nathaniel Thomas and Mrs. Mary 
Appleton. 

1696, April 15th. Mr. Benjamin Marston of Salem and 
Mrs. Margaret Appleton. 

1698, Nov. 10th. Mr. Addington Davenport of Boston and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Wainwright. 

1699, Nov. 13th. Mr. Samuel Ward and Mrs. Sarah 
Tuttle. 

1700, Nov. 7th. Mr. Adam Winthrop of Boston and Mrs. 
Anne Wainwright. 

1703, May 5th. Mr. Nathaniel Shepherd of Lynn and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Wade. June 9th. Rev. John White of 
Gloucester and Lucy Wise. Sept. 15th. Paul Dudley, Esq., 
of Boston and Mrs. Lucy Wainwright. 
20 



154 MARRIAGES. 

1704, Aug. 10th, Mr. Nathaniel Downing and Mrs. Mar- 
garet Pynchon. 

1705, Oct. 11th. Mr. WiUiam Clark of Boston and Mrs. 
Hannah Appleton. 

1708, June 5th. Mr. Joshua Bill of Boston and Sarah 
Burn am. 

1722. Rev. Robert Ward of Wenham and Mrs. Priscilla 
Appleton. 

1724, Oct. 22d. Rev. Nathaniel Leonard of Plymouth 
and Mrs. Priscilla Rogers. 

1725, August 15th. Rev. Edward Holyoke of Marble- 
head and Margaret Appleton. 

1726, Sept. 10th. Rev. Edward Payson of Rowley and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Appleton. 

1728, Sept. 17th. Rev. Joshua Freeman of Plymouth and 
Mrs. Patience Rogers. 

1729, Jan. 28th. Mr. Thomas Norton, Jr., and Mrs. Mary 
Perkins. 

1731, March 11th. Dr. Francis Holmes and Mary Gibson. 

1736, Rev. Ames Cheever of Manchester and Sarah 
Choate. 

1739, Dec. 11th. Rev. Edward Cheever and Martha 
Wi2;glesworth. 

1742, March 17th. Rev. Edward Holyoke, President of 
Harvard College, and widow Mary Epes. 

1761, June 22d. Dr. Benjamin Foster of Boxford and 
Sarah Low. 

1770, Jan. 8th. Mr. Edward Wigglesworth and Bridget 
Cogswell. Feb. 6th. Mr. William Wigglesworth and Debo- 
rah Adams. 

1772, Nov. 26th. Rev. Paul Park of Preston, Connecti- 
cut, and widow Mary Rust. 

1779, Feb. 9th. Dr. Josiah Smith and Margaret Stani- 
ford. 

1786, Dec. Mr. William Burley of Boston and Susan 
Farley. 

1787, Oct. 6th. Dr. Nehemiah Cleaveland of Topsfield 
and Lucy Manning. 

1789, June 29th. Dr. Samuel Adams and Abigail Dodge. 

1791, Dec. 28th. Dr. John ScoUy Osborn of Epsom, 
N. H., and Abigail Hodgkins. 

1793, Oct. 13th. Dr. Joseph Manning, now of South 
Carolina, and Elizabeth Pickard. 



PUBLISHMENTS. 155 

1799, Sept. 1st. Rev. Joseph McKean of Milton and 
Amy Swasey. 

1802, Feb. 16th. Dr. James Goss of Gloucester and 
Hannah Smith. 

1808, June 14th. Rev. Ebenezer Hubbard and Charlotte 
Swasey. 

1809, Feb. 28th. Rev. Joshua Dodge of Haverhill and 
Mary Shatswell. 

1813, Nov. 28th. Dr. Thomas Sewall, now of Washing- 
ton, D. C, and Mary Choate. May. Rev. Edward Rich- 
mond of Stoughton and Sarah Manning. 

1815, Dec. 28th. Sidney Willard, Professor of Harvard 
College, and Elizabeth A. Andrews. 

1819, Jan. 26th. Sidney Willard, Professor of Harvard 
College, and Hannah S. Heard. 

1830, Oct. 28th. Rev. Lyman Matthews of Braintree and 
Rachel D. How. 

1832, Jan. 25th. Rev. Edwin Jennison of Walpole, 
New Hampshire, and Mary B. Shannon. 



PUBLISHMENTS. 

1702, April 20th. Mr. William Hassey of Rumney Marsh 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Brown. 

1703, March 20th. Rev. Richard Brown of Newbury and 
Martha Whipple. 

1708, April 5th. Rev. Theophilus Cotton and Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Diamond. 

1710, Sept. 16th. Mr. Stephen Minot of Boston and Mrs. 
Sarah Wainwright. 

1713, Sept. 12th. Col. Zacheus Mayhew of Chilmark 
and Mrs. Susannah Wade. 

1715, Feb. 10th. Mr. John Wettson of Plymouth and 
Sarah Rogers. 

1719, Nov. 21st. Mr. Peleg Wiswall of Boston and Eliza- 
beth Rogers. 

1722, June 9th. Mr. Samuel Waldo of Boston and Mrs. 
Lucy Wainwright. 

The marriages in the Hamlet from 1716 to 1742, being 
twenty-six years, were one hundred and thirty. 



156 BIRTHS AND BAPTISMS. OBITUARY, &;C. 



BIRTHS AND BAPTISMS. 

The average birtlis for ten years, from 1691 to 1700, 
inclusive, are 39^. It is not certain, that all the births of 
the town, for this period, are given, though the record pro- 
fesses to do so. If we take Boston as a standard, whose 
births, from 1731 to 1752, were to its deaths as 1.13 to l,then 
39}, the births in Ipswich, would make its annual deaths nearly 
35. It is probable, however, that there was a less proportion of 
deaths at Ipswich tiian in Boston. 

As to baptisnjs, these were formerly administered to almost, 
if not quite every child, under the half-w-ay Covenant. Hence, 
the clerk of Ipswich recorded baptisms instead of births, 
a part of the time. From 1721 to 1732, being twelve years, 
there were 1161 baptisms, of which 581 were females 
and 580 males, and 6 pairs of twins. Allowing the common 
proportion of 4 children for one marriage, there were about 
290 marriages in that period. The ratio of double births 
to single ones, is as 1 to 193|. The excess of females over 
the males, being one, is unusually small. The births in Che- 
bacco Parish, from 1786 to 1802, being seventeen years, 
were 552, in which there were nine pairs of twins. This 
would make the double births to single ones as 1 to 61 1. In 
the same parish, from 1809 to 1815, being seven years, 
there were 231 births, which consisted of 95 females and 
136 males, and two pairs of twins. In this account, the males 
exceed the females by nearly one-fifth of the whole number, 
and the double births are to single ones as 1 to 115. The 
baptisms in the Hamlet Parish from 1715 to 1725 inclusive, 
were 222 children ; being 114 males and 108 females. 

1771, Sept. 20th. Three children were born at one birth 
in Chebacco. 

1784, July 4th. Three sons, born at one birth, and now 
living, were baptized in the Hamlet. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Of these notices a large collection was made. But the 
limits of our publication allow us to select only a small part 
of them. No doubt that many, who were in the private 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 157 

walks of life, either from choice or from concurring circum- 
stances, and whose characters of intelligence, usefulness, piety, 
and worth, have not been preserved for our consideration, 
might have been placed as deservedly on the pages of this 
book, as those who are. However such may be thus omit- 
ted, however they may have faded from the remembrance 
of the living, still they have not been forgotten by their 
Maker ; they are indelibly engraven on the palms of his 
hands, on the imperishable tablets of his omniscience, and 
will be gloriously revealed to an assembled uni-verse. — In 
the subsequent notices, as we shall have occasion to use the 
words died, lately, married, and horn, we put d. for the first, 
/. for the second, rn. for the third, and h. for the fourth. 

1633, April 16th. Mr. John Dillingham, merchant, d. 1. 
He became freeman 1630 ; was granted land here 1634. 
His first wife d. before 1636. He left a widow, Sarah, and 
children, Edward and Sarah. At the time of his decease, he 
had an adventure of £604 3s. lit/, on board the ship Sea 
Flower. 

1642. Nov. 23d. Richard Lumkin d. 1. He was admitted 
freeman 1633 ; was Deputy to the General Court 1638-39. 
His widow, Sarah, in 1654, had recently ra. Dea. Simon 
Stone of Watertown. 

1645, Nov. 7th. Lionel Chute, schoolmaster, d. 1. He 
left a son, James. 

1647, Sept. 28th. Matthew Whipple d. 1. He left a wife, 
Rose, whom he had m. Nov. 13th, 1646, and children by 
a former wife, deceased, John, Matthew, Joseph, Mary, Ann, 
and Elizabeth, and a brother, John. Land was granted him, 
1633, in the Hamlet, where he resided. His house was sold 
July 10th, 1647, to John Annable, tailor. He held the 
chief offices in town, and was on some of its most important 
committees. 

1647, Feb. 11th. John Shatswell d. 1. He left a wife, 
Joanna, and son, Richard. He came to Ipswich 1634, and 
was Deacon of the First Church. 

1648. John Whittingham d. He was son of Baruch, and 
grandson of Rev. William Whittingham, who m. a daughter 
of John Calvin, the Reformer. He came to Ipswich with 
his mother from Lincolnshire, England, by 1637-38, when 
he had land assigned him. 1638, he is admitted a member 
of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 1645, 



158 OBITUAEY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

he and others of Ipswich and the adjacent towns, are formed 
into a similar company by act of the Legislature. He was, 
very likely, brother to Thomas Whittingham, Lieutenant of 
Ipswich company. He m. Martha, daughter of Mr. Wm. 
Hubbard. He left children, John, Richard, William, Martha, 
Elizabeth, and Judith, and a brother, Rev. Samuel Haugh, of 
Reading. He mentioned in his will, that he had trading 
stock in the company at Ipswich. Johnson calls him " a 
godly and faithful man." 

1654. Samuel Symonds, jr., d. 1. He was son of the 
Deputy-Governor. 

1654, Sept. 26th. John Perkins d. 1. iE. 64. He left a 
wife, Judith, and children, John, Absalom, Thomas, Elizabeth 
Sarjeant, Anna Bradley, Lydia Bennet, and Jacob. He was, 
probably, the one who came over with Roger Williams 1631, 
and was freeman 1633. He held town offices, and was Deputy 
to the General Court 1636. His estate was £250 5s. 

1655, July 25th. Humphrey Bradstreet d. 1. As he lived 
near Rowley line, he ordered his body to be put in the grave- 
yard there. He left a wife, Bridget, and children, Moses, 
John, Hannah Roff, Martha Beale, Mary, Sarah, and Rebec- 
ca. He was freeman 1635, and deputy to the General Court 
the same year. 

1656, John Ward d. 1., being a physician. 

1662. Philemon Dalton d., very aged. He became free- 
man 1636 ; had lived in Dedham and Hampton. In May, 
his son, Samuel, a deputy to the General Court, asks leave to 
visit him, as mortally wounded by the fall of a tree. 

1664, Dec. 5th. Mr. Humphrey Vincent d. He was of 
Cambridge 1634, of Salem Jan. 1637, and was granted land at 
Ipswich the next February. He left no family. 

1665, Sept. 26th. Joseph Metcalf d. 1. M. 60. He left 
a wife, Elizabeth, son, Thomas, and grandchild, Joseph Met- 
calf. His estate was £370 135. He held various offices in the 
town ; freeman 1635 ; Deputy to the General Court 1635, 
1637, 1643, 1644, 1645, 1654, 1655, 1661. 1655, May 2.3d, 
he was on a Committee of the House to collect gifts made in 
England by friends to this colony. Nov. 13th, he was on 
Essex Committee for Trade. 

1666, Oct. 26th. Thomas Wells, sen., d. His wife, Abi- 
gail, survived him and d. 1671, — and children, John, Sarah 
Massey of Salem, Abigail Treadwell, Elizabeth, Thomas, 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 159 

Hannah, and Lydia. His eldest child, Nathaniel, had previ- 
ously deceased, and left a wife, Lydia. His estate was large 
for the time, £1014 35. Sd. He was probably the person, who 
was of the Artillery Company 1644. From the books, which 
he bequeathed to a son, he seems to have been a physician. 

1669, June 30th. John Whipple, of the Hamlet, d. He 
had a large grant of land 1639 ; freeman 1640 ; sustained 
various offices in town ; was feoffee of the Grammar School ; 
Deputy to the General Court 1640, 1641, 1642, 1646, 1650, 
1651, 1652, 1653 ; was Deacon and Ruling Elder of the 
First Church. He had had a wife, Sarah, who d. June 14th, 
1658, and left a widow, Jennet, and children, Susannah, relict 
of Lionel Worth of Newbury, Mary Stone, Sarah Goodhue, 
and Anthony Potter, son-in-law. His son, John, had d. 1674. 
His widow. Jennet, is executrix and heir of Thomas Dicken- 
son. Johnson mentions Mr. Whipple, as "one, whose godly 
sincerity is much approved." 

1669, Nov. Samuel Symonds d. 1., son of the Deputy 
Governor; graduted at Harvard College 1663. It is evident 
that there were two brothers in this family, named Samuel, 
while both were alive. In the will of the elder Samuel, he 
himself is called junior, and the other not. 

1669, Nov. 29th. John Cogswell, of Chebacco, d. M. 
about 58. He had been a merchant in London ; sailed in 
the Angel Gabriel for New England, 1635 ; was wrecked 
in a violent gale, Aug. 15th, at Pemaquid, where he lost 
considerable property. After living ashore some time in a 
tent, he came passenger in a bark, commanded by Captain 
Gallup, and took up his abode here. He had an unusually 
large grant of land, being 300 acres, at Chebacco, the next 
October, when there were only two other families residing in 
this parish. He was admitted freeman 1636. His wife, 
Elizabeth, survived him, and d. June 2d, 1676. His children 
were, William, John, Edward, Mary wife of an Armitage of 
Boston, Hannah, m. to Cornelius Waldo, Abigail, to Thomas 
Clark, and Sarah, to Simon Tuttle. The three last husbands 
resided in this town. Mr. Cogswell was wealthy and a prom- 
inent inhabitant of Ipswich. 

1670, June. Samuel Appleton d. He was b. at Little 
Waldingfield, England, 1586 ; came to Ipswich 1635, was 
admitted freeman 1636, and was Deputy to the General 
Court 1637. He left children, John, Samuel, Sarah wife of 



160 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

the Rev. Samuel Phillips of Rowley, Judith, wife of Samuel, 
son of the Rev. N. Rogers, and Martha, wife of Richard 
Jacobs. 

1671, Jan. 9th. John, the only son of General Daniel 
Dennison, d. His wife, Martha, daughter of Deputy-Gov- 
ernor Symonds, survived him, and appears to have married 
Richard Marty n, of Portsmouth. He left children, John and 
Martha. 

1671, Feb. 7th. Thomas Bishop, sen., d. He had held 
various offices in town ; was Deputy to the General Court 
1666. His wife, Margaret, survived him, and children, 
Samuel, John, Thomas, Job, and Nathaniel, and a brother, 
Paul Bishop, of Kingston. For the period in which he lived, 
he was very rich. Estate, £5000 is. Id. 

1672, Sept. Mrs. Margaret Lake d. 1. She left children, 
Hannah Gallup, to whom she bequeathed land in New Lon- 
don, and Martha Harris. 

1673, June 19th. Thomas Boreman, sen., d. 1. He was 
called very old in 1671. He was a cooper by trade ; was ad- 
mitted freeman 1635, and was Deputy to the General Court 
1636. He left a wife, Margaret, who d. 1680, and children, 
Thomas, Joanna, Daniel, Mary, Martha, wife of Thonias Low, 
and sons-in-law, Daniel and Robert Kinsman. His estate 
£523 6s. 6d. 

1674, July 5th. Ezekiel, son of the Rev. N. Rogers, d. 
His relict was Margaret, sister to the Rev. Wm. Hubbard, 
who d. Jan. 23d, 1675. His children were Martha, Nathaniel, 
Ezekiel, Timothy, and Samuel. He graduated at Harvard 
College, 1659. One reason why his uncle, the Rev. Ezekiel 
Roo^ers of Rowley, declined to make him his chief heir, as 
expected, was, that he would not consent to have his hair cut 

short. 

1676, June 1st. George Giddinge d. ; left widow, Jane, 
and children, Thomas, John, James and Samuel Giddinge, 
and Joseph Collins. He was of Ipswich, 1635, where he 
sustained various trusts ; was Deputy to the General Court 
1641, 1654, 1655, 1659, 1660, 1661, 1663, 1664, 1663, 
1672, 1675. He was long a Ruling Elder of the First 
Church. Estate, £1021 12s. 6d. 

1677, July 13th. John Paine, merchant, d. at Nantucket. 
He was son of Elder Robert Paine ; was admitted to the 
Artillery Company 1666. He ra. Elizabeth Cogswell, Sept. 
21st, 1657, who survived him. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 161 

1678. Thomas Howlett d. iE. 79. He lost a wife June 
26tb, 1666, and left widow Rebeckah, and children, Samuel, 
Sarah Comings, Mary Perley, and Mary, relict of his son 
Thomas, who d. Dec. 22d, 1667. His estate was £418. 
He was freeman 1634 ; held chief offices of the town ; was 
Deputy to the General Court 1635. As a brave and trusty 
officer, he was in several expeditions against the Indians. 

1678, Oct. Samuel Symonds d., and was buried the 11th. 
He was descended from an ancient and honorable family in 
Yieldham, Essex County, where he had a good estate. He 
came to this colony and settled at Ipswich 163|-, and was 
made freeman 1638. He was Town Clerk from 1639 to 
1645, and sustained other municipal trusts. He was feoffee of 
the Grammar School, and Deputy to the General Court from 
1638 to 1643, when he was chosen Assistant, and so con- 
tinued to 1673. This year, he was elected Deputy-Gov- 
ernor, and held this office till his decease ; and was long 
Justice of the Quarterly Court. As a part of his particular 

history we give the following. * 1645, Oct. 4th. He 

succeeds R. Bellingham on the Essex Committee for drawing 

up a body of laws. f 1646. He "addresses a letter to 

Governor Winthrop, in which he insists on what he con- 
sidered to be the Divine purposes in the settlement of New 
England. The conversion of the natives to the Christian faith 
and practice, he mentions as one ; ' which mercy,' he adds, 
' if attained in any considerable measure, w^ill make us go sing- 
ing to our graves.' " In accordance with this suggestion, 
the General Court instructed the Elders, Nov. 4th, to choose, 
at the election, two ministers to teach the Indians. Mr. J. 
Elliot had very recently commenced his labors among the 

Aborigines. J 1647, Jan. 6th. Mr. Symonds writes to 

Governor Winthrop, that copies of the petition to the Gen- 
eral Court by Dr. Robert Child and others were circulated 
at Ipswich, and that they were very popular among the 
young. He desired the Governor to send him a copy of the 

Court's answer to this petition. <§. 1648, May 10th. He 

is on a committee " to pass the articles of our Confederation 
with the United Colonies," and to examine the proceedings 
of the Commissioners. The Legislature grant him five hun- 

* Col. R. t Morton's Memorial. 

J Hutchinson's Coll. § Col. R. 

21 



162 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

dred acres of land in the Pequod country. Sept. 19th. He 
requests Governor Winthrop, by letter, to forward him a tran- 
script of the doctrinal confession of the late synod. 1651, 

Oct. 14th. He is granted three hundred acres of land beyond 
Merrimack River, " with free liberty for timber," if he set up 

a saw-mill there within seven years. ■ 1652, Oct. 23d. He 

is on a committee to visit " Piscataqua and settle government 
there. 1653, May 18th. He, with others and commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies, is to draw up the case between 
the Dutch and Indians. June 2d. He is of a committee who 
report, that these commissioners have no power to declare war 
for either of the colonies without its consent. Such a report 
was considered by some as equivalent to nullifying the colo- 
nial league. It opened a long dispute between Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, and New Haven, in which much wire-drawn argu- 
ment was used and much excitement produced. The first was 
loth to have war with the Dutch, on account of their trade, 
while the two others were ready for immediate hostilities with 

them. 1654, June 9th. Mr. Symonds was appointed, with 

others, to write an address to Cromwell. 1658, Oct. 20th. 

He is one of the commissioners, who are to visit the country 
eastward, and receive the submission of the people at Black 
Point, and Blue Point, Spurwick, Caso Bay, and the Islands 
thereto belonging. This submission to the authority of Massa- 
chusetts took place July 13th. 1662, May 7th. The Gen- 
eral Court grant him five hundred acres of land north of the 

Merrimack. 1665, May 3d. He is on a committee to 

answer Secretary Morrice's letter, and to consider what further 
is needful to be done about what has passed between the King's 

Commissioners and the General Court. 1667, Oct. 9th. 

He is on a committee to revise and bring in certain laws which 
had been offensive to the King. Among them was one, which 
abolished the observance of Christmas, as a relic of Episco- 
pacy. 1672, May 15th. Mr. Symonds is designated to 

hold a court in Yorkshire. He frequently performed such duty 

as this out of the jurisdiction of Ipswich Court. * 1675, 

June 8th. He is on a committee of the General Court to 
settle a difficulty between the Rev. Messrs. Higginson and Nich- 
olet of Salem, who spent three days there on this business. 
Oct. 23d. Two men are appointed to guard his house here 

* First Ch. R. of Salem. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 163 

during this war, because it is so remote from neighbours and he 
is so much on the country's service. Dec. His mills are burnt 
by the enemy at " Lamperee River." Thus called to expe- 
rience various events, he closed his active career. The Le- 
gislature, as a mark of respect for him, voted £20 towards his 
funeral charges. — His first wife was daughter of Governor 
Winthrop, who mentioned her as living, Sept. 30th, 1648. 
For his second wife he married Rebecca, widow of Daniel 
Eppes. She survived him, and d. July 21st, 1695, M. 78. 
Mr. Symonds left children, — Harlakendine ; Elizabeth, wife 
of Daniel Eppes ; Martha, wife of John Dennison and after- 
wards of Richard Martyn of Portsmouth ; Ruth, wife of the 
Rev. John Emerson of Gloucester ; Priscilla, wife of Thomas 
Baker of Topsfield ; Mary, wife of Peter Duncan of Glouces- 
ter ; Rebeckah, wife of Henry By lie of Salisbury, England, 
then of John Hall of England, then of the Rev. Wm. Worces- 
ter of Salisbury, Mass. ; and William ; and a brother, Richard 
Fitts Symonds. He had other daughters, Dorothy, married 
to Joseph Jacobs, and Susanna. His estate was £2534 9s. 
His farm at Argilla has been long noted. Who, that reviews 
the different and multiplied duties of Mr. Symonds, and the 
devoted and patriotic spirit, with which he discharged them, 
can truly deny that he merited the full, repeated, important, 
and long confidence placed in him by the public authorities ? 
Nor was he less honored in the more private walks of life. 
Whatever he undertook, whether business of town, county, 
colony, or country, he did not leave it, till he had expended 
upon it all the time, attention, and exertion which he ought. 
His politics, principles, and practices, were not swayed by 
corrupt ambition, but were deeply seasoned by the salt of piety, 
which induced him to seek first for the approbation of God, and 
then, as a consequence, to act for the best good of those, whose 
interests were committed to his care. The circle of his be- 
nevolence, his motives, and conduct, was not merely confined 
to the civilized, but also extended to the heathen, to whom he 
was an instrument of sending the Gospel more fully than it had 
been. His was a mind which looked at earthly concerns in the 
light of Revelation. His was a soul affected and moved more 
by eternal realities than by things temporal. His was a life 
which took hold on judgment, and secured the blessedness of 
justification through the Redeemer. 

1679, May 22d. William, son of Deputy-Governor Sy- 






164 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

monds, d., and was buried the 27th. He became freeman 
1670, and was Representative from Wells, Maine, to the 
General Couit 1676. He m. Mary, dauj^hter of Mr. Jona- 
than Wade, and left children. 

1679, June 24th. Phillip Fowler, sen., clothmaker, d., 
M. 88. 

1680, June 14th. Nathaniel Rogers having made his 
verbal will, when going in a troop against the Indians 1676, 
it is now settled. He gave property to John, the eldest son 
of his brother, Mr. John Rogers. 

1681, July 23d. Sarah, wife of Deacon Joseph Goodhue, 
and youngest daughter of Elder John Whipple, d. suddenly. 
She left ten children. On the 14th preceding her decease, 
she wrote her farewell, " full of spiritual exercises, sage coun- 
sels, pious instructions, and serious exhortations, directed to 
her husband and children with other near relatives and friends." 
This was printed at Cambridge 1681 , and reprinted 1770. 

1681, May 3d. Mr. Rfchard Hubbard of the Hamlet d. 
His wife Sarah survived him. She is supposed to have been 
a daughter of Governor Bradstreet, and, for her second hus- 
band, m. Samuel Ward, of Marblehead, before July 24th, 
1684, who lost his life in Canada expedition as Major, 1690. 
Mr. Hubbard left children ; Sarah, m. to the Rev. John Cotton 
of Yarmouth, Richard, Nathaniel, John, and Simon. His 
estate was £1457 55. He was son of Mr. Wm. Hubbard, 
and brother of the Rev. Wm. Hubbard. He graduated at 
Harvard College 1653, held principal offices in the town, and 
was Deputy to the General Court 1660. 

1682, Sept. 20th. Daniel, son of William Dennison of 
Roxbury, d. of strangury, M. 70, and was buried on the 22d. 
He was of Cambridge 1633, freeman 1634, had land assigned 
him at Ipswich 1635. He m. Patience, daughter of Gov- 
ernor Thomas Dudley, had lost a son, John, and left a daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, wife of John Rogers, President of Harvard 
College. To this daughter he bequeathed five hundred acres 
of land. He sustained several offices in the town and was feoffee 
of the Grammar School. He was Representative to the Gen- 
eral Court from 1635 to 1640, 1644, 1648, 1649, 1651, 1652, 
and Secretary of the Colony 1653, in the absence of Ed- 
ward Rawson. He was speaker of the House 1649 and 1652, 
— long a Justice of the Quarterly Court, — Assistant from 
1654 to 1682, — Reserve Commissioner of the United Colo- 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 165 

nies 1658, and Commissioner of the same 1654, 1655, 1656, 
1657, 1659, 1660, 1661, 1662. He was of the Aitllleiy 
Company, and chosen by the Legislature Major-General of 
the Colony 1653, 1656, 1659, 1660, 1662, 1674, 1675, 1676, 
1678, 1679, 1680. He also held this office 1652, in the 
absence of General Robert Sedgwick. We give the subse- 
quent particulars of General Dennison's life. * 1634, 

April 1st. The Legislature grant him two hundred acres of 
land above the Falls, on the eastern side of Charles River. 

1643, May 10th. He is on a conuTiittee to put the 

country in a posture of defence. 1646, May. He is of 

commissioners to treat with D'Aulnay at Penobscot. 

1653, May 18th. He is connected with Deputy-Governor 
Symonds at this date, and, June 2d, in proceedings relative to 

war with the Dutch and to the rightsof the colony. 1654, 

May 3d. He is of a committee to prepare all former laws, both 
printed and written, with an index, so that they may be 
printed in one book. June 9th. He is appointed with 

others to write to Oliver Cromwell. 1655, Nov. 13th. 

He is on a committee of trade for Essex county. He is among 
the commissioners of the United Colonies, who thus address 
the Government of Rhode Island: "We suppose you have 
understood, that the last year a company of Quakers arrived 
at Boston, upon no other account than to dispense their per- 
nicious opinions ; " and they desire them not to encourage the 

Quakers as they had begun. 1657, Sept. He receives 

instructions from the commissioners of the United Colonies, to 
go with two others and require Ninigrett, the Niantick Sachem, 

to forbear hostility against the people of Uncas. 1658, 

Oct. 19th. He had revised and corrected the colony laws, 
which are to be immediately printed. He is granted one quar- 
ter of Block Island, " for his great pains in transcribing the 

laws." 1662, July 2d. He had six hundred acres, which 

were assigned to him, Oct. 1660, beyond Merrimack, laid 
out, beginning "at the upper end of an Island over against Old 

Will's wigwam." 1664, May 18th. He is one of the 

commissioners on a difficulty between Rhode Island and Mas- 
sachusetts about Southertovvn. 1666, Sept. 19th, As the 

Legislature did not answer the King according to the petition of 
Ipswich and other towns, he enters his dissent, because, as he 

* Col. R. 



166 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

thought, their reply did not give due satisfaction to His Ma- 
jesty nor tend to the preservation of peace and liberty in the 

colony. 1671, May 31st. He is appointed to keep a Court 

at Hampton and Salisbury. He was called several times to 
perform service like this out of Ipswich Court Jurisdiction. 
1672, Aug. 19th. He had made preparation, as General, to 

resist the Indians, who had crossed the Merrimack. 1675, 

Oct. The Assistants write to him, encouraging his efforts to 
raise forces for attacking the Indians in their quarters. He is 
instructed to secure suspected Indians at Wamesick and about 
Chelmsford. 1 676, Feb. He is required to repair to Marl- 
borough and order the troops thither. May 3d. He is to su- 
perintend, the last of this month, the forces there. Aug. 6th. 
He writes to the Assistants, that great alarm prevailed in this 
part of Essex, because the enemy had passed the Merrimack. 
Sept. 26th. Richard Martyn of Portsmouth informs him that 
the Indians were destroying property and lives at Casco Bay, 
that a few of the enemy were killed and taken, that the Eng- 
lish were much in want of bread, and that more soldiers were 
greatly needed at Wells and York. Oct. 11th. General Den- 
nison is ordered to Portsmouth to take command of the eastern 

expedition. 1677, March 29th. He is one of the colony 

licensers, who give Wm. Hubbard leave to publish his " Present 
State of New England." May 23d. He is one of three to grant 

permits for Indians to carry guns. He left a book at his 

decease, called " Irenicon, or Salve for New England's Sore," 
printed in 16b4. In this work he considered, " 1. What 
are our present maladies? 2. What might be the occasion 
thereof; 3. The danger ; 4. The blamable cause; 5. The 
cure." General Dennison possessed a mind which was well 
balanced, with a clear and strong understanding, and with 
extensive information on various subjects of a public as well as 
of a private nature. He was a man, in whom his country could 
always confide in seasons of peril, and to whom they long 
committed a large share of their most important trusts. The 
greater his responsibility, the more he proved himself faithful. 
Whatever he did, whether for society, the state, or the church, 
whether in council or in the field, he did well. His more than 
common natural and acquired abilities, were controlled and ren- 
dered eminently useful by the influence of religion, which 
prompts to the doing of good, for its own reward, even the con- 
sciousness of Divine approbation. He was unswayed by the 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 167 

false, pernicious, and perilous notion, which too extensively 
ahounds in our day, that men of public trusts have no need of 
piety to keep them within the bounds of their duty. The 
Rev. Wm. Hubbard preached a sermon at General Dennison's 
interment, which was printed with his " Irenicon " ; and in which 
it is justly remarked, " The greater is our sorrow, who are now 
met together to solemnize the funeral of a person of so great 
worth, enriched with so many excellencies, which made him 
live neither undesired nor unlamented, nor go to the grave un- 
observed." 

1683, Aug. 10th. John, son of Matthew Whipple, d. at 
the Hamlet. He m. Elizabeth Woodman, May 5th, 1659, 
who survived him. He left children, Susan Lane, Sarah, 
John, Matthew, and Joseph. His estate was £3,000. He 
held principal offices of the town, was feoffee of the Grammar 
School, and Representative to the General Court in 1674, 1679, 

1682, 1683. 1676, Feb. 21st. He is appointed by the 

Legislature, as Captain of a troop, to march for Marlborough 

against the enemy. 1677, July 8th. He had been lately 

with a troop to fight Indians at Salisbury. 1683, April 10th. 

He was County Treasurer. His fair and expanding prospect 
of usefulness and honor could not delay his exit. 

1683, Aug. 21st. Robert Lord d. in his eightieth year. 
He appears to have been son of Widow Catharine Lord, who 
was of Ipswich 1637. He became freeman in 1636, was Deputy 
to the General Court in 1638. He was appointed searcher of 
coin for this town in 1654. He was long Town Clerk, and also 
Clerk of the Court till his decease. The latter office included 
the duties now performed by the Clerk of Probate and Register 
of Deeds. He m. Mary Wait in 1630, who survived him. 
He left children, Robert, Sarah Wilson, Nathaniel, Thomas, 
and Samuel, (these two last living at Charlestown,) Abigail 
Foster, Susannah Osgood, Hannah G^w, and children of his 
daughter Chandler. His estate was £645. Mr. Lord was a 
useful, upwright, and worthy man. 

1683, Nov. 27th. Thomas Andrews, teacher of the Gram- 
mar School, d.l. He was a bachelor ; left half of his property 
to two children of his only brother, John Andrews, and the 
other half to his two sisters, one of whom was a Hovey and 
had a son Daniel. 

1683, Dec. Jonathan Wade d. 1. He m. Mrs. Dorothy 
Buckley, Dec. 9th, 1660, who must have been his second 



168 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

wife ; and his third wife, Susannah, d. Nov. 29th, 1678. He 
left brothers, Nathaniel and Thomas ; and children, Jonathan, 
Nathaniel, to both of whom he had given a farm at Mystick, 
where they lived ; Thomas, to whom he willed lands and mills 
in Ipswich ; Prudence, wife of Anthony Crosby, wife of Samuel 
Rogers ; Susannah, wife of Wm. Symonds ; Elizabeth, wife of 
Elihu Wardwell. In January, 1630, he put £50 into the colony 
stock, and afterwards £10, for which he petitioned the Gen- 
eral Court in 1682, tliat his proportion of land might be 
allowed. He was accordingly granted 800 acres. His estate 
was £7,859 55. Sd. He sustained the chief offices of the 
town, and was Representative to the Legislature in 1681,1682. 
He was an enterprising promoter of mechanical employments 
in the town. He took an early and deep interest in the colony, 
and sought to advance its welfare both in word and deed. 
While sliaring largely in the blessings of Providence, he was 
careful to make them a benefit to others. 

1684. Robert Paine d. about this year ; b. 1601, and was of 
Ipswich 1640. His wife Dorcas d. Feb. 23d, 1681. He had 
two sons, John and Robert. He sustained the principal trusts 
of the town, was feoffee of the Grammar School, to the funds 
of which he contributed more than any other individual ever 
has; was Deputy to the General Court in 1647, 1648, 1649. 
He was on the committee of trade for Essex in 1655; was ap- 
pointed County Treasurer in 1665, and resigned this office in 
1683. He was a Ruling Elder in the First Church. His pro- 
fession and office were adorned by a life of active, exemplary 
usefulness. Johnson said of him, that he was "a right godly 
man, and one whose estate hath holpen on well with the work 
of this little commonw-ealth." 

1691, March 3d. John Giddinge of Chebacco d. 1. He 
was Deputy to the General Court in 1653, 1654, 1655. He 
left a widow, Sarah. 

1692, May 19th. Francis Wainwright d. suddenly while 
on business at Salem. He formerly lived with Alexander 
Knight, innkeeper at Chelmsford, England, and with him 
came to Ipswich. He w^as a soldier in the Pequod expedition 
in 1637, and for his brave exploits there was greatly applaud- 
ed. By his diligence and sagacity in business, he became a 
wealthy, useful, and respectable merchant. His wife, Phillis, 
d. Oct. 9th, 1669. He appears to have left a wife, Han- 
nah, who m. Daniel Epes of Salem. Mr. Benjamin Wain- 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 169 

Wright, buried Sept. 25th, 1686, was, very probably, his son. 
He left children, John, Simon (killed by the Indians at Haver- 
hill), and Francis. His descendants have long been among 
the most noted families of our country. 

1692, Aug. 16th. Samuel, son of Samuel Appleton, d. 
He was b. at Waldingfield in 1625, and probably came to Ips- 
wich when his father did. He m. Hannah, daughter of Wil- 
liam Paine, and for his second wife, Mary, daughter of John 
Oliver of Newbury, Dec. 2d, 1656, she being b. June 7th, 
1640, and d. June 9th, 1712. He left children, Samuel, 
John, Judith Wolcott, Joanna Whipple, and Oliver. He had 
lost a daughter Downs, whose only child was Isaac. He held 
several offices in the town, was Representative to the General 
Court in 1669, 1671, 1673, 1675, 1676, 1667, 1679, 1680. 
He was of the Governor's Council in 1681, 1682, 1683, 1684, 
1685, 1686,1689,1690, 1691,1692; Justice of the Quarterly 
and General Sessions Courts, and of the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer, April 11th, 1692, for the trial of persons charged 
with witchcraft. He was concerned in the iron-works at Lynn 

in 1645, though Ipswich became his permanent residence. 

1675, Oct. 23d. The Assistants write him to keep five hundred 
men for the defence of the frontier towns at the west against 
the Indians. In this quarter he was several times successful 
in repelling the enemy and preventing several places from 
being consumed. When Hatfield was attacked, Oct. 19th, a 
bullet passed through his hair, and a serjeant was mortally 
wounded by his side. Dec. 9th. He served as Major in an 
expedition against the Narragansetts, and had the command of 
five hundred men in the great battle. His skill, and bravery, 
and exertions did much towards securing victory. While in 
this campaign, he had his tent burnt, and his men lost their 

clothes and arms. His diversified and complicated duties, as 

a warrior, legislator, and judge, he ably and faithfully dis- 
charged. 

1693, Jan. 8th. Captain Daniel Eppes d. M. about 6S. 
His wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Deputy-Governor Symonds, 
d. May 7th, 1685, M. 61. He left children, of whom were 
Symonds and Daniel, the latter of whom removed to Salem. 
He frequently held offices in the town, was Representative to the 
Legislature in 1684, 1686, 1689, and Justice of the General 

Sessions Court. 1639, July 3d. He was on a committee 

of the House to raise men in the Upper Essex Regiment. 

99 



170 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

1690, Nov. 4th. He was designated with others to revise 



the laws about public charges. 

1693, Dec. Robert, son of Elder Robert Paine, d. M. 
59. He rn. Elizabeth Reiner, July 11th, 1666. He had a 
son John, b. Oct. 24th, 1684, and left a daughter Elizabeth, 
who m. Daniel Smith, and d. 1717. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1656, and was a preacher. 

1694, June. Thomas Burnam d. M.ll ; left a wife, Mary, 
and children, Thomas, John, James, Mary, Johannah, Abi- 
gail, Ruth, Sarah, and Hester. He was of Ipswich in 1647, 
Selectman, and on town committees ; freeman in 1671, 
Deputy to the General Court in 1683, 1684, 1685. 

1694, Nov. 5th. John Burnam d. He was Deacon of 
Chebacco church, and left a son John. 

1695, Nov. 2-2d. John Whipple, sen., of the Hamlet, d. He 
was son of Matthew, baptized in Essex, England, Sept. 6th, 
1632. He was Lieutenant of a troop, held town offices, was Dep- 
uty to the General Court in 1674, 1679, 1682, 1683. He m. 
a daughter (Mary) of Humphrey Reyner of Rowley. She 
survived him. He left children, John, Matthew, Joseph, 
Cyprian, Marv, Anna, Sarah, Elizabeth, and Hannah. Es- 
tate £1639 16s. 

1696, Jan. 2d. Moses Pengry d. M. 86. His wife, 
Lydia, d. Jan. 16th, 1676. He was of Ipswich in 1642, 
set up salt-works here in 1652, was Selectman and often on 
town business, was Deputy to the General Court in 1 665, and 
was Deacon of the First Church. He lived long and usefully 
on earth, as one preparing for a heritage in heaven. 

1696, Oct. 4th. Thomas, son of Jonathan -Wade, d. 
M. 46. He m. Elizabeth Cogswell, Feb. 22d, 1670, who 
d. Dec. 28th, 1726. He had children, Jonathan, Thomas, 
John, William, Nathaniel, Elizabeth, Edward, Samuel, and 
Susannah. He was often engaged in town business, was long 

Town Clerk, and Justice of the General Sessions Court. 

1691. He was Captain of a troop. 1692, May 4th. He is 

appointed by the General Court on a committee to consider 

the petition of West Newbury, for settling a minister. 

1696, April 5th. As Colonel of Middle Essex Regiment, he 
receives orders from Lieutenant-Governor Stoughton, to call 
out his men against French and Indians, as occasion may 
require, and to order military watches, wards, and scouts, as 
be needful. When he fell, death had " a shining mark." 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 171 

1696, Nov. 11th. Robert, son of Robert Lord, d. He m. 
Hannah Day, who survived him. He had sons, Robert, 
John, Thomas, James, Joseph, who removed to Cohanzey, 
N. J., and Nathaniel, who removed to the Isle of Shoals. He 
was Selectman, and often chosen for town affairs, and was Mar- 
shal of the Couit ten years. 

1697, Sept. 2d. Joseph, son of Deacon Wm. Goodhue, 
d. JE. 56. He became freeman in 1674, was frequently 
Selectman, and was Deacon of the First Church. He ra. Sarah 
Whipple, July 3d, 1661, whose dying advice was published, 
as previously related. Hem. widow Rachel Todd, Oct. 15th, 
1685, and left a wife, Mary, and children, William, Mary 
Norton, Margery Knowlton, Sarah Kimball, Susannah Kim- 
ball, Joseph, and Anna Todd, daughter-in-law. 

1699, Oct. 27th. Simon Stacey d. He was Selectman, 
often entrusted with town affairs, Captain of a company, and 
Representative to the General Court in 1685, 1686, 1689. 
He left a wife, Sarah, who d. Nov. 29th, 1711. Estate £660 
8s. Id. 

1700. William Goodhue d. 1. M. 85. He became 
freeman in 1636, sustained the chief trusts of the town, was 
Representative to the Legislature in 1666, 1667, 1673, 
1676, 1677, 1680, 1681, 1683. He was imprisoned and 
fined under the administration of Andros, for resisting illegal 
taxation. His first wife was Margery Watson, by whom he 
had children, Joseph, William, and Mary. He m. Mary 
Webb, Sept. 7th, 1664. He lived long, but his life was 
filled with usefulness, and gave honor to his name. 

1700, March 27th. John, son of Samuel Appleton, d. I. ; 
b. at Little Waldingham in 1622. He m., in 1651, Priscilla, 
daughter of the Rev. Jesse Glover, who d. on his passage 
from England to this country in 1639. She survived him with 
her children, John, Samuel, Jesse ; Elizabeth, wife of Richard 
Dummer, of Newbury ; Priscilla, wife of the Rev. Joseph 
Capen, of Topsfield ; Sarah Rogers, and Mary Thomas. He 
was Representative to the General Court in 1656, 1657, 1658, 
1659, 1660, 1662, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1666, 1667, 1669, 1670, 
1671, 1674, 1678 ; was Clerk of the Courts, and County Trea- 
surer. As Captain of a troop, he went to pursue Indians near 
Salisbury in 1677. For opposing the Province Treasurer's 
illegal order to assess taxes here, he was imprisoned, fined, and 
disfranchised. He left a large estate, and, what is far better, 
an estimable character. 



172 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

1700, Dec. William, son of John Cogswell, d. M. 81, 
and was buried the 17th. He left a daughter Elizabeth, 
widow of Col. T. Wade, and had three other daughters m. to 
Thomas Burnam, Benjamin White, and Wm. Noyes. His 
wife was living in 1693, when a committee, for assigning places 
in the meeting-house, appointed her to sit with the minister's 
wife. Mr. Cogswell was active, against much and protracted 
opposition, in getting a church and society formed in Che- 
bacco, where he lived ; was often Selectman of this parish, and 
one of its most intelligent, useful, and respectable inhabi- 
tants. 

1703. Samuel, son of Nathaniel Bishop, d. 1. ; b. March 
7th, 1647. He graduated at Harvard College, 1665. He 
left a widow, Esther, who m. a Burnam in 1704. 

1707, Sept. 15th. Rev. Francis, son of Captain Wm. 
Goodhue, d. at Rehoboth of a fever, on his way to Ipswich 
from Jamaica, L. I., where he was a minister. He was b. Oct. 
4th, 1678, and graduated at Harvard College 1699. Though 
commissioned to preach eternal life, he was soon and suddenly 
called to experience his own mortality. 

1707, Dec. 31st. Dr. Joseph Calef d. He left a wife, 
and children, Robert, Joseph, Samuel, Ebenezer, Peter, and 
Mary. 

1708, July 30th. John, son of Francis Wainwright, d. in his 
sixtieth year. He m. Elizabeth Norton, March 10th, 1675, 
who survived him. He left children, Elizabeth, wife of Ad- 
dington Davenport ; Ann, wife of Adam Winthrop ; both of 
Boston ; Lucy Dudley, Francis, John, and Samuel. To the 
male heirs of his sons he entailed his real estate, and gave 
his eldest son, Francis, a double portion as was then usual. 
He had given £3000 to his three daughters. His estate was 
£19,549 6s. He sustained various trusts in the town ; was 
Representative to the General Court 1696 and 1698; was 
Colonel of a Regiment, and Justice of the Sessions Court. 
* 1707, March 13th. He sails from Boston on an expedi- 
tion against Nova Scotia. As a merchant he was greatly 

prospered. In peace he benefited his town and country by 
his counsel and trade ; in war, he defended their rights by his 
wealth and bravery. 

1710, June 5th. Nehemiah, son of George Abbot of 

* Penhallow. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 173 

Rowley, d. 1. He was an inhabitant of Ipswich ; became 
freeman, 1669, and was chosen Deacon of Topsfield Church 
May 24th, 1686. 

1710, July 9th. Jacob Foster d. He left a wife, Abigail, 
and children, Sarah, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, and James. 
He was Deacon of the First Church. 

1711, Feb. 1st. Nicholas Wallis d. in his eighty-seventh 
year; was Representative to the General Court 1691. 

1711, Aug. 3d. Francis, son of Francis Wainwright, d. 
He was b. Aug. 25th, 1664; graduated at Harvard College, 
1636; m. Sarah Whipple, March 12th, 16S6, who d. March 
16th, 1709, M. 38. Before his decease he covenanted to 
marry Mrs. Elizabeth Hirst, of Salem, but death prevented 
their union. He left children, Sarah, wife of Stephen Minot 
of Boston, Elizabeth, and Lucy. He was engaged in trade 
and commerce. He bequeathed £5 to the First Church 
for plate, and £100 to Mrs. Hirst, his betrothed. His estate 
£1914. He became member of the Artillery Company 
1709 ; was Colonel of a regiment ; Town Clerk several 
years ; Representative to the General Court, 1699 1700 ; 
feoffee of the Grammar School ; Justice of the General Ses- 
sions Court ; and Commissioner and Collector of Excise for 

Essex. 1700, June 7th. He was on a Committee of the 

House to report how the Jesuit Missionaries may be prevented 
from influencing the Indians to hostilities against the English. 
While his mind was applying its strength and intelli- 
gence to his various duties, while he had the happy conscious- 
ness of pursuing the good of others as well as himself, while 
fast ascending to more than common eminence, he was called 
to quit his hold upon the attractions of life. 

1712, April 12th. Thomas Low, Deacon of Chebacco 
Church, d. M. 80. He left a wife, Martha, and children, 
Samuel, Jonathan, David, Martha Dodge, Joanna Dodge, 
Sarah, and Abigail Goodhue. 

1712, Oct. f2th. Capt. William, son of Deacon Wm. 
Goodhue, d. 1. He m. Hannah Dane 1666, who survived 
him. He left children, Hannah Cogswell, Marsery Giddinge, 
Bethiah Marshal, Nathaniel, Joseph, John. He bequeathed 
the library of his deceased son, Rev. F. Goodhue, to his 
grandson, Francis Cogswell, who was fitting for College. He 
was Deacon of Chebacco Church ; became freeman 16S1 ; 
was Selectman, and Representative 1691, 1692, 1698, 1701, 



174 omruAUY and ukxjuaimiical noticks. 

nO-l, 170(5, 1707, 170S, 1711. Mo was a man, whose feel- 
ings, motives, and actions were ])revailinL:;ly of the kind, wliich 
lie would have ihem to he j)erfectly hereafter and for ever. 

171. 'J, Dee. 2:M. Nathaniel Kiist, glover, d. 1. He had 
sons-in-law, Daniel Ringe and Thomas Norlon. He was 
K(!))resentative 1(590, and, the same year, Quarter-master in 
the expedition to Canada. * Dec. lOtli. As Major Sanuiel 
Ward and the rest of the oflicers, helonging to JVlr. Kust's 
comnany, are ahstnit, he is to i^rant eertifieaies to the soldiers 
of this company. 

1714, Aug. ;50th. Kev. Samuel J3elcher, formerly preach- 
ed at the Isle of Shoals and then at West JNewhury, now resi- 
dent in Ipswich, his native place, d. M. 74. He gratkiated at 
Harvard ('olh'ge 1(5.^)9 ; left a widow, Mercy, and son Jeremy. 

1717, Feh. I7tli. Thomas Hart d. He left sons, John 
and JNathan ; was Jiepresentative 1(591}, 1(594. 

1717, March Hth. Doct. Philemon Dean d. He m. Mary 
Thompson Oct. 7th, 1(5H.^) ; m. Uuth Convers Dec. 25th, 
1(590, who survived him ; left u son, Philemon, and daughter- 
in-law, widow of his son lOdward. 

1720, Jan. 20th. Nehemiah Jewett d. 1., son of Jeremiah, 
who d. 1714. ilis wife's name was Exercise, and was alive 
1685. He left children, Nehemiah, Joseph, and Jk'njamin, 
and son-in-law, Daniel Dow, and grandson, Nehemiah Skillion. 
He sustained various trusts in the town ; was Rejiresentative 
U5H9, 1(590, 1(592, 1(59:1, 1(594, 1(595, 169(5, 1(597, 1701, 
1702, nO-'J, 1704, 1705, 1706, 1707, 1709, and Speaker of the 
House 1(59;}, 1694, 1701 ; was Justice of the Sessions Court. 
1711- 12, he was on a Committee to compensate individuals, 
who were damaged hy prosecutions for witchcraft, or the heirs 
of such among these individuals as had died. Mr. Jewett was 
a highly respected memher of the Legislature and esteemed in 
every walk of his life. 

1721, May 2(1. Dr. John Bridgham d. in his seventy-sixth 
year. He graduated at Harvard Colle!2;e 1669. His will men- 
tioned a nephew, Samuel, son of his hrother Jonathan deceas- 
ed, and made his nephew Joseph, son of his brother Joseph, 
his chief heir. He was a skilful physician. 

1722, March 17th. Dea. John Cilhert d. at the Hamlet. 
1722, June 15th. Abraham Perkins d. 1. He left a wife, 

• Prov. R. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 175 

Hannah, and children, John and Stephen ; was Representative 
1710. 

1722, June 27th, John, son of John Wliipple, having 
gone to bed well, is found dead in the morning ; b. March 
30th, 1660 ; his wife Susannah d. Oct. 20th, 1701 ; left 
children, only son John ; Mary, wife of Benjamin Crocker ; 
Martha, wife of the Rev. Richard Brown of Newbury ; Susan- 
nah, wife of John Rogers. He was frequently engaged in 
town business; held the office of Major; was Representative 
1695, and Justice of Sessions Court. 

1722, Sept. 4th. Francis, son of John and Elizabeth 
Wainwright, d. " at his sister's, Mrs. Ann Winthrop's of Bos- 
ton, after a long languishment." He graduated at Harvard 
Collet^^e 1707. 

1724, Nov. 25th. John, son of the Rev. John Dennison, 
d. After his mother m. the Rev. Rowland Cotton, and 
moved to Sandwich, he lived and fitted for College at Ips- 
wich. He graduated at Harvard College 1710, studied 
divinity and preached a year or two ; but, his health failing 
him, he settled here as a Lawyer. He m. Mary, daughter 
of John Leverett, President of Harvard College. She and 
one son and one daughter survived him. 

1724, Oct. 30th. Samuel, son of Samuel Appleton, d. 
iE. 71. He m. Elizabeth Whittingham of Boston, who out- 
lived him and m. the Rev. Edward Payson of Rowley. He 
left children, Samuel, his chief heir, Hannah Clark, Martha 
Wise, Whittingham, and Elizabeth, the two last being minors. 
His son was probably the one, of whom v/as the following 
notice: "London, Dec. 21st, 1728. On Sunday morning, 
died, after eight days' illness of small-pox, Mr. Samuel Apple- 
ton, an eminent New England merchant, of ample fortune and 
great merit, and in the prime of life." The widow of this son, 
who resided in Boston, was Anna, who m. the Rev. Joshua 
Gee, April, 1734. We have been thus particular because 
the Samuel of Boston has been confounded with his flither 
of Ipswich. The latter person was Justice of the Sessions 
Court ; Commander of a Regiment, and, as such, was in the 
expedition against Canada 1690 ; Representative 1699, 1710, 
1711, 1712 ; and of the Governor's Council 1713, 1714. He 
lived respected, and died lamented. 

1726, Sept. 28th. Nathaniel Knowlton d. He was deacon 
of the First Church, long Town Treasurer, and Representative 



176 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

in 1700, 1702, 1703, 1705, 1708, 1709, 1714, 1715, 1720. 

Though honored by men, he did not forget to honor his God. 

1728, Nov. 12th. Dr. Samuel Wallis d. 1. He m. Sarah 
Watson, Dec. 30th, 1690, who, with her children, Sarah, 
Abigail, Elizabeth, and Anna, survived him. Estate £1200. 

1730, May 25th. John Staniford, M. 82. He was Deacon 
of the First Church. He left children, John, Thomas, William, 
Samuel, Jeremiah, Tryphene Lord, and had lost a daughter 
Margaret. 

1732. Henry, son of the Rev. John Wise, d. 1. He grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1717, was a merchant and resided 
for a time in Boston and removed thence to this town. 

1732, Oct. 9th. Deacon Seth Story, of Chebacco, d. 
M. 86. 

1733, July 9th. Deacon John, son of John Choate, of 
Chebacco, d. M. 73. He m. widow Sarah Perkins, July 
20th, 1723, and widow Prudence Marshall, March 12th, 
1729, who d. 1732. 

1734, Aug. 1st. John Baker, Esq., d. He was b. Jan. 
16th, 1690 ; m. Mary Perley, who survived him ; and his 
children were John, Mary, Samuel, Thomas d. an infant, and 
Thomas. His estate £3900. 

1735, June. Robert Lord d. He was b. Dec. 26th, 1657 ; 
m. Abigail Ayres, June 7th, 1683 ; left children Hannah, 
Ruth, Abigail, Mary, Susannah, Martha, and Samuel. He was 
Deacon of the First Church, and " was very exemplary in his 
life." 

1736, Deacon Jonathan Fellows, of the First Church, d. 
He m. Mrs. Deborah Tilton of Hampton, N. H., May 19th, 
1733. 

1737, Deacon Thomas Norton, of the First Church, d. 
He held various trusts in the town, and was highly respected. 

1739, Jan. 28th. Matthew Whipple, of the Hamlet, d. in 
his eightieth year. He m. Martha, daughter of John, and grand- 
daughter of General Dennison. She d. Sept. 12th, 1723, in 
her sixtieth year. Mr. Whipple left children, Matthew^ John, 
William, who was of Kittery in 1730, where his son William 
was born, who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence 
and Brigadier-General at the capture of Burgoyne; — Joseph, 
settled in the ministry at Hampton Falls, and Martha 
Hartshorne. He had a malt-house and oat-mill, in which he 
carried on much business. To his mulatto servant he gave 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 177 

freedom. He bequeathed his house and lands to Matthew and 
John. Estate £3500. He held several offices in the town, 
was Justice of the Sessions Court, Representative in 1718, 
1719, 1729. He was an energetic, useful, and respected 
townsman. 

1739, March 24th. Captain Daniel Ringe d. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1709 ; had a farm at the Hamlet ; 
was Representative in 1712. He left a wife, Hannah. His 
estate £2462 95. 9d. The expenses of his funeral were very 
large. 

1739, April 9th. Dr. Hugh Egan d. 1. In the account of 
his estate, Elizabeth Egan is mentioned, probably his widow. 

1739, Sept. 1st. John, son of John and Elizabeth Wain- 
wright, merchant, d. He was b. June 19th, 1691, graduated 
at Harvard College in 1709 or 1711 ; m. Christian Newton of 
Boston, Feb. 1 1th, 1723. She, and, of his children, John and 
Francis, survived him. He was long an excellent Clerk, and 
held other trusts of the town ; became member of the Artillery 
Company in 1714 ; was Colonel of a regiment ; Representa- 
tive in 1720, 1721, 1722, 1723, 1724, 1725, 1726, 1727, 172S, 
1729, 1730, 1732, 1734, 1735, 1737, 1738 ; was Clerk of the 
House in 1724, 1725, 1726, 1727, 1728, 1734, 1735, 1736 ; was 

Justice of the General Sessions Court. 1723, Sept. 7th. 

He was on Committee of the House to consider the number 
of forces necessary for defending the inhabitants and garrisons of 

the county of York. 1724, June 19th. He is designated 

with others to lay out land for one hundred and one persons at 

Penny Cook. 1725, Dec. 3d. He had been recently on 

a voyage with John Stoddard of Northampton, to St. George's 
River, to treat with the Indians. — — 1726, Jan. 15th. He is 
among forty-eight against thirty-five of the House, for receiving 
the Explanatory Charter. Oct. 27th. He writes to the 
LieutenaiTt-Governor, that Philip Durill, of Kennebunk, had his 
family killed or carried off, and his house robbed and burnt, by 

the Indians, as was suspected. 1735, Jan. He was on a 

committee to receive claims from officers and soldiers who 
had been in the fight above Deerfield, (called the Falls Fight,) or 
their heirs, to a township of land to the northward of Deerfield. 
While honors were fast clustering upon him, and many friends 
delighted to mark his course, death took him from the sphere of 
his extensivje usefulness and removed his active spirit to eter- 
nal scenes. 

23 



178 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

1739, Sept. 11th. John Appleton d. in his eighty-seventh 
year. He m. Elizabeth, daughter of John Rogers, President of 
Harvard College, Nov. 23d, 1681. She survived him. His chil- 
dren were, Elizabedi, wife of the Rev. Jabez Fitch; Margaret, 
wife of President Holyoke ; Priscilla, the first wife of the Rev. 
Robert Ward of Wenhani, she having died July 22d, 1724, 
JE. 28 ; Nathaniel, minister of Cambridge, and Daniel, his 
principal heir. He was often chosen to discharge town offices ; 
was Representative in 1697; of the Governor's Council from 
1698 to 1723, inclusive; was Colonel of a regiment ; Justice 
of the General Sessions and Common Pleas Courts, and 

Judge of Probate twenty years. 1700, June 7th. He 

was on a committee to report measures for breaking up the 

intrigues of Jesuit Missionaries among the Indians. 1707, 

March 13th. He sailed from Boston on an expedition against 
Nova Scotia. The sermon preached on his death, by his 
brother, John Rogers, had for its subject, " The perfect and 
upright man characterized." Nathaniel Rogers also preached 
on the same occasion. Both sermons represent Mr. Appleton 
as having eminently exhibited, for a long period, the beneficent 
principles of the Gospel. This is a character which will ever 
live in the estimation of the estimable, which will ever cleave 
to its possessors, and ever be to them a revenue of glory and 
blessedness in " heavenly places." 

1741, Aug. 30th. Symonds Eppes d. at the Hamlet in his 
seventy -ninth year. He m. Mary Whipple in 1715, much 
younger than himself, who became the third wife of President 
Holyoke, and d. at Cambridge, IMarch, 1790, in her ninety- 
second year. He left two children, minors, Samuel and Eliza- 
beth. He gave a large silver can to the Hamlet Church. He 
held principal offices in town, was Colonel of a regiment; Jus- 
tice of the General Sessions Court, and of the Governor's Coun- 
cil from 1724 to 1734 inclusive. 1697, Feb. 5th. He 

receives a letter from Lieutenant-Governor Stoughton to have his 

troops in readiness for the enemy. 1730, Sept. 22d. He 

is notified to attend with the Council of the Governor at Cam- 
bridge, on " matters of great importance." This very probably 
related to Governor Belcher's charges against the House, to 
be laid before Parliament, because they refused to obey the 
King's instructions. Mr. Eppes lived so as to deserve and 
receive the commendation of the worthy, who knew him. 

1742, Jan. Richard, son of the Rev. John Rogers, d. 1. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 179 

He was b. Dec. 2d, 1702; graduated at Harvard College in 
1725; became a merchant; was Representative in 1730, 1740, 
1741, and a Justice. He left a wife, Mary, and estate £1151 
4s. lOd. L. M. He was cut off when his worldly prospect was 
increasingly promising. 

1745, April. Captain Thomas Choate, of Chebacco, d. 1. 
He left a second wife, Hannah, and children, Anna Burnam, 
Thomas, Rache\ Martin, Mary Rust, John, Mary (?) Dodge, 
Abigail Boardmim, Francis, Ebenezer, Sarah, vvife of the Rev. 
Ames Cheever of Manchester ; and his last wife's daughter, 
Mrs. Mary White. He was Representative in 1723, 1724, 
1725, 1727. 

1746. Deacon John Burnam, of Chebacco, d. 

1749, Aug. 14th. Major Ammi Ruhami, son of the Rev. 
John Wise, d. He m. Mrs. Mary Ringe in 1713, who out- 
lived him. He was a noted merchant. Justice of the Sessions 

Court, and Representative in 1739, 1740. 1740, June 

19th. He voted in favor of John Colman of Boston and 
Company's issuing bills of credit, which was strenuously op- 
posed by the Governor, as injurious to the public good. 

1741, Jan. 2d. He is one of two officers, who desire com- 
pensation of the Province, for extra expense in raising volun- 
teer companies for the expedition to the Spanish West Indies. 

1750. Deacon John Andrews, of Chebacco, d. with a 
cancer. 

1750, April 20th. George Hibbert d.. Ruling Elder of the 
Line-Brook Church. 

1752, March 4th. John Staniford, Deacon of the First 
Church, d. He left children, Samuel, Tryphene, wife of 
Philip Lord, a daughter m. to Dr. John Calef, John, William, 
Thomas, Daniel, and Jeremiah. 

1756, Aug. 10th. Dr. Thomas Berry d., and was buried 
the 12th. He was b. in Boston, graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1712; received his medical education under Dr. Thomas 
Greaves of Charlestown. He removed to Ipswich Dec. 28th, 
16S6, when he m. Mrs. Martha Rogers. For his second wife 
he m. Elizabeth, daughter of John Turner of Salem, Feb. 
17th, 1727 ; she and two of his children, John and Elizabeth, 
survived him. He gave £50 O. T. to the South Church for 
plate. He sustained various trusts in the town, was feoffee of the 
Grammar School, Colonel of a regiment. Representative in 
1727, 1728, 1730, Justice of the Sessions and Common Pleas 



180 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Courts, Judge of Probate, and of the Governor's Council from 
1735 to 1751 inclusive. He was an eminent physician and 
had extensive practice in the county of Essex. His offices 
were many, and he attended to them with faithfulness and 
abiHty, 

1753, Dec. 10th. Andrew Burley d., leaving a son, An- 
drew. He was Justice of the Sessions Court, and Repre- 
sentative in 1741, 1742. Estate £2599 14s. lid. 

1759, Dec. 18th. Deacon John Abbot d. His wife, Su- 
sannah, d. on the 14th. 

1760, July. Major Samuel, son of Symonds Eppes, d. at 
Cambridge, after a lingering consumption, in his twenty-seventh 
year. He graduated at Harvard College in 1751, was Repre- 
sentative in 1759. He left £20 to the South Church for 
plate. 

1762, April 18th. John Annable, of the Hamlet, d. ; was b. 
Feb. 19th, 1722. He graduated at Harvard College in 1744, 
taught a school, and fitted for the ministry. 

1762, Aug. 17th. Colonel Daniel, son of John and Eliza- 
beth Appleton, d. 1. He m. Mrs. Elizabeth Berry of Cam- 
bridge in 1715, who outlived him. He was long Register of 
Probate, Justice of the Sessions Court, and Representative in 
1743, 1744, 1745, 1746, 1749. 

1763, Feb. 5th. Samuel Williams, Deacon of the First 
Church, d. M. 63. 

1764, Feb. 17th. Matthew, son of Major Matthew Whip- 
ple, d. He m. Martha Thing, July 11th, 1697, who d. 
Aug. 7th, 1774, M. 84. He was Deacon of the Hamlet 
Church. 

1766, March 10th. John, son of Thomas Choate, d. and 
left a wife, Miriam ; he lost all his children while young, with the 
throat distemper. He was Colonel of a regiment, Represen- 
tative in 1731, 1732, 1733, 1735, 1741, 1742, 1743, 1745, 
1746, 1747, 1748, 1749, 1754, 1757, 1760 ; of the Governor's 
Council from 1761 to 1765 inclusive ; Justice of the Sessions 
and Common Pleas Courts, and Judge of the Probate Court. 
Out of respect for him, as well as for his long activity in pro- 
moting the interests of the town, the inhabitants here called the 
Bridge, over Ipswich river, after his name. He was an emi- 
nent member of the South Church. Though highly promoted 
by man, yet he forgot not to honor Christ by the profession 
and practice of his religion. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 181 

1766. Deacon Benjamin Crocker d. He m. a lady from 
Connecticut, whose name was Elizabeth, and who survived 
him and m. a Cogswell. He left children, Mary Gunnison and 
Jolui. He was a member of the South Church ; but, as the 
individuals, chosen for its Ruling Elders, were not ordained, 
because Mr. VValley did not consider such officers required by 
the Gospel, he left and united with the First Church. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 1713, was Representative in 
1726, 1734, 1736, long a teacher of the Grammar School, and 
preached considerably. 

1769, Sept. 25th. Dr. Joshua Burnam d. 1. He left chil- 
dren, John, Timothy, Joshua, and Susannah. 

1770, Feb. 27th. Dea. Mark How, of Line-Brook 
Church, d. He was the son of Abraham and Sarah How, b. 
March 28th, 1695 ; left a wife, Elizabeth, and children, Mark, 
Hepzibah, and Nathaniel. 

1771, Jan. 28th. Daniel Heard, Deacon of the First 
Church, d. 1. He left a wife, Rebecca, and children, Samuel, 
Mary, wife of Josiah Baker of Exeter, Tamison, wife of 
Benjamin Waite of Gloucester. 

1771, April 22d. Colonel Thomas Dennis, Esq., d. ; left 
sons, John and Joseph. Estate £1395 12s. Sd. 

1771, Oct. Daniel Giddings, Elder of the Fourth Church 
at Chebacco, d. He left a widow, and children, Daniel, Eunice 
Choate, Mary Story, Hannah Lord, Sarah Rust, Susannah 
Saward, Lydia Foster, and Ruth. He was Representative 
1758. 

1772, Dec. 21st. Samuel, son of the Rev. John and Mar- 
tha Rogers, d. He was b. Aug. 31st, 1709 ; graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1725. He was long Town Clerk, Colonel 
of a regiment, Register of Probate, Justice of the Sessions 
Court, Representative in 1761, 1762, 1763. He was a skilful 
physician. His heart and hfe were under the influence of 
piety, which, however preferring the commendation of the 
worthy to their reproof, looks for its greatest reward in the 
approbation of Jehovah. 

1774, Feb. 16th. Zechariah, son of Deacon Seth Story, 
d. He was Deacon of the Church at Chebacco. He left 
children, Jeremiah, Nathaniel, Isaac, Jesse, Lucy, Rachel, 
Deborah, Jerusha, and Lois. 

1775. Daniel Staniford d. 1. He in. Mary Burnham, who 
survived him and ra. the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers. He left 



182 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

children, Daniel, a preacher ; IVIary, wife of the Rev. Joseph 
Dana ; Hannah, wife of Thomas Dodge, Esq. ; Margaret, wife of 
Dr. Josiah Smitli of Newburyport ; Sarah, wife of the Hon. 
John Heard ; Martha ; and Abigail, wife of Dr. Joshua Fisher. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1738 ; taught the 
Grammar School, became a merchant, and was Representative 
in 1755, 1756, 1757. 

1775, Oct. 28th. Francis Cogswell, merchant, d., in his 
seventy-fourth year. He graduated at Harvard College in 
1718; m. Elizabeth Rogers, March 14th, 1728; left children, 
Jonathan and Elizabeth. He was Representative in 1750, 
1751, 1752. 

1775, Dec. 19th. Dr. Benjamin Foster d., with the asthma, 
M. about 75. He had been in the practice of his profession 
more than 50 years. He was a distinguished botanist, a skil- 
ful and successful physician. 

1776, June 2d. Aaron Potter, Deacon of the First Church, 
d. M. 77. He was long the Town Treasurer and Overseer of 
the Poor. 

1777, Oct. Francis Choate, Elder of the Second Church at 
Chebacco, d. in his 77th year. His widow, of exemplary 
piety, d. Oct. 2d, 1778, in her 70th year. 

1781, March 6th. Dr. John Perkins d. 1. He had resided 
in Boston. He left children, Wni. Lee Perkins ; Isaac ; John, 
to whom he gave part of a house in Middle Street, Boston ; 
and Anna Winslow, who had the other part of this house ; and 
a kinsman, Mr. John Perkins of Lynn. 

1781, May 6th. Edward Eveleth d. at the Hamlet, M. 63. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1738. 

1782, July 3d. Joseph Low, Deacon of the First Church, 
d. in his 71st year. 

1783, Jose]ih, son of Oliver Appleton, d. iE. 78. He 
was Deacon of South Church and Justice of the General Ses- 
sions Court. 

1784, May 8th. Dr. Joseph, son of Thomas and Mary Man- 
ning-, d. in his 80th year. He graduated at Harvard College in 
1725 ; m. Priscilla Boardman in 1727, who d. Jan. 1 1th, 1730 ; 
and m. Elizabeth Boardman, Nov. 14th, 1732, who d. Jan. 
30th, 1779, iE. 71. By his first wife he had one son, and by 
his second, five sons and four daughters. Those of his chil- 
dren who survived him were John, Jacob, Sarah McKean, 
Priscilla Abbot and Antis Cogswell. Among his descendants 



OBITUARY AND IJIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 183 

there are five pliysicians, one of the (irst i!;eneration, three of 
the secoml, and one of the fourth. He was an tMuineiit phy- 
sician. 

17S5, June r-iotli. Colonel Isaac Dotlge i\. of cliolera 
morbus ; was born March 9lh, 1733. His wife, Elizabeth, d. 
Sept. 22d, in her 56th year. He was often Selectman ; and 
was on the Conimittee of Correspondence and Inspection in 
the Kevolutionary war. '' He was a man of great activity 
and business, and a useful member of society." 

M^^i. Captain John, son of Francis Choate, d. ; born 1737. 
He sustained various trusts in the town ; he was on the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence and Inspection in the Revolution, 
and Justice of the Sessions Court. 

1785, June 9th. John, son of Colonel Jt)iin and Mary 
Baker, d. ; born Feb. '2d, 17'21 ; m. Eunice i*ope, No\ . '1th, 
1745, who d. Jan. 10th, 1821, M. 91. He had twelve chil- 
(hen, of whom the followint;; outlived hiui, viz., John, Allen, 
Asa, Nathaniel, Thomas, Eunice Wade, Lucy Smith, Mary, 
Elizabeth, Hannah, and Anna. He was lone; the Town Clerk ; 
was on the Committee of Corresjiondence and Inspection in the 
Revolution ; took an active part in the (Conventions to pro- 
mote the cause of Iiuh^pendence ; was Colonel of a rejri- 
ment, feoffee of the Cirannnar School, and Justice of the 
Sessions Court. 

1788, March 1st. Solomon Giddings, Deacon of Che- 
bacco Church, d. in his seventy-fourth ) ear. He resided, the 
latter part of his life, in the South Parish. 

1788, Aug. Andrew Hurley d. at an advanced age. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 17'1"2. 

1789, June i20th. Michael, son of Michael and Hannah 
Farley, d. with the black jaundice, M. 70. He m. lOliza- 
beth Choate of Chebac(;o, Feb. 5th, 1740, who d. July (nh, 
1795, 7E. 69. He had children, John, Elizabeth, Eunice, 
Jabez, Michael, Ebenezer, J-iobert with two more who d. in 
infancy, Robert, Thomas, Susan, and Sarah. He cariied on 
the tanning business till his decease. He held the principal 
oflices of the town, was long its Treasurer, was very often on 
Committees chosen here to advance the cause of Indepen- 
dence, was feoffee of the Grannnar School, Representative 
from 1766 to 1774 inclusive, to the Provincial Congress 1774, 
1775, and to the General Court in 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 
1779; High Sheriff; and Major General of a brigade. 



184 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

General Farley was very active in complying with levies of 
Government for men, provisions, and clothing. He had three 
sons in the army. When one of them, ahout sixteen years 
old, was going to war, his mother, who had helped put on his 
equipments, charged him, saying, " Behave like a man." This 
same lady, when a regiment, expecting to meet the enemy, 
were to be supplied with ammunition, which was in the garret 
of her husband's house, filled every man's powder horn with 
her own hands. When Lafayette came over to offer his 
services to our country in the Revolutionary contest, he was 
at Ipswich. General Farley treated him with generous atten- 
tion. In taking off his hat to salute the noble Frenchman, he 
did the same with his wig, an article then fashionable. Writ- 
ing home, as to the manners of the people here, Lafayette 
remarked, in view of the Sheriff's civility, that some of them 
were so polite, they not only bowed with their hats off, but with 
their wigs off too. When the Nation's guest revisited this 
town in 1824, he alluded to this circumstance. General 
Farley was a remarkably hospitable man. He literally kept 
open doors for his friends, who were very numerous. The 
Rev. Levi Frisbie truly said of him, that he was a " useful 
and valuable member of society, employed for many years in 
various offices of honor and importance, the duties of which 
he discharged with fidelity and to general satisfaction. He 
was generous, public-spirited, humane, and impartial ; a great 
loss to the town and country." 

1790, Jan. 13th. Jeremiah Perkins d. M. 88. He was 
Deacon of the First Church. He lost a wife, May 25th, 1782, 
in her seventy-first year, and left a widow, Joanna, and children, 
Joanna Chapman, Sarah Hodgkins, and Aaron. 

1790, May 28th. Eleazar Craft d. with the influenza, in 
his seventy -ninth year. He was the Ruling Elder of Chebacco 
Church. His wife, Martha, d. Sept. 28th, 1797 in her eighty- 
third year. 

1791, July. John Choate, Esq., d. of consumption in his 
fifty-fourth year. His wife, Mary, d. Aug. 8th, 1788, in her 
fifty-first year. He frequently held town offices, was feoffee 
of the Grammar School, Representative in 1781, 1783, 1785, 
1786, 1788, and Justice of the Sessions Court. " A man 
highly respected in public and private life, for his abihties and 
integrity." 

1792, Jan. Nathaniel, son of Colonel Isaac Dodge, d. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 185 

M. 35. He graduated at Harvard College in 1777 ; taught the 
Grammar School. 

1792, Dec. Dr. Wallis Rust d. He m. Abigail Jones. 

1794, May 12th. Dr. Josiah Lord d. suddenly, ^. 43. 
He m. Mary Manning, and for his second wife, Sarah, of Mar- 
blehead, where he practised some before he returned to Ips- 
wich. 

1794, Dec. Isaac Appleton d., M. 92. He and two sisters 
madp in their ages 270 years. He was the grandfather of 
Jesse Appleton, President of Bowdoin College. His wife, 
Elizabeth, d. April 29th, 1785, iE. 76, leaving eight sons, two 
daughters, and fifty grandchildren. She was early pious, and 
was extensively useful. 

1796, March 10th. Mehitable, relict of the Rev. Moses 
Hale of Newbury Newtown, d., iE. 77. She resided with her 
daughter at Ipswich. 

1797, Nov. 5th. Abraham How, Deacon of Line-Brook 
Church, d., iE. 72. 

1798, June 19th. Dr. Parker Clark d., .E. 81. He rn. 
Elizabeth VVainwright, April 12th, 1789, and then removed to 
Ipswich from Newburyport. She d. March 1st, jE. 73. 

1799, Jan. 4th. Jonathan Ingersoll, instructor, and gradu- 
ate of Harvard College in 1798, d., K. 22. 

1799, May 18th. Deacon Thomas Burnham, of Chebacco, 
d., M. 72. His wife d. Nov. 4th, 1775, M. 45. 

1799, Dec. 18th. John Patch d., M. 78. He m. Abigail, 
daughter of Deacon John Patch of the Hamlet ; she d. Feb. 
8th, 1812, M. 89. He left children, Nehemiah, Mary Lake- 
man, Ehzabeth Choate, Bethiah Dodge, Abigail Cogswell, 
Martha Appleton, Lydia Patch, Jemima Brown, Mercy Clin- 
ton, Eunice Dane, Joanna Baker, Hepzibah Smith, seventy- 
eight grandchildren and twenty-four great grandchildren, and 
in all one hundred and fourteen descendants ; he had lost one 
daughter. He left a large estate. He held various offices in 
the town, was Representative in 1780, 1782, 1784, 1787, was 
on the Committee of Correspondence and Inspection, and 
otherwise took an active part in the contest for Independence. 

1801, May 10th. Deacon Aaron Perkins, of the First 
Church, d., M. 56. His wife, Hannah, d. Feb. 16th, 1823, 
M. 79. 

1804, May 27th. Deacon Caleb Lord, of the same Church, 
d., ^. 79. He had fourteen children, none of whom lived to 
24 



186 OBITUAKY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

be a year old. The Rev. Levi Frisbie said of him that he was 
" a man remarkable for his christian honesty, godly simplicity, 
and virtuous moderation." 

1805, Dec. 19th. Dr. Parker Russ d. at Chebacco, M. 36. 
He m. Elizabeth, daughter of Jonathan Cogswell, Esq. She 
was born Aug, 6th, 1773, and d. June 5th, 1803. 

1806, April 21st. John, son of Benjamin Crocker, d. M. 
80. He was Deacon of the First Church. His wife d. Jan. 
11th, 1803, M. 72. 

1807, April 14th. Daniel, son of Oliver Appleton, bach- 
elor, d. vE. 87. He left considerable property, which he be- 
queathed to the poor of Essex county, and especially to the 
poor " who belong to the household of faith." This was so 
indefinite that his will was broken, and his estate went to his 
relations. 

1807, Oct. 10th. Deacon James Foster, of the South 
Church, d., M. 91. He was the first Post-master of Jpswich. 

1812, Feb. 12th. Deacon Jonathan Cogswell, of Che- 
bacco, d. in his eighty-ninth year. His wife, Mary, d. June 
30th, 1813, in her eighty -fifth year. 

1814, April 21st. Deacon Francis Merryfield, of the South 
Church, d., jE. 78. He m. Hannah Lakeman, who d. Oct. 
29th, 1809, M. 68. He had thirteen children, of whom four 
survived him. 

1815, Oct. 19th. Deacon Stephen Choate d. of a cancer. 
He was son of Thomas, and b. 1727. He took a dismission 
from Chebacco Church to the South Church 1783. He m. 
Mary, daughter of David Low. She d. about 1768. He m. 
widow Elizabeth Potter, June 7th, 1770, who d. April 29th, 
1814, jE. 75. He had nine children by his first wife and four 
by his second. Among them were Stephen, John, David, 
Isaac, Amos, Mary Brown, Elizabeth Kinsman, Martha Hodg- 
kins, Susannah Choate, Lydia Kendall, and Miriam. Deacon 
Choate was frequently employed in town business ; was feoffee 
of the Grammar School ; on Committee of Correspondence 
and Inspection in the Revolution ; Justice of the Sessions 
Court ; Representative in 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 ; of the 
Senate from 1781 to 1803 inclusive. He so improved the 
honors of this world, as to render himself more influential in 
adorning the religion of his Saviour. 

1815, March "21st. Daniel Noyes d., M. 77. He was a 
native of Byfield in Newbury. He m. Sarah, daughter of John 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 187 

Boardman. She d. Aug. 20th, 1801, iE. 63. He had chil- 
dren, but none of them outhved him. He graduated at Harvard 
College in 1758 ; was long teacher of the Grammar School, 
of which he became feoffee, and to which he bequeathed six 
new rights of land ; often held offices in the town ; was on the 
Committee of Correspondence and Inspection in the Revolution ; 
kept the Post-office ; was nearly forty years Register of Probate 
for Essex county ; Representative to the Provincial Congress in 
1774, 1775, and to the General Court in 1775. The faithful- 
ness and ability, with which he discharged his various duties, 
deservedly gained him high and extensive respect. 

1816, April 1st. Major Joseph Swasey d., M. 66. He 
suddenly expired in the Town-House, while taking off his great- 
coat to perform l;is duties as Town Clerk. His wife was Susan- 
nah, daughter of Henry, who was son of Rev. John Wise. She 
d. March 30th, 1821, JE. 75. His children were. Amy, m. to 
Professor McKean ; Susan to Jabez Farley, Esq. ; Charlotte, 
to the Rev. Ebenezer Hubbard ; and Abigail to Joseph Hodg- 
kins. He kept a public house, now occupied by members 
of the Academy. He was a meritorious officer in the Revo- 
lutionary war, was Representative from 1800 to 1807 inclu- 
sive. He enjoyed in an eminent degree the confidence of his 
townsmen. 

1816, Sept. 23d. Daniel Rogers, Esq., d., M. 81. His 
widow, Mary, d. Aug. 2d, 1832, M. 87. 

1817, Sept. 12th. John D. Andrews, graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1810, and attorney at law, d., M. 27. 

1819, Feb. 18th. Dr. James, son of Aaron Choate, 
d., iE.29. 

1819, April 19th. Jonathan Cogswell, of Chebacco, d. He 
was b. July 11th, 1740, m. Elizabeth Wise, Feb. 4th, 1768, 
who still survives him. His children were, Elizabeth, Mary, 
Abigail, Jonathan, and Daniel Dennison. He held the chief 
offices in the town ; was on the Committee of Correspondence 
and Inspection in the Revolutionary contest ; feoffee of the 
Grammar School ; Colonel of a regiment ; Representative 1776, 
1792, 1793, 1800 to 1813 inclusive, and Justice of the Sessions 
Court. He was an intelligent, useful, and worthy member of the 
community. 

1819, June 3d. Deacon Nathaniel Kimball, of the South 
Church, d., M, 86. His widow, Elizabeth, d. Oct. 28th, M. 83. 

1823, July 20th. Robert, the sixth son of General Mi- 



188 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

cbael Farley, d. He was b. in 1760, m. Susan, daughter of 
Epbraim Kendall. She and nine of their fourteen children 
still survive him. He was Aid-de-camp to General Lincoln 
in Shays's insurrection ; became High Sheriff in 1811; was ap- 
pointed Colonel of the United States' Army in 1813, but declined 
this office ; was Assessor of Taxes for the Ninth District from 
1812 to 1813, and Collector of the same from the lastnamed year 
to 1816. He had a large number of vessels built in this town, 
and was considerably engaged in commerce. Though he did 
not agree with the majority of his respected townsmen, as to 
the cause and continuance of our last war, yet he was honest 
in the expression and manifestation of such difference in opin- 
ion. During this contest with Great Britain, the beginning of 
which was accompanied with general anxiety and trials, he 
proved himself a patriotic and faithful officer of the National 
Administration. 

1824, Oct. 19th. Dr. John Manning d., M. 86. He was 
son of Dr. Joseph Manning; ni. Lucy Bowles, Nov. 25th, 
1760, who d. Aug. 17th, 1817, M. 75. He bad eleven 
children, six of whom survived him, viz. Dr. John, of 
Gloucester; Lucretia D., wife of Asa Smith, Esq. ; Dr. Joseph, 
of South Carolina ; Dr. Thomas ; Mary, widow of Captain Mi- 
chael Farley ; and Priscilla ; the two last being twins. Of his 
children deceased, were Lucy, wife of Dr. Nehemiah Cleave- 
land, of Topsfield ; Sarah, wife of the Rev. Edward Rich- 
mond, D. D., and Richard, and Anstice. He began to prac- 
tise his profession at Newmarket, N. H. ; continued there a 

year, and returned to Ipswich. 1771, Oct. 10th. He 

departs for Portsmouth, whence he sailed for London. Here 
he spent his time in medical improvement till May 8th, 1772, 
when he commenced his voyage homeward. At the battle 
of Lexington be was near Boston, having gone thither to 
remove his sister McKean from the latter place. He met 
with a British officer, severely wounded, and administered 
needed aid to him. For this magnanimous act of an Ameri- 
can, the officer granted him a pass to enter Boston and take his 
sister home with him. He hastened to Ipswich, and, it being 
night, be waked bis family, and employed them with himself 
in preparing articles which he had seen greatly w-anted where 
the battle w-as fought. With these he immediately returned to 
the wounded Americans, and rendered many of them much 
essential help. During the Revolutionary struggle he served 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 189 

as surgeon at Newport, R. I. He was Representative 1781, 
178-2, 1784, 1787, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1792, 1794. He did 
much to promote manufactures in this town. Such enter- 
prise cost him considerable property. For his efforts, in 1777, 
to have the inhabitants here inoculated with the small-pox, 
he encountered no small degree of opposition. His talents, 
attainments, and experience, rendered him, for a long period, 
eminent in his profession. 

1825, March 15th. Deacon Mark Haskell, of the First 
Church, d., M. 81. His widow, Mary, d. 1832, M. 86. 

1826, Oct. 26th. Nathaniel Wade d., M. 76 years and 
eight months. He was son of Timothy, a descendant of Jon- 
athan, who was in Ipswich 16-35. He m. Mary, daughter of 
Colonel Joseph Foster of Gloucester, July 17th, 1777. She 
d. Dec. 25th, 1785, M. 28. He m. Hannah, daughter of 
Jacob Treadwell, Oct. 29th, 1788. She d. May 4th, 1814, 
M. 51. His children were Nathaniel, William Foster, Mary, 
and Timothy. He sustained various trusts in the town ; was 
long County Treasurer, and Representative from 1795 to 
1816 inclusive. He distinguished himself as an intelligent, 
active, patriotic, brave, and faithful officer in the Revolu- 
tionary war. He took part in the battle of Bunker Hill (as 
Captain of the Ipswich Minute-men), of Long Island, of Haer- 
lem, and White Plains. He was Colonel during the whole 
campaign in Rhode Island. While on duty there, he sat as 
President of a Court-Martial in Providence, Dec. 23d, 1777. 
As the following letter to him was written by the Father 
of our Country, on an occasion particularly interesting to 
young and old, perhaps it may be properly inserted here. 

" Head-Quarters, Robinson's House, 25 Sept., 1780. 

" Sir, 
" General Arnold is gone to the enemy. I just now re- 
ceived a line from him, inclosing one to Mrs. Arnold, dated 
on board the Vulture. From this circumstance, and Colonel 
Lamb's being detached on some business, the command of 
the garrison, for the present, devolves on you. I request 
you will be as vigilant as possible ; and, as the enemy may 
have it in contemplation to attempt some enterprise, even 
to-night, against these posts, I wish you to make, immediately 
after the receipt of this, the best disposition you can of your 
force, so as to have a proportion of men in each work on the 



190 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

west side of the river. You will see or hear from me further 
to-morrow. 

" I am, Sir, your mo. obt. servt. 

"Geo. Washington." 

The confidence thus signally placed in him, Colonel Wade 
merited, and continued to preserve. In 1786, he commanded 
a regiment against the insurgents under Shays. For many 
years he was Colonel of a regiment in Middle Essex. When 
introduced to Lafayette at Ipswich in 1824, the General 
immediately recognised him, and grasping his hand, said, 
" My dear Sir, I am rejoiced to see you, — it is just such a 
stormy night, as we had when I met you in Rhode Island." 
While he lived, his benevolent manners and actions secured to 
him high and extensive esteem. 

1829, March 14th. Dr. John F. Gardner, a native of 
Lynn, graduated at Harvard College 1813, d., M. 35. 

1829, Sept. 25th. Joseph Hodgkins d., M. 86. He had 
three wives, Joanna Webber, Sarah, daughter of Dea. Aaron 
Perkins, and Lydia, widow of Elisha Treadwell and daughter 
of Dea. John Crocker. The last d. June, 1833. He had 
sixteen children, and only one survived him. He held several 
town offices, and was Representative from 1810 to 1816 in- 
clusive. The active part which he took in the Revolutionary 
struggle, secured to him long and deserved respect. He was 
Lieutenant in the Ipswich company, at the battle of Bunker 
Hill. He was also in the battles of Long Island, Haerlem 
Heights, White Plains, and Princeton. He was at the cap- 
ture of General Burgoyne's army. He succeeded Colonel 
Wade in the command of Middle Essex Regiment. Having 
tried the world in its various appearances and attractions, 
he found them all insufficient to afford him pure and perman- 
ent satisfaction. This led him to seek for the good part in the 
high Captain of our Salvation. He appears to have made his 
choice, so divinely wise, in the latter part of his life. It was the 
solace of his declining years, the light of his eternal prospect, 
and the pledge of his perpetual and abounding blessedness. 

Thus we have noticed a small part of the individuals, 
who once gave animation to the social scenes, — once filled 
various spheres of action, in this community. What we 
say of them, as to their departure, will soon be said of us. 
Nor, in view of the dictates uttered by our rational and im- 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 191 

mortal nature, should such a fact be merely noticed with the 
eye, nor merely expressed by the lips ; it should reach our 
hearts, influence our motives and purposes, and lead us to 
redeem our time, so that it may be wisely and happily con- 
nected with eternity. 

A list of some persons, who are found to have died in their 
90th year or older : — 

1702, May 17th. James How, freeman 1637, of West 
Ipswich, 104. 

1711, Jan. 11th. Abraham Foster, in his 90th year. 

1728, March 2Sth. Abraham Tilton, of the Hamlet, in his 
90th year. 

1735, Aug. 25th. Simon Chapman, over 93, the oldest 
town-born child, when he died. 

1759, May 19th. Widow Ann Burnham, of Line-Brook 
Parish, 94. 

1780, Jan. Widow Berry, 94. 

After this we have a regular account of deaths, occurring in 
the First Parish, from which the following are selected : — 

1786, Jan. 7th. Widow Elizabeth Day, 96 years and ten 
months ; left seven children and forty-four grandchildren. 

1788, Dec. 20th. Widow Haskell, 99 years and eight months. 

1788. Mr. Thomas Hodgkins, 97. 

1788. Widow Sayer, 94. 

1789, May 19th. Widow Ruth Urin, 90. 
1792, Sept. Benjamin Newman, 90. 
1794, Jan. 4th. John Appleton, 90. 
1794, Dec. 18th. Isaac Appleton, 91. 

1796, May 24th. Daniel SafFord, 90. 

1797, Aug. 12th. Widow Henderson, 95 years and eleven 
days. 

1799, Nov. 29th. Widow Ruth Greely, 96. 

1801, Feb. 9th. Widow Wells, 93 years and eleven days. 

1801, Feb. 23d. Jeremiah Fitts, 99 years and one day. 

1803, July 3d. Widow Priscilla Treadwell, 99. 

1804, July 31st. Dinah, a black woman, 102. 

1807, Feb. 1st. Joseph Fowler in his 92d year. His 
wife, Esther, d. Jan. 31st, in her 74th year. They were both 
buried in one grave. 

1812, March 1st. Miss Martha Symonds, 90. 

1817, Oct. 2d. Mrs. White, 92. 



192 OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

1819, March 29th. Samuel Lord, 90. 

1820, March 4th. Mr. Daniel Choate, 91. 
1820, April 6th. Mr. Thomas Day, 90. 

1826, Jan. 28th. Widow Mary Lord, in her 94th year; 
joined the First Church when 92. 

1826, Oct. 10th. Mrs. Jane Williams, 91. 

1827, Oct. 1st. Widow Sarah Galloway, 90. 

1828, Nov. 3d. Mrs. Sarah Holmes, 96. 

1829, Feb. 2d. Mrs. Hannah Lord, 90. 

1830, Jan. 13th. Mrs. Mary Peters, 90. 
1830, April 3d. Mrs. Mary Perkins, 93. 

Other deaths found elsewhere : — 
1798, Dec. Elisha Brown, 90. 
1801, Feb. James Ross, 99. 

1803, Sept. John Fowler, 91| ; left seven children, fifty- 
eight grandchildren, and eighty-six great grandchildren. 

Mortality in the First and South Parishes in the following 
years : — 1806, 39. 1813, 24, nine males, and fifteen females. 
1814, 37, eighteen males, and nineteen females. 1816, 38, 
eighteen males, and twenty females. 

In 1814, more than 120 persons, about ^-g of the Ipswich 
population, were aged 70 years and upwards, of whom 25 
individually exceeded 80 years. 

From 1785 to 1812 inclusive, there were, in the First 
Parish, comprising about 1000 souls, 72 deaths of SO years 
and over, i. e. eleven of 80, three of 81, six of 82, eight of 
83, seven of 84, seven of 85, four of 86, five of 87, five of 89, 
five of 90, two of 91, one of 93, one of 95, two of 96, one of 
97, three of 99, one of 102. 

We are informed, that in Sweden, where longevity is 
greater than in the rest of Europe, 56 of 1000 deaths, are 
of 80 years and upwards. But the proportion of such aged 
deaths in Ipswich, from 1785 to 1812, was as 125 of 80 years 
and over out of 1000 deaths. This would make the propor- 
tionate number of individuals, deceased here in advanced life, 
more than twice what it is in Sweden. 

Of the preceding 72 deaths, there were thirty-four widows, 
five spinsters, four whose husbands were alive ; twenty-eight 
males, and one whose Christian name is not recorded to denote 
the sex. Of 71, then, forty-three were females, and twenty- 
eight males, making fifteen more females than males. 



OBITUARY AND BIOGRAPUICAL NOTICES. 193 

On the list whence these deaths were taken, there are 
several instances of aged husbands and wives dying nearly 
together, which confiiins a reniaik frequently made to this 
effect, when one of an aged couple is taken away. 

It has been remarked by writers on longevity, that more 
women than men become old, but that fewer of the former 
become very old. This remark does not hold in reference 
to the seventy-two deaths, previously mentioned, so far as their 
ages go. It is, however, probably correct when it refers to 
ages of 110 and upwards. 

Dr. Rush observed, that in the course of his inquiries 
he met with only one person above eighty, who had Hved un- 
married. But of the foregoing seventy-two, there are three 
exceeding eighty, one of them eighty-five, another eighty- 
seven, and a third ninety. Mr. Whitehurst has asserted, that 
Englishmen in general are longer lived than the people of our 
country. We doubt whether his assertion proves true in 
reference to the longevity of Ipswich, if it do to that of other 
parts of New England. 

The proportion of inhabitants, dying annually in this town, 
is as about 1 to 50 ; while at Philadelphia it is as 1 to 45, in 
Salem, Mass., 1 to 47, and in London, 1 to 24. This view 
shows that the more dense and numerous the population of a 
place, the more is life shortened. This fact may be owing, in 
a considerable degree, to greater dissipation among certain 
classes, and to the less pure air of large towns and cities. 

Deaths, in Chebacco Parish, of persons in their ninetieth 
year and over : — 

1773, March 26th. Jacob Burnam, 91. 

1774, Feb. 16th. Zechariah Story, 90. 

1774, May 17th. Miss Peggy Killum, in her 90th year. 

1776, Aug. 21st. Widow Hannah Ayres, a noted school- 
mistress, near 100. 

1778, April 27th. Miss Hannah Giddings, in her 93d 
year. 

1780, Oct. 22d. Anne, widow of John Procter, in her 
93d year. 

1781, Jan. 30th. Thomas Jones, in his 90th year. 

1782, Oct. 2d. Widow Choate, in her 91st year. 

1790, Feb. 20th. Martha, widow of Captain Jonathan 
Burnham, in her 90th year. 
25 



194 BUllYING-PLACES. 

1794, Oct. 16th. Elizabeth, widow of David Burnham, in 
her 92d year. 

1796, April 13th. Jonathan Smith, in his 92d year. 

1797, Dec. Widow Pearse, in her 90th year. 

1799, Aug. 20th. Joseph Marshall, 96. 

1800, Sept. 27th. Ned Choate, a negro, member of the 
Church, 90. 

1802, July 29th. Thomas Giddings, 94. He walked nine 
miles, to Gloucester, within a year before his death. 

1809. Widow Martha Andrews, 90 years and 11 months. 

1814, Aug. 16th. Widow of Nathan Lufkin, 93. 

1816, March 27th. Widow Smith, 97 years and 3 months. 

In the account whence the preceding list was taken, we 
have 676 deaths, for a period of 43 years, and 80 of the per- 
sons aged 80 years and above. Of these 80 persons, 37 are 
males and 43 females. Of the last, 31 are widows, seven, 
whose husbands were alive, and five single women. The 
first 12 years had 214 deaths, and 34 of them over 80 years. 
The second 12 years had 170 deaths, and only 10 over 80. 
The third 12 years had 168 deaths, and 21 over 80. The 
remaining 7 years had 124 deaths, and 15 over 80. The 
average number of deaths in Chebacco for 43 years was nearly 

16 a year. 

Deaths, in the Hamlet Parish, of 90 years and upwards : — 
1778, March 26th. Widow Elizabeth Dodge, 98. 

1778, Dec. 18th. Benjamin Ireland, 100. 

1779, Sept. 2d. Nathaniel Emerson, 96. 

1779, Sept. 9th. Widow Lydia Brown, 90. 

1780, Feb. 12th. Widow Marshal, 102. 

1781, Feb. 9th. Captain John Whipple, in his 92d year. 
The deaths in the Hamlet for 21 years down to 1792, are 

252, making an annual average of 12. The deaths of 80 
years and upwards, for the same period, are 33. Of these are 

17 widows, one woman with a husband, and one single female, 
and 14 men. Among the 252 deaths were five of insane persons. 



BURYING-PLACES. 

1635. A burying-ground is mentioned on the town records, 
as having been occupied. This seems to have been the one, 
now used on the north of the river. 



sexton's fees. DISEASES. 195 

1681, Feb. 15tli. One acre is granted for a grave-yard at 
Chebacco. 

1705. The Hamlet is granted, by the town, one acre of 
common for a grave-yard, which was exchanged, in 1706, for 
the land now occupied as a burial-place. 

1763. The Hamlet pass a vote of thanks to John Hubbard 
for giving them a quarter of an acre to enlarge their burial- 
place. 

1773, May 21st. The South Parish choose a committee 
to consult with a committee of the First Parish about purchas- 
ing land on the south of the river for a burying-ground. The 
committees appear to have effected this object immediately. 
The decent appearance of a cemetery, with here and there 
a yew tree or a weeping willow, as emblems of affectionate 
sorrow, gives the stranger a favorable impression of the town 
where such a depository for the dead is seen. Miserable, 
and may we not say sacrilegious economy indeed it is, to let 
out our grave-yards for a paltry sum, to be browsed by beasts, 
which often beat down and break the stones, that mark the 
spots where human dust reposes. 



SEXTON'S FEES. 

1809, May 29th. The town vote, that for digging a grave 
and tolling the bell for an adult from December 1st, four 
months, ^2 ; and for the other eight months, ^'TSO, and for a 
child, ^1. 



DISEASES. 

These, like all our afflictions, are mercifully and divinely 
intended for our spiritual benefit. Human experience and 
revealed truth affirm, that if improved, — 

" All evils natural are moral goods, 
All discipline, indulgence on the whole." 

* 1682, April 13th. Mrs. Bishop's family had been lately 
sick with the small-pox. 

1690, Dec. 31st. The same disease is in the town. We, 

* T. R. 



196 DISEASES. 

who live in this age of invented remedies, can hardly sympa- 
thize with the former people of Ipswich and other places, 
as to their distressing fears, when it was known, that the 
small-pox was in their vicinity, and especially when it was in 
the midst of them. 

* 1734-5. The throat-distemper is very mortal, and almost 
destroys the infant population of North Essex. 

1 1752, April 14th. A Committee are to use means for 
preventing the introduction of small-pox from Boston into 
Ipswich, and to obtain a house for those, who may be taken 
with this disease. 

1753. Many children die here with the throat-distemper. 

1763. In and before this year, consumption was very rare ; 
and when a person was confined with it, his case excited much 
sympathy and conversation, and he was visited by many from 
far and near. There are five times more consumptions now 
than there were fifty years ago. 

1773, Oct. 18th. Persons who have caught the small-pox 
are to be put in some house, whence the disease will not spread. 

1774, Jan. 31st. There are individuals at the pest-house 
with the small-pox. Feb. 7th. " Voted, that all the dogs in 
the town be confined, and if any shall go at large, they shall 
be killed." This was, no doubt, to hinder the spread of the 
small-pox. 17th. Voted to have a shifting and cleansing 
house near the pest-house. 

1773 and 1774. The putrid nervous fever, now called 
typhus, prevails both of these years at Chebacco ; and, the 
former year, the same disease and canker prevailed at the 
Hamlet. 

1775, In the latter parish, fevers are fatal to a considerable 
number. 

1776, The " throat-ail " prevails at Chebacco. 

1777, June 30th. A committee report, that there are sixty- 
one cases of small-pox in the east part of the Hamlet. 

1778, Feb. This disease still continues in the Hamlet, and 
people from other towns come to be inoculated. 

1796. Throat-distemper spreads in Chebacco. 

1800, June 9th. Voted, that the persons, who, in the 
opinion of the selectmen, have been exposed to take the 
small-pox from one, who has had it in the town, repair within 

* Christian History. t T. R. 



PEST-HOUSE. BATH. 197 

twenty-four hours to Mr. John Lummus's and be inoculated 
at their own expense. Oct. 16th. Voted, that Dr. Thomas 
Manning have hberty to inoculate not more than ten people 
for the small-pox, who have had the kine-pox. 

1801, May 6lh. He is granted a similar liberty with refer- 
ence to as many as thirty persons, in order to test the kine- 
pox. He was the first physician, who introduced inoculation 
for the kine-pox in this vicinity. He received the matter for 
this purpose from his brother, then in London. The experi- 
ment, which he tried, with the preceding permission of the 
town, was completely successful. He found that not one of 
his patients, who had had the kine-pox, could take the small- 
pox. 

1802, Sept. Scarlet fever prevails here. 

1810, May 9th. Voted, that a committee superintend the 
inoculation for the kine-pox, agreeably to a law of the Com- 
monwealth passed in 1810. 

1823, May 14th. Voted, that the selectmen take the over- 
sight of inoculating for the kine-pox. 



PEST-HOUSE. 

1764, Nov. 13th. The town agree to build a pest-house 
on Wolf-pen plain, 24 feet wide, and 30 long, at the cost of 
£82. 

1774, Feb. 7th. The house of Capt. Thomas Dodge, near 
the Common Fields, is to be occupied as a pest-house. 

1775, March 7th. The pest-house is to be removed to the 
northwest part of Scott's Hill. 

1804, Dec. 17th. It is ordered that this house be removed 
up to the poor-house. 



BATH. 



* 1724, March 3d. Dr. Thomas Berry petitions, that "as 
it has been found by experience, that a cold bath is of great 
service to mankind, and there being a suitable place to erect one 
at the upper end of the spring in Hog Lane, nigh the house 



T. R. 



198 EXHUMATION OF THE DEAD. FUNERALS. 

of Thomas Grow," he may have twenty feet of land below 
the bank at the foot of the upper spring to erect a bathing- 
house. This request was granted. 



EXHUMATION OF THE DEAD. 

181S, April 17th. Great excitement prevails in Chebacco 
parish, because it was discovered, that not less than eight 
bodies had been taken from their grave-yard. They adopt 
measures for detecting the person or persons concerned in this 
act. July 23d. Rev. Mr. Crowell preaches, at the request of 
his people, an interesting sermon on this occasion from John 
XX. 13. The individual, who was found to have disinterred 
these bodies for anatomical purposes, was largely fined. 



FUNERALS. 

Speaking of such ceremonies in Massachusetts, Lechford 
says in 1641, — "At burials nothing is read nor any funeral 
sermon made, but all the neighbourhood, or a good company 
of them, come together by tolling of the bell and carry the 
dead solemnly to his grave, and there stand by him while he 
is buried. The ministers are most commonly present." The 
particulars wherein this custom, as it was then, differs from 
what it is now, are so evident as not to need description. 
As far down as 1698, it was a practice, when females were 
buried, for women to walk first, and when males, for men to 
do the same. Formerly funerals were much more expensive 
than they have been within the last sixty years. Especially 
were they so, when persons of large property or of public office 
were buried. In compliance wath a custom of this kind, we 
have the following, in reference to the Rev. Thomas Gobbet's 
burial. 

* 1685, Nov. 6th. Voted, that some persons be appointed 
to look to the burning of the wine, and heating of the cider 
against the time appointed for the funeral. The expense of 
this occasion was £17 19s., exclusive of clothing for the 
minister's family. Among the articles provided were thirty- 
two gallons j)f wine, and a larger quantity of cider, with 104 

* T. R. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 199 

pounds of sugar, and about four dozen of gloves. When we 
compare the drinking part of this account with our present 
practice and views of temperance, it seems incongruous. But 
we remember, that " the times change and we change with 
them ; " that if such provision had not been made, it would 
have been construed as an outrage on propriety, as then 
defined by public opinion. The funeral charges of a respect- 
able man interred here in 1739, exceeded those of Mr. Cob- 
bet's as previously stated, as much as ten times. Consider- 
able had been said and done to put down so costly and useless 
a custom before the following notice was given. 

* 1753, Dec. 11th. "This is to inform the inhabitants of 
this government, that the King's Attorney-General is deter- 
mined to prosecute any person, who shall be guilty of the 
breach of an act now in force, intitled. An act to retrench 
extraordinary expenses at funerals." Such an effort of civil 
power did not entirely bring the charges of burying noted 
persons to their present level. Besides other considerable 
expenses, the Hamlet Parish, when about to inter their min- 
ister, Mr. Wigglesworth, in 1763, purchased six gold rings 
for the bearers, and one for a candidate who was preaching 
for them, and eighteen pair of men's white leather gloves for 
attending ministers. When the necessities of the Revolution 
began to press on the people, they lessened their funeral gifts, 
as to gloves, rings, and entertainment. 

1769. Up to this date, no burial was allowed on the Sab- 
bath, except leave was granted by a Justice. Such strictness 
has since continually declined. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

A WOMAN, BLIND, DEAF, AND DUMB. f 1637, Aug. 3d. 

An aged person of this description resided here. " Her son 
could make her understand any thing, and know any man's 
name, by her sense of feeling," 

Canker-Worms. These abounded in 1665, 1686, and 
1769. There were many of them about forty years since. 
They came again in 1824, since which they have annually 
increased and spread. The comparative scarcity of birds is 
one probable reason why such worms have continued so long. 

* Boston Gazette. t Winthrop. 



200 REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

Droughts. These were remarkable in 1639, 1644, 1662, 
1666, 1672, 1685, 1748, 1757, 1762. The last, as an aged 
man states, cut off most of the hay and corn ; and the former 
article sold for four times its common price. 

Storms. There were severe stopus Nov. 10th, 1652, and 
Dec. 1667. 

1727, Sept. 16th. A severe gale, which did much damage. 

1793, July 6th. Saturday, P. M., a tempest accompanied 
with hail and rain. Some of the hailstones measured from 
their extreme jagged parts seven inches in circumference. 
They averaged nearly the size of a hen's egg. They broke 
down flax, corn, and other grain, stripped fruit trees, and 
destroyed about 5000 squares of glass in the main part of the 
town. The storm extended three miles each way from the 
midst, where this glass was broken. 

1804, Oct. 9th. A great gale with much rain. Many 
trees were blown down, a large number of fowls, turkeys, 
geese, sheep, and cattle died by its severity. 

1815, Sept. 23d. Violent storm. The spray of the salt 
water was carried from the sea-shore forty or fifty miles. 
Apples and other fruit were blown ofF, corn injured, fences and 
trees prostrated. 

Winters. 1686. One so severe, that a considerable num- 
ber of cattle were frozen to death. 

* 1748, Feb. 10th. Many and great snow storms. 22d. 
Snow on a level two feet and a half, and four and a half in 
woods. 29th, No travelling about, except on rackets. 

Lightning. When buildings are mentioned here, it will 
be understood that they were destroyed by this fluid, unless 
otherwise expressed. 

f 1668, Aug. A great oak in Scott's Lane was rent to 
pieces and some logs were broken from it by lightning, and 
off thrown several rods. A man in the house, next the tree, 
was struck down by the flash, but recovered. 

1670. Edward Allin's barn, with sixty loads of barley. 

1671, May 18th. The house of Serjeant Perkins was 
struck on the Sabbath, while many people were there to re- 
peat the sermon delivered that day. The fluid made several 
holes in his waistcoat, and knocked him and others down, but 
they were revived. The timber work of the building was in- 

* Dr. E. A. Holyoke's Diary. t Hubbard. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 201 

jurcd. The same year, a sheet of fire descended before the 
house of the Rev. Win. Hubbard, but only shivered the trunk 
of an oak near by. 

1741, April 7th. Mr. Low, of the Hamlet, who had left 
his house but a short lime after breakfast, was found in the 
evening, under a tree, killed by lightning. 

1781, March. Lightning descended the chimney of Sam- 
uel Adams, at the Hamlet, struck down his wife, who was re- 
suscitated, killed a dog near the andiron, whence his daughter 
had just risen, and two slieep at the end of a barn. 

1783. Tliomas Burnham's barn at Chebacco. 

1791, June. The same man who is mentioned in 1781, and 
his two sons, to avoid a shower, fled to an oak for shelter, pre- 
ceded by a dog. This animal, reaching the tree first, was 
instantly killed by a flash, which shivered the oak and rendered 
one of the sons senseless, who was revived. 

1792. A barn and store-house, belonging to the widow of 
Francis Brown. 

1815. A barn of Captain Oliver Appleton. 

1829, Aug. 8th. A barn of James Sawyer, filled with hay. 

1831, Aug. 23d. A barn on the farm of Nathan Brown's 
heirs. 

Fires. The notice given at the commencement of the pre- 
ceding head, is also applicable to buildings here, as destroy- 
ed by fire. 

1665, May 3d. General Dennison's house. 

1742, March 23d. The inhabitants of Chebacco vote, that, 
as there is some money contributed by them for the relief of 
the people in Carolina, who had lost their property by fire, and 
it has not been sent for, it shall be given to John Belcher, their 
neighbour, whose house has been burnt. 

1743, A contribution at the Hamlet, to make up Mr. Mar- 
shal's loss by fire. 

1753. A house of James Patch, at the Hamlet. Another 
of Mr. Foster, near the ship-yard. 

1770. A house and all its contents. 

1783, Dec. 10th. A barn, with a winter's stock of hay, 
owned by John Piemont, innholder. About the same year, 
Isaac Procter's house ; 1793, Stephen Story's house ; and, 
1802, David Choate's barn ; all of Chebacco. 

1811, June 9th. At 2 o'clock in the morning, a house of 
Captain David Pulsifer, near Mr. Kimball's meeting-house. 
26 



202 REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

Most of its contents were lost, and its inhabitants barely es- 
caped with their lives. 

1831. A hatter's shop in High Street. 

Losses. * 1707, Dec. 25th. Joseph Esty, in consideration 
of his great loss, has his tax remitted. 

1765, Aug. 9th. £10 are granted to Henry Russel, in 
view " of his late misfortune." 

1771, March 18th. The Commoners gave £10 to Anthony 
Loney and Moses Pindar, because their fulling-mill had been 
borne away by a freshet. 

Dark Day. 1780, May 19th. Darkness came on like that of 
an eclipse. By 9 o'clock, A. M., persons could not see to 
weave. Candles were lighted to dine by. As the day began 
prematurely to put on the appearance of twilight, cattle lowed, 
and fowls went to roost. The darkness of the succeeding even- 
ing was almost palpable. Many feared and trembled, lest the 
end of all things had come. They alone are truly wise, who 
seek the Lord when the bow of his mercy is over them, as well 
as when they hear his thunders, and behold his lightnings. 

Individuals Drowned and Killed, f 1635, Aug. 15th. 
" An old man, that used to go to sea in a small boat, without 
any other help save a dog, which he had taught to steer, sail- 
ing down Ipswich River, was warned of a storm that appear- 
ed ; " he profanely answered, that he would go out. He did, 
and neither he nor his boat was ever seen again. 

1648, Oct. A shallop, which had been a fishing with others 
all summer, and was attempting to make a harbour at " Dama- 
ril's Cove, was overraked by the surf, and all drowned, being 
four Englishmen, and one Indian, and the goods all perished." 

Before 1683, Joseph, son of Robert Lord, was killed by the 
falling of a tree. 

J 1686, Aug. 2d. Daniel Warner, killed by a horse. 

1702, Aug. Nathaniel, son of Colonel Thomas Wade, 
drowned at sea. 

<§. 1723, Dec. 1st. Daniel, son of John Rogers, President 
of Harvard College, perished in a snow storm, on his way 
home from Salisbury, after missing the Ferry, and wandering 
in the marshes. He left a widow, Sarah, and children, Daniel, 
minister of Littleton ; John ; a daughter, wife of John Watson ; 
Margaret, m. to the Rev. Robert Ward of Wenham ; Patience, 

* T. R. I Hubbard. I T. R. § Qt. Ct. R. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 203 

m. to Joshua Freeman ; Priscilla, m. to the Rev. Nathaniel 
Leonard ; and Elizabeth, m. to Peleg Wiswall. He graduated 
at Harvard College, in 1686, long kept the Grammar Scliool, 
was Representative in 1716, was many years Town Clerk, 
Justice of the Quarterly and General Sessions Courts, and a 
physician. 

* 1727, Oct. 16th. " We are informed, from Ipswich, that 
on Wednesday night last, a young woman of that place, being 
more merry than wise, dressed herself in men's apparel, in- 
tending a frolic at a place some distance off; but as she was 
riding through a river or pond, her horse, in all likelihood, 
threw her into the water, where she was taken up the next day 
drowned." 

1736, April 27th. ■ Mr. John, son of Francis Wainwright, 
drowned. 

About 1764. Joseph, brother of the Rev. George Leslie, 
returning to West Ipswich, from a residence at St. John's, was 
drowned with his wife and seven children. 

1771, August. Paul Whipple, of the Hamlet, d. in con- 
sequence of being over-heated, while mowing. 

September. At the Hamlet, a child of Mr. Bolles died by 
drinking scalding water from a tea-pot. 

1777, Aug. Jonathan Galloway, drowned on board of a 
privateer ship, which suddenly sunk off Plumb Island. 

1778, Oct. 11th. A Salem sloop, laden with rum and sugar, 
was stranded on Ipswich beach, and six of the crew, being all 
but one boy, who was washed ashore, perished. 

1781, Oct. William Whipple, Joseph Cole, and James 
Batchelder, of the Hamlet, were lost at sea. 

1782, Feb. 19th. Captain John, son of Dr. John Calef, was 
drowned back of Plumb Island, while attempting to reach the 
shore from his vessel, cast away on the beach, and on her re- 
turn from the West Indies. 

Sept. 22d. Joseph Emerton, in his seventieth year, and 
Aaron Burnham, in his fortieth, were drowned at the mouth of 
Chebacco River. 

1784, Oct. 1st. At night two boats with nine men, coming 
ashore from a fishing vessel, were overset and eight of them 
drowned. 

1785, Sept. 12th. Philip Lord, Jr., M. 37, Thomas, .E. 27, 

* New England Journal. 



204 REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

and Josiah, M. 22, sons of Samuel Lord, and Isaac Galloway, 
M. 14, were drowned in Plumb Island River. 

1786, April 7tli. Jolm Lufkin, JE. 17, and Abner Low, 
M. 9, were drowned wbile digging clams in Chebacco River. 

Nov. 30th. Captain John Choate, of the same parish, was 
lost by shipwreck on the coast of France. 

1787, Feb. 21st. Francis, a child of William Cogswell of 
Chebacco, died by falling into a kettle of boiling chocolate. 

1788, April. Joseph Perkins, iE. 30, fell from the bow- 
sprit of a vessel and was drowned. 

May 7th. John, son of Nehemiah Choate, was killed by 
falling from a horse. 

Oct. Dummer Jewett, Esq., died in consequence of injury 
received by leaping thirty feet from a garret window, while 
deranged. He was son of the Rev. Jedediah Jewett of Row- 
ley, graduated at Harvard College in 1752 ; he took a distin- 
guished part in promoting our Independence ; was Represen- 
tative in 1776, 1780 ; was a noted Lawyer, and of very 
estimable character. He left a wife and children. 

Nov. 17th. Joseph Wilcome, iE. 20, killed by falling from 
a vessel's shrouds. 

28th. Amos Burnham, in his fifty-fourth year, drowned, 
while fowling, in Chebacco pond. 

1789, Aug. 8th. Deacon John Patch, M. 90, of the Ham- 
let, died from hurt received by the overturning of a chaise. 

Dec. 9th. James Robertson, of the same parish, JE. 12, 
was killed by being thrown from a horse. 

1790, Aug. Aaron Day, in his sixty-fourth year, drowned 
in a creek, at the marshes. 

1792, July 18th. Benjamin Procter, M. 79, of Chebacco, 
having fallen from his horse, was drowned in a creek. 

1794, Sept. 9th. Ebenezer Mansfield, M. 61, of the same 
parish, was killed. This summer, Caleb Burnham, and all 
his crew, of Chebacco, perished at sea. 

1795, March 13th. Parker Story, in his thirty-fifth year; 
Thomas Holmes, M. 29,; Aaron Story, in his twenty-eigiith 
year, and Moses Pearse, M. 16, perished in Chebacco River, 
during a severe snow storm. 

July 8th. Michael Story, in his twenty-sixth year, so 
wounded himself by falling from the ridge-pole of a barn- 
frame, at Chebacco, as to die in a few hours. Two others 
were badly hurt with him. 

1796, May 16th. Jesse, son of Jesse Burnham, in his seventh 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 205 

year ; Aug. 19th., Bennet, son of Enoch Burnham, in his 
thirteenth year; both drowned at Chebacco. 

1796. Natlianiel Hodgkins, and Moses S. Spillar, washed 
overboard at different times, and drowned. 

1798, April 12th. John Appleton, M. 4S, died by falling 
fiom a barn scaftbld. 

Sept. 11th. A son of John Procter, at Chebacco, died by 
sucking the hot steam from the nose of a coffee-pot. 

Dec. 10th. Richard Pearse, of the same parish, washed 
overboard, and lost. 

1802, Oct. Polly, daughter of Stephen Story, died with 
the lock-jaw. 

1803, April 25th. News that Robert Lord was drowned 
at sea. 

1814, Jan. 5th. Betsey Telock, M. 49, is burnt to death. 
It has been commonly reported, that she came to her end by 
spontaneous combustion from the inordinate use of ardent 
spirits. But it is the opinion of the gentleman, who first dis- 
covered her body, soon after the flames in her room were 
extinguished, that she caught her bed-clothes on fire with a 
candle, and thus lost her life. 

1816, Feb. 1st. Moses Smith, of Ipswich, was killed at 
Topsfield by a fall from a staging. 

April 15ih. William Holmes, of Chebacco, in his twenty- 
seventh year, died with the lock-jaw. 

1818, Dec. Josiah Poland, of the same parish, killed by 
falling from a ship's mast, in New York. 

1820, Dec. 25th. Daniel Rogers, M. 41, supercargo of the 
ship Rolla, from Newburyport, was wrecked on Cape Cod, and 
perished with others. 

1828, June 28th. John W. Gould, M. 9, was killed by a 
bull, on Plumb Island. 

Dec. 12th. David Sheriff, of Boston, was killed by a fall 
from the Ipswich factory. 

1829, Sept. 8th. Luther Hallowell, died by having a well 
cave in upon him. 

In reference to a considerable number of the preceding 
casualties, surviving relatives could feelingly adopt these 
words, 

" Oft our most sanguine views the event deceives, 
And veils in sudden grief the smihng ray." — West. 

Earthquakes. Besides the memorable earthquakes of 



206 REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

1638, 1658, and 1663, which were felt here, as in other places, 
we have the following. 

1727, Oct. 29th. One occurred on Sahbath night, forty- 
minutes past 10 o'clock. It was followed by others. It so 
affected the minds of people, that it was a means used by the 
Holy Spirit to produce a very powerful revival of religion in 
the Ipswich parishes. The same desirable result was expe- 
rienced throughout New-England. 

1744, June 3d. Another took place on Sabbath forenoon, 
while people were at meeting. In the Hamlet, Mr. Wiggles- 
worth's hearers were exceedingly alarmed, while he was con- 
ducting the worship. He endeavoured to calm them, and re- 
marked, " There can be no better place for us to die in, than 
the house of God." 

1775, Nov. 18th. The following record, under this date, 
was made by the Rev. George Leslie. " Between the hours 
of four and five in the morning, there happened a most sur- 
prising shock of an earthquake, which was succeeded by sev- 
eral others ; though none equal to the first. In the town of 
Ipswich much damage was done to many houses ; yet, ttirough 
the goodness of God, no hurt was done either to the lives or 
limbs of any persons." He informs us, that the evening before 
the earthquake was uncommonly clear and calm. 

Visits from Strangers. 1637, June 15th. Governor 
Winthrop sets out for Ipswich, which he visited now, and at 
other times. 

1663. John Josselyn spends a little time here. 
1686. John Dunton, from London, comes to negotiate with 
Mr. Hubbard, and others, about books. 

1716, Oct. 16th. Governor Samuel Shute, on his way to 
N. H., is escorted into town, and entertained at Colonel John 
Appleton's. 

1782, Nov. 13th. Marquis De Chastellux, on a travelling 
tour, stops here for refreshment. 

1789, Oct. 30th. George Washington, on his visit to the 
North, is escorted into town ; receives a short address ; dines 
at the inn, then kept by Mrs. Homan ; reviews a regiment, 
mustered to honor him ; is visited by many ; stays three hours, 
and leaves for Newbury, through lines of a multitude compris- 
ing- both sexes of all ages, who had assembled to give him, with 
deep emotions of gratitude, a welcome and a parting look. 
Seldom is respect more heartily and deservedly rendered, than 
it was on this occasion. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 207 

1824, Aug. 31st. General Lafayette, who had formerly 
honored this place with a visit, now does it the same favor. 
He did not arrive till between seven and eight in the evening, 
after having been ex})ected most of the day. The weather 
was rainy, and the travelling muddy. Still, when he entered 
the meeting-house, which was lighted up, he was received by 
the silent but grateful looks of a crowded assembly. Here he 
was addressed by Nathaniel Lord, Esq., and made a short re- 
ply. He was then conflucted to Nathaniel Treadwell's inn, 
where he was refreshed, and visited by some Revolutionary 
soldiers. He left with his suite at 10 o'clock, for Newburyport, 
amid the benedictions of many hearts. 

Witchcraft. * 1652, Sept. 28th. A man is sentenced 
at Ipswich court to pay 20s., or be whipped, for " having fa- 
miliarity with the devil." 

t 1692, June 30th. Elizabeth How, of West Ipswich, is 
tried for witchcraft. After various witnesses against her are 
heard, she is condemned to death. She was executed on Gal- 
lows Fill, in Salem, July 19th. She left a husband, James ; 
and children, Mary and Abigail; who, in 1712, received £12 
for damages, occasioned by the prosecution of their mother, 
from the Province. 

Aug. 3d. John Procter, who had removed hence to Salem 
Village, and been condemned for witchcraft, has a petition sent 
in for his reprieve, signed by thirty-two of his Ipswich neigh- 
bours, who spoke highly of his character. Still, this benevo- 
lent effort was in vain. Deep delusion shut up almost every 
heart, and threw a thick veil over almost every understanding. 

Aug. 31st. The wife of Peter Cloyce, who lived at Salem 
Village, is confined as a witch in Ipswich prison. 

I Sept. 27th. John Shephard, of Rowley, is bound over 
for assisting to convey Mary Green, a prisoner, charged with 
witchcraft, out of this jail. 

'^ Oct. " Some accusers were sent for to Gloucester, and 
occasioned four women to be sent to prison ; but Salem prison 

being so full, two were sent to Ipswich prison. Nov. They 

were sent for again by Lieut. Stephens, who was told that a 
sister of his was bewitched. In their way, passing over Ipswich 
bridge, they met with an old woman, and instantly fell into fits. 

* Qt. Ct. R. t Court of Oyer and Terminer P. 

t Gen. Sess. Ct. R. § Calef. 



208 REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

But by this time the validity of such accusations being much 
questioned, they found not the encouragement, that tliey had 
done elsewliere, and soon withdrew." Happy for this town, 
that such a scene occurred at no earher day ; liad it, more than 
one of the inhabitants would have probably become the vic- 
tims of ])opular delusion. 

* 1693, 2d Tuesday of May. The Supreme Court sit 
here, try, and clear several persons of Andover, accused of 
witchcraft. 

■f Dec. 26th. Ipswich is assessed £51 I9s. for its part of the 
expenses, incurred by sessions of the Oyer and Terminer 
Court, to try those who were charged with this offence. Thus 
closed one of the darkest, deadliest infatuations, which ever 
fell upon New England. Its criminations were so indiscrimi- 
nate ; its excesses carried so far, as to break the spell, which 
had long given it credibility and victims ; to wrest it, as a 
dreaded instrument, from the hand of fiendish revenge, and 
trample it down with the forbidden follies of human, but peni- 
tent, fallibility. 

Large Child. J 1793, July 18th. Polly, a child of John 
Procter, Jr., of Chebacco, twenty-seven months old, weighed 
from seventy-five to eighty pounds. Its measurement round 
the body was thirty-one inches and three quarters ; round the 
shoulders, thirty-four and a half; arm, below the elbow, nine 
and a half round ; calf of the leg, twelve ; and height, thirty- 
five inches and a quarter. It weighed only eight pounds when 
born. Notwithstanding its large dimensions, it enjoyed excel- 
lent health. It attracted so much notice, that it was exhibited 
in several towns. This child, having still continued to grow as 
it had done, died Oct. 24th, 1793, M. 2 years and 7 months 
lacking 6 days. 

Spectre Account. We give the subjoined, as a matter 
of history, without pretending to settle the question about ap- 
paritions. 

*§> 1729, Dec. 1st. Last week, one belonging to Ipswich 
came to Boston and related, that, some time since, he was at 
Canso, in Nova Scotia ; and that on a certain day there appear- 
ed to him an apparition in blood and wounds, and told him, that 
at such a time and place, mentioning both, he was murdered 
by one, who was at Rhode Island, and desired him to go to 

* Superior Ct. R. t Gen. Sess. Ct. R. 

t Essex Gazette. § New England Journal. 



REMARKABLE EVENTS. 209 

the said person, and charge him with the said murder, and 
prosecute him therefor ; naming several circumstances relating 
to the murder ; and that since his arrival from Canso to Ips- 
wich, the said apparition had appeared to him again, and urged 
him immediately to prosecute the said affair. The abovesaid 
person, having related the matter, was advised and encouraged 
to go to Rhode Island, and engage therein, and he accordingly- 
set out for that place on Thursday last." 

Deliverances. * 1633, Sept. The Tarrentines had de- 
signed to cut off the people of Ipswich, " when they were 
between 20 and 30 men, old and young, and when most of the 
men had gone into the bay, about their occasions, not hearing 
of any intention thereof. It was thus, one Robin, a friendly 
Indian, came to John Perkins, a young man, living then in a 
little hut upon his father's island, on this side of Jeffrey's Neck, 
and told him, that, on such a Thursday morning, early, there 
would come four Indians to draw him to go down the hill to 
the water-side, to truck with them ; which if he did, he and all 
near him would be cut off"; for there were forty birch canoes, 
which would lye out of sight, under the brow of the hill, full 
of armed Indians for this purpose. Of this, Perkins forthwith 
acquainted Mr. John Winthrop, who advised him, if such In- 
dians came, to carry it roughly towards them, and threaten to 
shoot them, if they would not be gone, and, when their backs 
were turned, to strike up the drum he had with him, besides his 
two muskets, and to discharge them ; so that six or eight young 
men, who were in the marshes hard by a mowing, having their 
guns ready charged, might take the alarm, and the Indians 
would perceive their plot discovered, and haste away to sea 
again. This was accordingly so acted, and took like effect; 
for he (Perkins) told me, he presently after discovered forty 
such canoes sheer off" from under the hill, and make as fast as 
they possibly could to sea ; and no doubt but many godly 
hearts were lifted up to heaven for deliverance." 

t 1634, Nov. 18th. An open pinnace of Mr. Henry Sew- 
all, of Ipswich, going deeply laden from Boston, was cast 
away on the rocks, at the head of Cape Ann, in a northeast 
storm, but the crew were saved. 

Nov. 24th. One Scott and Eliot were lost in their way 

* Rev,' Thomas Cobbet's Narrative. t Wintbrop. 

27 



210 REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

homewards, and wandered about six days, and ate nothing. 
At length they were found by an Indian, ahiiost senseless. A 
man was 21 days on Plumb island, and was found in the snow, 
yet alive and well. 

* 1675, Sept. 18th. The person of whom this is related 
was under Capt. Lothrop, when defeated by Indians. " Capt. 
Mosely came upon the Indians in the morning ; he found them 
stripping the slain, amongst whom was one Robert Dutch, of 
Ipswich, who, having been sorely wounded, by a bullet that raised 
his scull, and then mauled by the Indian hatchets, was left for 
dead by the savages, and stript by them of all but his skin ; 
yet, when Capt. Mosely came near, he almost miraculously, 
as one raised from the dead, came toward^ the English, to their 
no small amazement ; by whom being received and clothed, 
he was carried off to the next garrison, and is living, and in 
perfect health at this day." 

f 1676, May 3d. " A note is handed in on the Sabbath, 
by the pious parents of Goodwife Kimball, that she, and her 
five children, taken at Bradford by Indians, who killed her 
husband, might be delivered." These captives were carried 
forty miles into the wilderness. She was freed without ransom, 
after being twice condemned to death, and fires made ready to 
burn her and her infant. She and her children were brought 
to Ipswich on the 13th of June. 

X Oct. Thomas, son of the Rev. Thomas Cobbet, after 
suffering much as a captive among Indians, at the eastward, 
more than nine weeks, is ransomed for a coat. This was done 
by the influence of Mug, an Indian chief, who stopped, while 
on his way to Boston for negotiating a peace, at Ipswich, and 
then promised Mr. Cobbet, the father of the young man, that 
he would send him home. 

Ǥ. 1720, Nov. 30th. Nicholas Woodbury, of the Hamlet, 
returned from Canada last Saturday, after enduring many hard- 
ships, as a captive among Indians. He was taken by them 
in 1712, while in service at Wells. He was obliged to pay 
£30 for his redemption. The General Court allow him £60. 
Dec. 3d. They appoint him interpreter of the Indian lan- 
guage, as the province may need his service in this respect. 

We here close our chapter of things, which are out of the 

* Hubbard. t Cobbet'e Narrative. X Hubbard. § Prov. R. 



ECCLESIASTICAL AND PAROCHIAL CONCERNS. 211 

common course. They are of the class, which are fondly re- 
lated by the old, and attentively heard by the young. 

" The village matron, round the blazing hearth, 
Suspends the infant audience with her tales, 
Breathing astonishment." — Akenside. 



ECCLESIASTICAL AND PAROCHIAL CONCERNS. 

No concerns, when considered as to the highest good of a 
community, are so vitally important as these. As they are 
either habitually neglected or cherished by any people, so are 
such people either debased or elevated. Wherein the reli- 
gious privileges, offered by concerns of this kind, demand 
one sacrifice on our part, they bestow upon us a thousand 
richer benefits. Who would wish the Deity to banish the 
cloud from the heavens, which puts the vapors of the earth 
under a light contribution, so as to pour down refreshing 
showers upon its surface, adorn it with fruitful fields, and fill 
the garner with an abundant harvest ? Far less should we 
entertain or manifest a desire to have him diminish or destroy 
our Gospel institutions, because they make a small levy on our 
possessions for their continuance ; institutions, which, like the 
cloud of His presence, lead us by night and by day, scatter- 
ing upon us the needed gifts of mercy, and showing us the 
way to a heavenly Canaan. To enjoy these institutions with 
purity of conscience and liberty of person, our ancestors sun- 
dered the ties of relationship, submitted to losses of property, 
forsook the home of their nativity, braved perils by sea, and 
endured sufferings by land. Indeed, our ancestors passed 
through a fiery trial, so that they might secure for themselves 
and their children a religious as well as political portion, which 
should be as free from blemish, as the imperfection of human 
nature would admit, and as durable as the decay and uncer- 
tainty of earthly things would allow. If we would not show 
ourselves unworthy to be called by their name, we should 
cherish views, and be actuated by motives, magnanimous as 
theirs, in sustaining and bearing forward the ark of the Lord. 

A fuller and more interesting account of church and parish 
affairs might be given, if the records of them had not been 
lost for about sixty years. Such a lamentable chasm of in- 
formation must be partially supplied from other sources. 



212 ECCLESIASTICAL AND PAROCHIAL CONCERNS. 

Worship. * 1633, Nov. 26th. Rev. John Wilson, by 
leave of his Church, comes to preach for the people here. 

1634, April 3cl. Governor Winthrop sets out on foot to 
prophesy for them on the Sabbath. 

Form of Worship, f 1641. The Pastor begins with 
prayer, and the Teacher reads and expounds a chapter. The 
practice of reading the Scriptures was dispensed with here 
about sixty years ago. It was revived in the First Parish 
1807, and in the South Parish 1826. When it was dropped, 
the worship began with singing. Formerly, when a portion 
of the Bible had been read, one of the Ruling Elders would 
give out a Psalm. Then a sermon, and sometimes an extem- 
pore address would follow. This service was often beyond 
an hour. Then came singing, a prayer, and a blessing. In 
the afternoon performances, Josselyn says, 1663, that a Psalm 
was sung before the benediction. This, as the " Ratio Disci- 
plinae " states, 1725, was preceded by the phrase, — "Blessed 
are all they, that hear the word of God and keep it." 

Lectures. 1641. These were every week on Thursday, 
and commenced at 11 o'clock, A. M. They were superseded 
by monthly lectures 1753. They were attended by the 
Courts, if in session here, till late years. Evening lectures 
were first held in Ipswich 1742, because of great attention to 
religion. 

Singing. While Ruling Elders were continued, one of 
them read a single line, and such of the congregation as could 
sing, arose in different parts of the meeting-house, and sung 
it; and then another hne, till the Psalm was through. In 
the later societies, where no such officers were chosen, a 
Deacon performed the same duty. Sternhold & Hopkins's 
version of the Psalms appears to have been first used. About 
1667, the Bay Psalm-Book took place of the preceding. 
Before 1757, Tate h Brady were adopted. Not long after this 
year, the Bay Psalm-Book, as revised and improved by the 
Rev. Thomas Prince, was reinstated in some of the parishes. 
In the Hamlet, Tate h Brady continued till 1772, when 
Watts was introduced. The latter was adopted by the South 
Parish 1785, instead of Prince. 

As to seats for choirs, they were designated by the First 
Parish 1763, being " two back on each side of the front 

" Winthrop. t Lechford. 



ECCLESIASTICAL AND PAROCHIAL CONCERNS. 213 

alley." Similar provision was made at the Hamlet 1764, 
and at Chebacco 1788. The choir of the First Parish begin 
to sit in the gallery 1781. This alteration was soon imitated 
in other parishes. 

1790. Deacon Perkins informed the First Church, that 
at the request of the singers, he had read a whole verse 
at once for them in the Psalms. About 1793, the Psalms 
and Hymns began to be read wholly at once by the ministers, 
as at present. 

Hour-glass. For a long period before watches became 
so common as in late years, an hour-glass was used to meas- 
ure the time of religious performances. There is a place still 
remaining for such a glass, on one side, fronting the Elders' 
seat, in the house of the First Parish ; and there was another, 
till within a few years, in the South meeting-house. Hour- 
glasses were thus employed here till seventy years since. 
They had been common in Old as well as in New England. 
In allusion to this fact, a painter, though not in the most deli- 
cate manner, represented Hugh Peters, as in a pulpit with 
a large assembly before him, turning an hour-glass, and using 
these words, — "I know you are good fellows ; stay and take 
another glass." 

Contribution. * 1641. This was every Sabbath after- 
noon ; — " one of the Deacons saying, — ' Brethren, now there 
is time left for contribution, wherefore, as God hath prospered 
you, so freely offer.' — On some extraordinary occasions, the 
ministers presse a liberal contribution. The magistrates and 
chief gentlemen first, and then Elders, and all the congre- 
gation come up one after another one way and bring their 
offerings to the Deacon at his seate, and put it into a box, if 
it be money or papers ; if it be any other chattel, they set it 
down before the Deacons, and so passe another way to the 
seats againe." It was customary in all congregations, till 
seventy years ago, for persons visiting in town on the Sabbath, 
to put some money into the box. This was called, " the 
strangers' money," and was often stipulated as a perquisite of 
clergymen when settled. The collection on every Sabbath 
began to be omitted 1763. 

* Lechford. 



214 FIRST church; — discipline. 



FIRST CHURCH. 

* 1646. " The Church of Christ here consists of one hun- 
dred and sixty souls, being exact in their conversation, and 
free from epidemicall disease of all Reforming Churches, which, 
under Christ, is procured by their pious and orthodox min- 
istry." 

I 1742, July 25th. Up to this date from April, 1741, 
one hundred persons were added to the Church. From Jan. 
9th, 1743, to Oct. 30th, twenty-three more were admitted. 

% 1743, July 2d. Rev. John Rogers writes to the Con- 
vention of Ministers in Boston, — "I have the utmost reason 
to bless God, who has given me to see a day of such marvel- 
lous power and grace, particularly in this place, and since 
the Rev. Messrs. Whitefield and Tennant came among us. 
Wherein great numbers of our young people and others of 
more advanced age give clear evidence of a saving change 
wrought in them, and, by the fruits of the Spirit, show that 
they are born of the Spirit." 

1746, Aug. 21st. There are 304 members. 

1798. More than usual additions. 

1800, Nov. 30th. Up to this time, from April, 28 are ad- 
ded. 

1827. There were 25 male, and 85 female communicants. 

1830, Nov. 21st. To this date, from May 2d, 88 are ad- 
mitted to full communion, besides several by letter. 

1832. There were 55 male, and 158 female members. 

Church Discipline. <§. 1635. All churches of the Colo- 
ny are to consult about one uniform order of discipline. 

1643, May 3d. Each church is to deal with those of its 
members, who refuse to become freemen. 

1656. The Church pass the following votes. " 1. We look 
at children of members in full communion, which are about four- 
teen years old when their father and mother joined the Church, 
or were born since, to be members in and with their parents. 
2. We look at such children under the care and watch of 
our Church, and as they grow up to be about fourteen years 
old, to be liable to our Church censures in case of offence and 
scandal. 3. We look at it as the duty of Elders and brethren 

* Johnson. t 1st Ch. R. 

t Christian History. § Col. R. 



FIRST church; OFFICERS. 215 

to endeavour, in their respective places, to instruct them, and to 
call upon them to know the Lord, and to carry it according to 
the rules of the Gospel. 4. We look upon it as the Elder's 
duty to call upon such children, being adults, and are of un- 
derstanding, and not scandalous, to take the covenant solemnly 
before our assembly. 5. We judge that the children of such 
adult persons, that are of understanding, and not scandalous, 
and shall take the covenant, that their children shall be bap- 
tized. 6. That notwithstanding the baptizing the children 
of such, yet we judge, that those adult persons are not to come 
to the Lord's table, nor to act in Church votes, unless they 
satisfy the reasonable charity of the Elders or Church, that 
they have a work of faith and repentance in them." 

Giles Firman said, in 1658, " In Ipswich, N. E., when 
those two worthy men, Mr. Nathaniel Rogers, pastor, and Mr. 
John Norton, teacher, had the managing of this ordinance, they 
carried on the work with so much prudence and long-suffering 
(if the cause did permit,) before they came to the execution 
of it, and with so much majesty and terror when they came 
to the sentence, that the hearts of all the members (1 think) 
were struck with fear, and many eyes could not but let drop 
tears." 

Church Officers. The First Church of Ipswich con- 
tinued to have a Pastor and Teacher for one hundred and ten 
years. They had Ruling Elders, also, till after 1727 ; who 
commonly held their office two at a time. Their seat was di- 
rectly under the pulpit. For a considerable period, such offi- 
cers were regarded as set apart from civil trusts, and did not 
accept them. Their duties, as well as those of Deacons, may be 
seen particularly specified in the seventh chapter of the " Cam- 
bridge Platform." * " When a minister preacheth abroad in 
another congregation, the Ruling Elder of the place, after the 
Psalm is sung, says publicly ; — 'If this present brother hath any 
word of exhortation for the people at this time, in the name 
of God, let him say on.' " There were, also, generally two 
deacons ; their seat was next to that of the Ruling Elders, 
somewhat lower than theirs, and in front of the pulpit. For 
more than a century, they collected the ministerial taxes here, 
and bestowed on paupers what the town raised for their support. 

* Lechford. 



216 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 



Ministers of the First Church. 

THOMAS PARKER. 

* 1634, May. Thomas Parker, from Wiltshire, England, be- 
came a resident at Ipswich, f Mr. Sewall says, that Mr. Parker 
" was much about this time preaching and proving, at Ipswich, 
that the passengers came over on good grounds, and that God 
would multiply them, as he did the children of Israel." Hav- 
ing labored here in the ministry one year, Mr. Parker removed 
to Newbury, where a new settlement was formed. For an 
account of his parentage, labors, character, and death, see 
Mather's "Magnalia." 

NATHANIEL WARD. 

He was son of the Rev. John Ward, of the Episcopal 
Church ; born at Ipswich, England, and educated at Cam- 
bridge. He studied and practised law. After this he travel- 
led into Holland, Germany, Prussia, and Denmark. At the 
University of Heidelberg he became acquainted with the learn- 
ed Parens, who prevailed on him to become a preacher. On 
his return home, he was ordained at Standon, about 27 miles 
from London. J Mr. Ward, having expressed himself against 
the " Book of Sports," and against bowing at the name of Jesus, 
added, that " The Church of England was ready to ring 
changes in religion ; and that the Gospel stood a tip-toe, ready 
to be gone to America." For this he was suspended, and re- 
quired to make a public recantation. Sooner than comply, 
and thus wrong his conscience, he forsook his country, and 
came to this. He arrived here in June, 1634, and soon took 
charge of the Ipswich Church. How this "judicious servant 
of Christ," as Johnson calls him, toiled for building up the 
walls of Zion, we have no record to give us particular informa- 
tion. Such were his motives and character, however, that we 
have reason to believe he was not slack in so important a work. 

*§» 1637, Feb. 20th. As his health had become impaired, 

he resigned his pastoral office to Nathaniel Rogers. He still 

preached when he was able, till he left the colony. || 1638, 

March 12th. As great inconvenience had been experienced, 
for want of written laws, he is appointed on a committee by 
the General Court, to draw up a code for the consideration of 

* Winthrop. t New Heaven upon the New Earth. 

i Neal's History of the Puritans. § Johnson. || Col. R. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 217 

the Freemen. * 1639, Sept. He hands in the result of 

his labor, in this respect, to the Governor. f 1640, May 

13th. Mr. Ward, with some men of Newbury, is condition- 
ally allowed to form a settlement either at Haverhill, or at An- 
dover. This privilege was improved, and the former place was 
chosen before October. His chief object in obtaining such a 
grant was to prepare a residence for his son John, who became 

an estimable minister there. J 1641, June 2d. He 

preaches the Election Sermon. He was chosen to do this by 
the Freemen, before the General Court sat. The Governor 
looked on this mode of election as irregular ; but he suffered 
it to pass. Mr. Ward advanced several things in his discourse, 
which savoured more of liberty, than our magistrates of that 
period were disposed to approve. It was very evident, that 
his ideas of political rights were more popular with the Depu- 
ties, than with the Assistants. >§> Oct. 7th. The Governor 

and Mr. Hathorne are desired to wait on Mr. Ward, for a copy 
of the Liberties and Capital Laws, so that they may be tran- 
scribed, and forwarded to the several towns. Thus, however 
unable to minister often at the altar, he was not weary in 
watchfulness and exertion for the welfare of our infant country. 

1643, May 10th. He is granted 600 acres of land near 

Pentuckett, or Haverhill. This was, probably, for his public 
services. July. He addresses, with others, the Governor 

and Assistants, on the impolicy of assisting La Tour. 

1644, May 29th. The Deputies earnestly propose to the 
Assistants, that there be Commissioners, in the recess of the 
General Court, to perform public business. For such a Board, 
they nominate Mr. Ward, with ten others. This proposal 

was not allowed. 1645, May 25th. Mr. Ward is chosen 

on a Committee of Essex, to draw up a body of laws, and lay 
them before the next Legislature. These laws, in the compo- 
sition and arrangement of which he had a principal hand, 
were printed in 1648. Not long after this last appointment of 
his, he returned to England, and became minister of Shenfield, 

in Essex. 1| 1647. He publishes " The Simple Cobbler 

of Agawam," a satirical and witty performance. It encour- 
aged opposers to the King and Parliament ; though suited to 
moderate the excesses of the two parties then in England. 
The want of polish in this book was in keeping with the char- 

* Winthrop. f Col. R. t Winthrop. 

§ Col. R. II Bibliotheca Americana. 

28 



218 FIRST church; — ministers. 

acter he assumed, and with the style of the time. The se- 
vere mamiei- of his handhng denominations different from 
his own, was conmion with every sect. June 30th. He 
preaches before the House of Commons. He is supposed 
to have been the author of "A rehgious Retreat sounded to a 
rehgious Army," printed in 1647 ; and " A Word to Mr. Pe- 
ters, and Two Words to the Parhament and Kingdom " ; and 
the writer of " Pulpit Incendiary." He also published a small 
satire against the preachers of London, called " Mercurius 
Antimecharius, or. The Simple Cobbler's Boy, with his Lap full 
of Caveats." Mr. Ward died in 1653, M. S3. Of his chil- 
dren, were John, minister of Haverhill ; James, who returned 
to England with his father, and became a doctor ; and a daugh- 
ter, married to Giles Firman. His talents, acquirements, and 
piety were of a high order. Mather tells us, that he had in- 
scribed over his mantel-piece, Sohrie, juste, pie, late. Be- 
cause Mr. Ward did not continue as pastor and preach every 
Sabbath, and because he was so much concerned in affairs of 
legislation, and was wittily inclined in his writings, the impres- 
sion appears to have been cherished, that his heart was set 
more on the world, than on God. But such a suspicion is not 
truly founded. He did not constantly labor in the ministry, 
as previously stated, because a dispensation of Providence 
rendered him unable. He was frequently engaged in assisting 
the General Court, at their particular request, as was very 
common with the most devoted ministers of the colony, when 
Church and State were closely allied, and to serve the one 
was to do much for the other. There is no evidence, that the 
talent of wit, with which he was largely endowed, was ever 
turned to any account, except to lash and put down follies 
and vices, and to promote propriety, morality, and religion. 
From his entrance upon the ministry till the close of his life, 
he devoted what measure of strength he had, to advance the 
temporal and spiritual good of his fellow men. He held a 
rank among the first, who are divinely blessed for strict and 
untiring compliance with the rules of their stewardship. 

THOMAS BRACEY. 
This person was of Ipswich in 1635. Cotton Mather re- 
marks, " I say nothing, because I know nothing, of Mr. Bre- 
cy." This clergyman was, probably, an assistant to Mr. 
Ward, in the ministry, and returned to England about, or before, 
the time he did. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 219 

NATHANIEL ROGERS. 

* He was the second son of John, minister of Dedham, and 
a descendant of the martyr, and was born while his father was 
settled at Haverhill in 1 598. He knew the invaluable blessing 
of having a pious mother, who, in the first years of his intel- 
ligence, often directed him, both by her precept and example, 
to the Saviour of sinners. He gave evidence of piety in 
his childhood. At about fourteen he entered Emanuel College, 
where he was eminent both as a scholar and a Christian. He 
was particular in his attendance on social and secret prayer. 
Having one morning omitted the last duty, through a press of 
business, he was going to some place on a horse, which, stumb- 
ling, threw and bruised him. From the time of this perilous 
event, he was very careful not to omit any daily service of 
devotion, for the sake of temporal calls. He began his min- 
isterial course as chaplain to a person of high rank. He after- 
wards became curate to Dr. Barkham, at Booking, in Essex, 
and conformed with the requisitions of the established Church. 
On this point, he said, in 1627, " I am somewhat troubled 
sometimes at my subscription ; but I saw sundry men of good 
gifts, and good hearts, as I thought, that did so. And I could 
not prove that there was any thing contrary to the Word of 
God ; though I disliked them much, and I knew them unprofit- 
able burthens of the Church of God." As Dr. Barkham saw 
that Mr. Rogers did not put on his surplice at the funeral of 
a noted person, he privately told him to seek some otlier place 
of employment. Having served at Booking four or five years, 
he was called to Assington, in Suffolk, where he preached five 
years more. Here his labors were abundantly successful. 
But seeing that he could not dutifully subscribe " the Articles 
of Visitation," and that a storm of persecution was about to 
overtake him, he concluded to flee to New England. He was 
encouraged to do this by Mr. Thomas Hooker. He had mar- 
ried a daughter of Mr. Robert Crane, of Coggershall, a worthy 
gentleman, who offered to maintain him and his family, if he 
would stay at home. This kind proposal Mr. Rogers thought it 
his duty to decline. After a long passage he arrived at Boston, 
in November, 1636. Speaking of this fact, Johnson said, in 
reference to him, that he was " an able disputant, whose mouth 

* Maffnalia. 



220 FIRST church; — ministers. 

the Lord was pleased to fill with many arsjuments for the defence 
of the truth." The year following, Mr. Rogers was a member 
of the Synod, which convened to suppress the animosity exist- 
ing between the Legalists and Antinomians. He was invited to 
settle at Dorchester; but as those, who came with him, could 
not be accommodated there, he chose to come with them to 
Ipswich. Here he was ordained pastor, Feb. 20th, 1638, 
when he preached from 2 Cor. ii. 16. The General Court 
grant him leave, Sept. 6th, to take the oath of freeman, 

before two magistrates in Ipswich. * 1643, June. Mr. 

Rogers being earnest in a cause between the town and Mr. 
Bradstreet, which also concerned his own interest, Mr. Dud- 
ley used this speech to him, " Do you think to come with 
your Eldership here to carry matters." Mr. Dudley was 
somewhat hard at first to be convinced, that such language was 
indecorous ; but he confessed it was so, at last, and they were 
reconciled. Treatment of this kind must have wounded the 
feelings of Mr. Rogers, whose sensibility was often too great 
for his comfort. Dec. 17th. He writes a letter, printed the 
next year, to a member of the House of Commons, " dis- 
covering tiie cause of God's wrath against the nation, notwith- 
standing the present endeavours of reformation ; directing to 
the means of appeasing that wrath, and encouraging to con- 
stancy in those endeavours. It was composed with much 
judgment and pious affection." Having been long subject to 
occasional turns of dejected spirits and of spitting blood, and 
bestowing great care on whatever of his composition was to come 
before the public, his physician advised him not to transcribe 
his sermons, while his health was so precarious. This is a 
reason why none of his rich performances on the Sabbath 
have come down to us. He was known to have kept a diary ; 
but, at his request, two of his friends cast it into the fire, where 
it was entirely consumed. Pity indeed, that a treasure, which, 
if preserved, would serve not only to satisfy curiosity, but in- 
form and edify, should have been thus destroyed ! He left a 
manuscript, written in Latin, of which he was a complete 
master. This production was in favor of congregational 
church government. Though not gifted with strong lungs, 
Mr. Rogers spoke eloquently, and was heard with marked at- 
tention. Having become excessively attached to tobacco, he 

* Winthrop. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 221 

resolutely gave it up before his decease ; because he found 
that it had made him a slave to its use. Over two years be- 
fore he died, Mr. Norton, his colleague, was invited to settle 
in Boston. This was the origin of much uneasiness at Ipswich 
and of trial to Mr. Rogers, because some suspected tliat he 
was not sufficiently active to retain his colleague. Being al- 
most exhausted with infirmities, Mr. Rogers was taken with an 
influenza, which prevailed through the country. Thus attack- 
ed, he gradually failed. One of his last acts was to bless the 
three children of his daughter, who was remarkably faithful in 
discharging her duties to him. As he was about to breathe his 
last, he was heard to say, " My times are in thy hands." 
Thus departed a " man of God," in the afternoon of July 3d, 
1655, JE. 57. His estate in Old and New England amounted 
to £1200. To each of his five sons, John, Nathaniel, Samuel, 
Timothy, and Ezekiel, he gave £200. He had already paid 
£200 to his daughter, the wife of the Rev. Wm. Hubbard. 
He left £5 for Harvard College, and £3 for the poor. His 
wife, Margaret, died Jan. 23d, 1656. He is thus described by 
his son-in-law, Hubbard ; " He had eminent learning, singular 
piety, and holy zeal. His auditory were his Epistle, seen and 
read of all that knew them." This was a merited description. 
The toils of Mr. Rogers, in the vineyard of Christ here, were 
crowned with much success. The heaven, to which he guided 
others, there is reason to believe, became his own perpetual 
and glorious abode. 

JOHN NORTON. 

He was descended from respectable ancestors and was born 
May 6th, 1606, at Starford, in the county of Hertford. He 
early discovered uncommon talents, and entered the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge at fourteen. Here he shone as a scholar, 
and took his first degree. A zealous Catholic, who regarded 
him as a youth of much promise, endeavoured to have him 
embrace the profession of Popery. The attempt was vain. 
Mr. Norton's father having become embarrassed in his pecu- 
niary affixirs, he left college and engaged as an Usher and 
Curate in his native place. At this time, however, he felt 
not the power of religion. But he soon realized the deep 
necessities of his soul and penitently fled to the Saviour for 
help and eternal life. He rapidly gained the reputation of an 
able minister of the New Testament. His uncle offered him 



222 FIRST church; — ministers. 

a considerable benefice ; but he could not subscribe to the 
conditions, with which it was clogged. For a similar reason 
he declined a fellowship, as proffered him by Dr. Sibs, 
master of Catherine Hall in Cambridge. Still he was not idle. 
He served as Chaplain to Sir Wm. Masham, while waiting to 
see if a more extensive sphere of usefulness would be opened 
to him. Perceiving that his expectations in this respect were 
crossed by the impositions of Church Conformity, he resolved 
to visit the refuge of the Puritan Pilgrims. In one attempt to 
effect this purpose, he came near being shipwrecked between 
Harwich and Yarmouth. The vessel had to return, which dis- 
appointed him for that season. The next year he was enabled 
to succeed. When he departed from England, an aged cler- 
gyman said " he believed that there was not more grace and 
holiness left in all Essex, than what Mr. Norton had carried 
with him." Previously to his embarkation, he married a lady of 
considerable estate and of estimable character, who accompa- 
nied him. *Mr. Norton arrived at Plymouth, Oct. 1635. 
Here he was invited to settle, as well as at Ipswich. While 
considering which of these towns he ought to choose, he resid- 
ed in Boston. At this time his controversial abilities were 

called into exercise by the arguments of a French Friar. 

1637. He was an influential member of the Synod, which 
sat to compose the differences between the advocates and 
opposers of Mrs. Hutchinson. He finally concluded to make 
Ipswich the field of his labors. He assisted Mr. Ward, and 
was ordained Teacher when Mr. Rogers was ordained Pastor, 
t As he was looking for friends from England to join him here, 
he desired farms to be laid out for them. This was granted. 

1 1639, Nov. 5th. The General Court vote him two 

hundred acres of land. 1645, Dec. 22d. He dates his 

Answer to Questions on Ecclesiastical Government, as proposed 
by the Rev. Wm. Apollonius, of Middleburg, under direction 
of the clergymen of New Zealand. Mr. Norton composed this 
reply at the request of New England Ministers. It is able, and 
classically written in Latin, and contains a valuable exposition 
of Church usages among our fathers. It was the first book, 
composed in that language, that was ever printed in this 
country. While he was engaged about it, some of his people 
thought his sermons not so good as usual. They desired Mr. 



* Morton's Memorial. t T. R. t Col. R. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 223 

Whiting, of Lynn, to mention the subject to him. Mr. Norton 
took the admonition in good part and gave it suitable heed. 
Fuher, in his " Church History," says of this production, 
" Of all authors I have perused concerning those opinions, 
none to me was more informative than John Norton's ; one of 
no less learning than modesty." Mr. Norton sent a Latin 
letter to John Drury (who labored in vain to promote paci- 
fication among the Reformed Churches), which was signed by 

forty-three clergymen. 1646, Sept. 2d. As a member 

of the Synod, convened at Cambridge, he preaches in Boston. 
His discourse, as it was intended, led the church there to lay 
aside their scruples about being represented in such an As- 
sembly. 1647. He had an efficient hand in forming the 

Cambridge Platform. He proposed to have some rules con- 
nected with it, as to the watch which churches should have 
over their baptized children. But he withdrew his motion be- 
cause of some opposition, though similar rules were adopted four- 
teen years afterwards. 1651, May 7th. Mr. Wm. Pynchon 

is to appear before the General Court, Dec. 14th, when Mr. Nor- 
ton's Answer to his Treatise on Redempton and Justification is 
to be ready. This reply was presented the next Session and 

ordered to England to be printed. After the death of the 

Rev. John Cotton, 1652, who advised his church to obtain 
Mr. Norton, if they could, he began to preach for them. 
They supposed that Ipswich Church would consent to part 
with him for the greater good of the colony. In addition to 
tliis, Mr. Norton had wished to return to England, and his peo- 
ple had agreed, that, if he did not alter his mind, he might go. 
But when they perceived that he was likely to reside in Boston, 
they demurred as to his removing thither. Hence a sharp con- 
troversy arose between the two churches. 1653, May 18th. 

The Legislature, lamenting the decease of Mr. Cotton, con- 
gratulate Mr. Norton on his acceptance of the call from Boston. 
This year he has much influence in preventing a war with the 
Dutch at Minhadoes. After the death of Mr. Rogers, the 
Ipswich Church renewed their claim on Mr. Norton. The 
Governor and Magistrates called a council, stating, that, while 
such counter claims were insisted on, there vt^as danger that 
Mr. Norton would carry into effect his previous design, of leav- 
ing the Colony. The agitation of the question, what Mr. Nor- 
ton ought to do, was so long and so vehement, that it excited 
the fears of many, lest it should seriously and extensively injure 



224 FIRST church; MINISTERS. 

the interests of religion. It was settled, however, with fewer evil > 
consequences than they had apprehended. He was installed 
in Boston, July 23d, 1656. While others were contending 
about him, he was so far composed as to contend for the truth. 

In 1654, he pubhshed "The Orthodox Evangelist"; in 

1657 and in 1661, " Election Sermons " ; in 1658, the " Life of 

John Cotton " ; in 1660, " Heart of New England Rent." 

1662, Feb. 10th. He sails with Simon Bradstreet, as Colonial 
Agent, to England, much against his own private wishes. 
Having done the best that political circumstances allowed, he 
returned in September. On a review of this mission, he had the 
consciousness of having fliithfully discharged its duties, though 
some, who considered success as the standard of merit, were 
dissatisfied that he had accomplished no more. Cotton Mather 
supposes that the cool treatment, which he received on this 
occasion, broke down his spirits and shortened his life. But 
Dr. Eliot thinks that there was no ground for such a suppo- 
sition. 1664. Still holding the pen of a ready as well as 

an able writer, Mr. Norton publishes a Catechism. His chief 
work was a Body of Divinity, never printed. The last three 
sermons which he preached, were published by his friends 
after he died. In the forenoon of April 5th, 1663, it v/as his 
intention to preach in the afternoon ; but he was taken with a 
fainting fit and soon expired, M. nearly 57. The report of 
his decease produced extensive sadness. He left no chil- 
dren to sit beneath the shadow of his wide spread and well 
earned fame. When his first wife died is not known. He m. 
Mary Mason, of Boston, July 23d, 1656, who survived him. 
He had brothers, William, of Ipswich, and Thomas, of London. 
Mr. Norton was naturally irascible, but through Divine grace 
he brought his passions into commendable subjection. — 
Though greatly flattered by the compliments paid to his litera- 
ture, talents, and worth, though put forward by his elder 
brethren in the ministry, and by the first political characters, 
to express their opinions on the most important subjects of 
church and state, yet he had sound sense and piety enough 
to keep his mind steady, and appear with becoming modesty. 
He shared in the spirit of the times, as to using compulsion, af- 
ter argument had failed, against opposing denominations. Hence 
it was, that like the best of his contemporaries, he did much 
to expel the Quakers by persecution. On this account, they 
represented to the King and Parliament, that " John Norton, 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 225 

chief priest in Boston, by the immediate power of the Lord, 
was smitten and died." The deliveiy and discourses of Mr. 
Norton were of the first order. His devotional performances 
were uncommonly interesting. One of his church-members 
at Ipswich, after his removal to Boston, would commonly walk 
thither, then about thirty miles distant, so that he might hear 
him at the weekly lecture, and would remark, " that it was 
worth a great journey to be a partaker in one of Mr. Norton's 
prayers." This eminent servant of the Lord knew what the 
frowns of enemies were, as well as the smiles of friends. But 
his fortitude, based on Christian principles, suffered him not to 
sink under the apparent and expressed displeasure of his oppo- 
nents. He was glad to have it in his power so to act, as to 
merit and receive the approbation of the worthy, while he 
pitied those who envied his fame, and prayed for their highest 
welfare. He was, undoubtedly, one of the greatest divines, 
who ever graced this or any other country. He was emphat- 
ically " diligent in business, fervent in spirit, serving the 
Lord." As the result of this, many souls were given to him as 
the seals of his ministry. He realized that all his earthly portion 
of honors and enjoyments would soon pass away, and he pur- 
posed and acted with a wise reference to an incorruptible heri- 
tage. When the message of death came, it found him in his 
Master's service, and quickly changed his mortal for an immor- 
tal existence, wherein he might receive, with perfected saints, 
abounding knowledge, improvement, engagedness, and bliss, 
in glorifying God for ever and ever. 

THOMAS COBBET. 

* He was born in Newbury, England, 1608. He entered 
the LTniversity of Oxford, and continued there some time. 
When the plague raged, he, with others, became a pupil of 
the celebrated Dr. Tvviss, of his native town. He prepared 
for the ministry, and was settled in a small place in Lincoln- 
shire. It was not long before he was called on to comply 
with Ecclesiastical conditions, which he could not conscien- 
tiously approve. Consequently, like many other servants of 
Christ, he was under the necessity of seeking a refuge in the 
New World. He arrived here June 26th, 1637, and was soon in- 
vited by his former friend, Samuel Whiting, to be a colleague with 

* Mather. 

29 



226 FIRST church; — ministers. 

him at Lynn. He consented. His parents afterwards follow- 
ed him hither. In his new field of labor he was no loiterer, 
but did whatsoever his hands found dutifully to do. He and Mr. 
Whiting exerted themselves harmoniously, ably, and efficiently, 
to further the cause of pure religion. Soon after Mr. 
Rogers's decease, he, not having sufficient support in Lynn, 
began to preach at Ipswich, and was chosen pastor here. 
Though he came to a new place, he retained his old desires and 
industry to do good. * 1657, June 5th. He is one of thir- 
teen Elders, who meet in Boston, on Ecclesiastical questions, 
proposed by the Legislature of Connecticut. Divines from 
other Colonies were to meet with them. The main subject for 

their deliberation, was the baptism of children. 1661, 

June 7th. Mr. Cobbet is on a committee to consider " Our 
patent, laws, and privileges, and duty to His Majesty." Their 
report was made June 10th, and was a very interesting docu- 
ment, on account of its relativeness to the critical state of the 

Colony. 1662, May 7th. The Legislature grant him 

five hundred acres of land. 1668, April 14th. He is one 

of six clergymen appointed by the General Court to argue with 

several Baptists in Boston against their particular tenets. 

1671, May 31st. He is among fifteen ministers, who had 
counselled the Third Church of Boston to form a society by 
themselves, and who now present an address to the Legis- 
lature, requesting, that as their committee reported them, last 
year, to be disorganizers, for having given such counsel, they 
may have a hearing either before the Court or a convention 
of churches. The Court considered their address, and owned 

that their committee had uttered themselves improperly. 

1676, Aug. 9th. Mr. Cobbet is of twenty-four Elders, who 
assemble in Boston by desire of the Assistants, to advise 
them about the complaint of Gorges and Mason to the King. 
This year he was severely tried in the capture of his son 
by the Indians at the Eastward. Public prayers were offered, 
not only in his own congregation, but also in others of the 
vicinity, for the deliverance of this captive. They were 
answered, and the heart of an afflicted parent was comforted. 

1677. Mr. Cobbet writes a narrative of striking events 

to Increase Mather. 

As to his publications, (ew if any clergymen of his 
day had more or better than he. 1643. He takes up his 

" Col. R. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 227 

pen in favor of the Assistants' negative vote, then deemed 
a subject of great importance ; — 1644, preaches an Election 

Sermon. Of his printed productions are the followin"-. 

1645. A Defence of Infant Baptism, highly commended 
by Mr. Cotton, in his preface to Norton's Answer to Apol- 
lonius. A Treatise on Prayer ; Treatises on the First, Sec- 
ond, and Fifth Commandments. " Toleration, and the Duties 

of the Civil Magistrates." 16.53. " A Vindication of the 

Government of New England against their Aspersions, who 
thought themselves persecuted by it." " The Civil Magis- 
trate's Power in Matters of Religion mostly debated." 

1656. The Duty of Children to Parents, and of Parents to 

Children. 1666. An Election Discourse. 

The talents, attainments, piety, and usefulness of Mr. Cobbet 
were of no ordinary rank. He was justly accounted by his 
brethren, and by the principal civil characters of the Colony, 
as among the most prominent divines of New England. He 
was a skilful writer. He spared not himself in using the pen 
to defend both church and state in their relative claims. He 
was a man, who could be depended on by the friends of 
righteousness, when the storms of adversity beat upon the 
land. Then he was seen under no other shelter than that 
founded upon equity. His friends, having approved his prin- 
ciples once, had no occasion to fear his change of them for 
unholy reasons. Whether wath their eye upon him or not, 
their hearts trusted safely in him till the last. He suffered 
not the tares of error and iniquity to spring up and grow under 
his feet, because of timidity and inaction. He might ever 
be found with the armour of godliness girded about him, and 
awake to encounter the foes of Zion. He neither watched 
nor strove in vain. The divine blessing rested upon his efforts, 
and many souls were rescued, through his exertions, from 
remediless ruin. So far as human imperfection permitted, 
he was a pastor after God's own heart. He rested from his 
labors Nov. 1685, M. 77. He was not, for the Lord took 
him. He left a widow, Elizabeth, who d. the next year,, 
and children, Samuel, Thomas, John, and Elizabeth. He 
had been called to mourn over three other deceased children. 
His estate was £607 Is. 6d. The epitaph, assigned to 
Mr. Cobbet by Cotton Mather, there is reason to believe, 
was in his imagination and not upon a tomb-stone, as some 
have supposed and stated. As it was pertinent, however 



228 FIRST CHURCH ; MINISTERS. 

fictitious, a translation of It may be properly given : — " Stay, 
passenger, for here lies a treasure, Thomas Cobbet, of whose 
availing prayers and most approved manners, you, if an in- 
habitant of New England, need not be told. If you cultivate 
piety, admire him ; if you wish for happiness, follow him." 

WILLIAM HUBBARD. 

He was son of William, who was an eminent inhabitant 
of Ipswich, and afterwards of Boston. He was born in Eng- 
land 1621, came with his father to Massachusetts about 1630, 
and took his degree with the class who first graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1642. 1656, July 4th. He is desired to 

preach for the Society here, as colleague with Mr. Cobbet. 
1667. He was one of the seventeen, who bore testi- 
mony against the Old Church in Boston, when they settled 

John Davenport from New Haven. 1671, May 31st. 

He is one of the fifteen, who send in a long and able pro- 
test to the General Court, against the censure passed on 
them by a committee of the Legislature of 1670, for being 
of the Council who formed the South Church of Boston. 
To this protest the Court replied, and apologized for some 

severe and improper expressions of the committee. 

* 1675, Nov. 4th. With other clergymen, Mr. Hubbard 
advises the Church at Rowley to cease from their contention 
about Mr. Jeremiah Shepard, who had preached for them, 
and was much wanted by some for their pastor, and not by 

others. 1676. He preaches an able Election Sermon. 

1677. He is tried in having a part of his people at 

Chebacco much engaged in endeavours to have Mr. Shepard 
for their minister. His chief objection to this candidate was, 
that he had not become a member of any church. March 
29th, his first Historical work receives the approbation of the 
colonial licensers, and was soon published in Boston. It con- 
tained " A Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians in 1676 
and 1677, with a Supplement concerning the War with the 
Pequods in 1637," and a Table and Postscript ; also, " A 
Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians in New England 
from Piscataqua to Pemaquid." The same book was licensed 
in London, June 27th, and was immediately printed there 
under the title, " Present State of New England." Mr. Hub- 
bard was on a visit to England in 1678, and was probably 

• Rowley Church R. 



FIRST CHURCH ; MINISTERS. 229 

there to superintend the publishing of this work. He return- 
ed from this voyage by October, to tlie great satisfaction of his 
parishioners. VVliat he thus gave to the public, was after- 
wards thrown into the present form of his " Indian Wars." 

* 16S0, May 19th. " As Mr. Hubbard hath compiled a 

History of New England, a committee are chosen to peruse 
the same and report, so that the General Court may judge 

about having it printed." 1682, June 24th. He delivers 

a Fast Sermon, and, in September, a Discourse on the Death 
of General Dennison. Both of these were superior productions, 
and were printed. Oct. 11th. The Legislature vote him £50 

for his History of New England. 1683, Feb. 17th. They 

order a half of this sum to be paid him now, if " he procure 
a fayre coppie to be written, that it be fitted for the presse." 
Such a copy was obtained, and was amended by his own hand. 
The Massachusetts Historical Society, aided by a liberal dona- 
tion from the General Court, had it printed in a volume, dis- 
tinct from those of their Collections, which contain it, in 1815. 
This History of Mr. Hubbard was chiefly indebted for its facts 
to the Journal of Governor Winthrop. Had his parochial 
labors allowed him to increase the information in his book, 
much more than they did, so that he could have saved a 
greater share of credible traditions, and of events passing in his 
time, the worth of its pages would have been proportionably 
enhanced. Still, as it is, this work has been of much ser- 
vice to the most eminent New England historians. There is 
reason to believe, from the known fairness of his character, 
that, had not the introductory leaves of his manuscript His- 
tory been lost, there would be found in them not only a refer- 
ence to Winthrop and Johnson, but to other authorities, as the 
sources of his materials, so that no suspicion of pretence to 
originality, for the greater part of these materials, could be 
justly charged to him. His History was long under the 
supervision of an intelligent committee, appointed by the 
General Court. This committee could judge whether, with 
the helps, as then existing, for the compilation of such a work, 
Mr. Hubbard had done it in a commendable manner. They 
did report to the Legislature, that his exertions in this respect 
were worthy of praise, and that he ought to receive, what was 
then thought a liberal compensation. Their opinion weighed 

* Col. R. 



230 FIRST church; — ministers. 

much in his favor then, and it should not he hght with us now. 
Though his History is much less consulted since the docu- 
ments for much of it have been published, yet its author 
should be held in grateful and honorable remembrance for 
doing far more than any of his contemporaries, for resorting 
to secret lights, and bringing them out to the view of the 
public, so that they might more clearly and interestingly look 
back on the events of their beloved country. The voyager 
who dares exceed the lines of latitude, within which most 
others sail, and by such enterprise, though guided by rare 
charts, brings us the rich productions of a climate, where we 
will not go ourselves, should share largely in our esteem, 
however the track he pursued may afterwards become a 
common one, and the guides he followed become familiar to 
all. 1684. Eliot says, '-Mr. Hubbard presided at Com- 
mencement. This was after the death of President Rogers." 
It appears that Mr. Rogers died very suddenly the day after 
Commencement, that the duties of that occasion hastened 
his end, and that Mr. Hubbard did not then preside. It 
is probable, that the statement of Dr. Eliot was derived 
from the following. * 1688, June 2d. Mr. Hubbard is ap- 
pointed by Sir Edmund Andros to officiate as President of 
the College the following Commencement. As there were 
no degrees conferred this year, it is doubtful whether Mr. 

Hubbard complied with this honorary appointment. 1686. 

Mr. Hubbard receives a visit from John Dunton, who gave 
the subsequent descxiption of him. " The benefit of nature, 
and the fatigue of study, have equally contributed to his 
eminence. Neither are we less obliged to both than himself; 
he freely communicates of his learning to all, who have the 
happiness to share in his converse. In a word, he is learned 
without ostentation and vanity, and gives all his productions 
such a delicate turn and grace (as seen in his printed Ser- 
mons and History of the Indians), that the features and linea- 
ments of the child make a clear discovery and distinction of 
the father ; yet he is a man of singular modesty, of strict 
morals, and has done as much for the conversion of the In- 
dians, as most men in New England." This is no flattery. 
It had the sanction of truth. — Mr. Hubbard receives aid in the 
ministry from John Dennison. f 1694, March 15th. He 

* Farmer's Memorials. t Reg. R. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 231 

contracts to marry Mary, widow of Samuel Pearce, who died 
1691. This marriage soon took place. It was not agreeable 
to most of his parish. They would allow her to be a worthy 
woman, hut not of sufficient note to be their minister's wife. 
Mr. Hubbard, however, set more by intellectual, moral, and 
pious qualifications, as he ought, than by those, which rest on 
the arbitrary, and oftentimes incorrect, decisions of public 

partiality. 1696, June 26th. An interesting letter of this 

date, written from Ipswich to John Archdale, Governor of 
South Carolina, about emigrants going from this town to that 

Colony, bears conclusive marks of being Mr. Hubbard's. 

1699. Mr. Hubbard, with others, protests against the declara- 
tion of Brattle Street Church in Boston, as too lax in doc- 
trine, the ordinance of baptism, and admission to communion. 

1701. He publishes with his friend, Mr. Higginson of 

Salem, " Dying Testimony to the Order of the Churches." 

1702. Mather says, in his Magnalia, " Mr. J. Higginson 

and INIr. W. Hubbard have assisted me and much obliged me 
with information for many parts of our History." Aug. 2d, 
on account of his inability through age, to carry on the minis- 
try, Mr. Hubbard desires his church to get him more help. 

1703, May 6th. He gives up all ministerial labor, and 

his people vote him £60 as a gift. Thus gradually ap- 
proaching his latter end, with which he had held frequent com- 
munion, he died Sept. 14th, 1704, M. 83. Oct. 26th, his 

congregation vote £32 to pay his funeral charges. His 

house was about one hundred rods from the late Dr. Dana's 
meeting-house, near the bank of the river, commonly called 
Turkey Shore. His first wife was Margaret, the daughter 
of the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers. She was a lady of excellent 
reputation. He had three children, John, Nathaniel, and 
Margaret, who m. John Pynchon of Springfield. His last 
wife, Mary, was living in 1710, when his people administered 
to her necessities. Though Mr. Hubbard had a large patri- 
mony, yet he expended this as well as his salary in the 
support of his family, and in discharging the duties of hospi- 
tality and other beneficence. As an intelligent and judicious 
adviser, he was called on many councils, and had a prominent 
part in them. He spent his days, he toiled, for knowledge 
both human and divine ; he put forth the energies of his mind, 
he faithfully complied with his obligations, as a member of 
society and a minister of the gospel ; he sought the salvation 



232 FIRST church; — ministers. 

of the heathen, as well as of the civilized, not to lay up his 
chief treasure on earth, but in heaven, — not to gain the ap- 
plause of men, as his supreme good, but the approbation of 
God. His object has its unchangeable commendation in the 
Word of Eternal Truth. Though he lived long, he labored till 
the last to be found faithful. Nor was his exertion unnoticed 
nor unrewarded by Him, who rules over all. He was made 
an instrument for turning back the captivity of many souls. 
Mr. Hubbard "certainly was for many years the most eminent 
minister in the County of Essex, equal to any in the Province 
for learning and candor, and superior to all his contemporaries 
as a writer." Thus approved by human testimony, there 
is cause to believe, that he found his " record on high," as a 
passport to the mansions of blessedness. 

JOHN ROGERS. 

He was son of the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers, was probably 
born at Assington, and came with his father to New England 
1636. He graduated at Harvard College 1649, and studied, 

as was usual in his time, both physic and divinity. 1656, 

July 4th. He is invited with William Hubbard to preach 
here. It appears, that previously to this he had not been 
actively engaged in any employment, probably on account 
of inheriting the depression of spirits, to which his father was 
subject, who remarked in his will, that however John was 
his eldest son, he should not leave him a double portion, 
because he was not serviceable. But had this parent lived 
to see the diligence, with which his son applied himself, not 
only to his studies, as he already had, but also to his public 
duties, he would have reversed the opinion formed of him, and 
have rejoiced to say, that he was indeed useful to all around 
him. True, the parochial services of Mr. Rogers were not 
so many as they would have been, jf not connected with such 
men as Messrs. Hubbard and Cobbet. Tradition informs us, 
that he took the principal charge of the Thursday lecture, 
while they attended to other church and parish concerns. 
His salary for a considerable part of the time was less than 
theirs, because they were expected to do more in the ministry 
than he. A sufficient reason for his not engaging to take more 
on himself in preaching, was that he had many other calls as 
the principal physician in the town. Allen's Biographical Dic- 
tionary says of Mr. Rogers, — " His inclination to the study of 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 233 

physic withdrew his attention from theology." This is a 
mistake, as appears from the fact, that his salary was voted 
here down to 1681. He })ursued " the noiseless tenor of his 
way," in storing his mind with the rich treasures of knowledge 
both human and divine, in discharging his obligations to his 
fellow beings and to his God. With high purposes and pure 
motives, he rose to eminence. On the decease of Urian 
Oakes, President of Harvard College, Mr. Rogers was chosen 
to succeed him, and was installed Aug. 12th, 1683. But 
his continuance in so responsible and arduous a station, was 
of short duration. While devising and acting for the welfare 
of the College, while his varied prospect was brightened with 
the rays of hopeful promise, he was cut off. The day suc- 
ceeding Commencement saw the last of his livinir efforts. 
He was then suddenly called to resign his spirit into the hands 
of his IMaker. Mr. Rogers m. Elizabeth, daughter of General 
Dennison. She d. June 13th, 1723, iE. 82. He had chil- 
dren, Elizabeth, Margaret, John, Daniel, Nathaniel, and Pa- 
tience. The following is a translation of the epitaph, deserv- 
edly inscribed on his tombstone at Cambridge : — • 

'■' There is committed to this earth and this tomb, a deposi- 
tary of kindness, a garner of divine knowledge, a library of 
polite literature, a system of medicine, a residence of integrity, 
an abode of faith, an example of Christian sincerity ; a trea- 
sury of all these excellencies was the earthly part of Rev. 
John Rogers, son of the very learned Rogers of Ipswich, and 
grandson of the noted Ro2;ers of Dedham, Old England, the 
excellent and justly beloved President of Harvard College. 
His spirit was suddenly taken from us July 20th, A. D. 1634, 
in the 54th year of his age. Precious is the part that remains 
vs^ith us, even while a corpse." 

JOHN DENNISON. 

He was son of John, and grandson of General Daniel Den- 
nison. His mother was Martha, daughter of Deputy-Governor 
Symonds. He graduated at Harvard College 1684. He 
engages, April 5th, 1686, to preach one quarter of the time, 
as helper to Mr. Hubbard, and, the next year, one third of 
the time. The affections of his people were strong towards 
him, and their estimation of his merit uncommonly high. 
They elected him for their pastor, but he was not ordained. 
God, who knows the end from the beginning, who often looks 
30 



234 FIRST CHURCH. MINISTERS. 

on the objects of his favor with eyes different from those of 
short-sighted men, designed him only for a transient residence 
on earth. Thus controlled by a power, in whose government 
he reposed an affectionate confidence, he, however strongly 
drawn to life by the wishes of many hearts, dutifidly yielded 
to the message of his heavenly Father, and fell asleep in 
Jesus Christ. His decease was Sept. 14th, 1689, in his 
24th year. He left a wife, Elizabeth, who was daughter 
of Nathaniel Saltonstall of Haverhill, and who m. the Rev. 
Rowland Cotton of Sandwich, and d. in Boston July 9th, 
1726, in her 58th year. He also left a son, John. The 
description given of Mr. Dennison by Cotton Mather, was 
deserved : — "A gentleman of uncommon accomplishments 
and expectations, of whom the Church in Ipswich hoped, that 
under his shadow they should sit many years. He was to 
them a pastor, of whose fruit they tasted with an uncommon 
satisfaction." 

JOHN ROGERS. 

He was son of John, President of Harvard College ; b. July 
7th, 1666, graduated at Harvard College 1684. He is de- 
sired, March 9th, 1686, with Mr. Dennison, to assist in the 
ministry here. He appears to have complied till Dec. 24th, 

1689, when he is offered land, if he would be settled. 

1692, Sept. 1st. A committee prepare for his ordination, 
which is to be on the 12th of October. A reason why he was 
not ordained before, was, that he and his parishioners did not 
have the same understanding about one hundred acres of land, 
which were promised him, on the condition previously men- 
tioned. 1702, Aug. 1.3th. As Mr. Hubbard was unable 

to preach, Mr. Rogers, at the request of the Church, agrees 
to carry on the whole work of the ministry, till suitable help 
can be obtained. Aid of this kind was procured for him the 

last of this year. * 1705, Dec. 5th. The Legislature 

order two pamphlets, sent them by John Rogers and John 
Rogers, Jr., to be burnt by the common hangman, near the 
whipping-post in Boston. There can be little doubt but that 
one of these individuals was the Rev. Mr. Rogers of Ipswich, 
and the other the Rev. Mr. Rogers of Boxford, and after- 
wards of Leominster. What the pamphlets were, which gave 

* Prov. R. 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 235 

SO great offence, is not related, though it is likely, that they 
were upon the opposition, which the House was making to 
Her Majesty's instructions to the Governor, about his salary 

and other topics, which produced much excitement. 

1706, May 26th. Mr. Rogers preaches an Election Sermon. 
It seems that the displeasure of a preceding Legislature did 
not debar him from being thus honorably noticed. Perhaps 
the excessive severity, which brought down fire upon his 

pamphlet, produced a reaction in his favor. 1726, Oct. 

6th. He writes to his people that he had served them 
thirty-seven years, had lost by having his salary in depreciated 
bills, had sold one portion and another of his estate, and 
mortgaged the remainder to make up the deficiency of main- 
tenance for his family ; had said nothing to his parish about 
his condition, and wished to live in love with them and die 
in peace. This appeal was not without efiect. His Congre- 
gation immediately vote him £100 to clear his property from 
incumbrance. He was not alone in having his salary paid 
in depreciated bills. The clergy of his day were generally 
and similarly tried. This was the cause of much uneasiness 

in many parishes. 1733, March 15th. Mr. Rogers's 

people grant him £40 to repair his house. 1739, Sept. 

He preaches a sermon on the death of John Appleton, which 
was printed. ■ 1743, July. He writes an interesting ac- 
count of a revival in his congregation, which was published in 

" Christian History." Such was the strength of his mind, 

the amount of his acquisitions in learning and theology, the 
prominence of his piety, and the persevering labors of his 
ministry, that he held a high rank in the estimation of his 
people and of the public. Like his Saviour, he looked upon 
the salvation of souls, as an object, for which men should 
spend and be spent more than for any other object upon earth. 
With merits and views like these, he was indeed a pillar in 
the temple of God ; he had the rich satisfaction of being an 
instrument of turning many to the altar of mercy, to the feet 
of Him, who came to seek and save the lost. Thus serving 
the Lord, he looked on death as a welcome messenger for 
transferring his soul to a perfect and glorious state of exist- 
ence. He died Dec. 28th, 1745, in his eightieth year. His 
parishioners voted £200 O. T. for his funeral expenses. He 
m. Martha Smith, Jan. 12th, 1637, and Martha, daughter of 
William Whittingham, Nov. 4th, 1691, who d. March 9th, 



236 FIRST church; — ministers. 

1759, M. 89. He left children, John, Samuel, William, 
Nathaniel, and Daniel. He had had other children, Richard, 
Martha, Wary, Elizabeth, d, when an infant, and Elizabeth, 
a twin with Daniel. His portrait is among the collections 
of the Essex Historical Society. According to the custom of 
his time, it has a white, full-bottomed wig. It presents a fair 
complexion and an intelligent countenance. Mr. Wiggles- 
worth of the Hamlet preached a sej'mon on the occasion of 
Mr. Rogers's death, Jan. 5th, the Sabbath after his funeral, 
and gave the following merited character of him : — 

" He was blessed with a clear apprehension and sound 
judgment, was of a thoughtful and inquisitive mind. In the 
diligent improvement of which natural advantages, through the 
blessing of God, he acquired much knowledge. Christ was 
pleased to make him a wise steward of the mysteries of the 
Gospel. What a multitude of most instructive discourses 
upon the fundamental truths of Christianity hath he delivered 
from hence ! How edifying, even his private and pleasant 
conversation to such as visited him ! The doctrines of grace 
hung much upon his lips. He understood them clearly, and 
taught them ungainsayingably. We have abundant reason 
to think, that he was possessed of the treasure of grace as well 
as gifts. If the tree is to be known and judged by its fruits, 
we have reason to think him as eminent for his piety as 
learnins; ; as great a Christian as a divine. There are many 
living witnesses of the success of his ministerial labors, as was 
a multitude, who went before him to glory, both of which 
shall be his crown, when the great Shepherd shall appear. 
His old age was not infirm and decrepid, but robust, active, 
and useful, whereby he was enabled to labor in word and 
doctrine to the last, and quit the stage of life in action." 

JABEZ FITCH. 

He was son of the Rev. James Fitch, of Norwich, Conn. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1694 ; was there elected 
Tutor and Fellow. 1702, Dec. 11th, he consents to be- 
come colleague with John Rogers ; and is ordained, Oct. 24th, 
1703. As he and his people did not agree about a part of 
what he considered his salary, he became cool in his attach- 
ment to them, and thought of some other place for his labors. 
This, as well as other cases, shows, that explicit agreements at 
first are best for every party concerned in them. After la- 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 237 

boring here ably and successfully, he engaged to supply a 
pulpit at Portsmouth, Aug. 1724. The result was, that he 
there received an invitation to settle. *Nov. 17th. A coun- 
cil sit in Boston, about his accepting such a call. He still 
labored some at Ipswich, up to Dec. 13th. The next sunmier 
he was installed at Portsmouth. His chief plea for quitting 
his charge at Ipswich, was insufficiency of support. The peo- 
ple here strove hard to retain him. His claim for their ar- 
rearages to him was settled by referees, Sept. 22d, 1726. 
He m. Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel John Appleton, June 
10th, 1704. He d. of a nervous fever Nov. 22d, 1746, in 
his seventy-fifth year. He collected facts, relative to New 
Hampshire, which were of much assistance to Dr. Belknap, 
in his history of that State. He published a sermon oc- 
casioned by the earthquake of 1727 ; another at the ordina- 
tion of John Tuck, at the Isle of Shoals, in 1732 ; two on 
the prevailing throat-distemper, and an account of the same 
disease in 1736. His mind was strong and richly stored with 
learning. His heart was swayed by benevolent affections, and 
eminently sanctified by the Spirit of grace. His life was long, 
not only as to years, but also as to usefulness. 

NATHANIEL ROGERS. 

He was son of the Rev. John Rogers, b. March 4th, 1702 ; 
and graduated at Harvard College in 1721. After having as- 
sisted his father and supplied the place of Mr. Fitch, more 
than a year, he received a call from the majority of the church 
here, Aug. 16ih, 1726. This call was confirmed by the par- 
ish Sept. 15th, if he would settle on congregational principles, 
as specified in the platform of church government. His father 
objected to such a condition, as unprecedented. Still the so- 
ciety held to it, as indispensable. Tlieir being so particular, 
seems to have been caused by the increasing desire of young 
ministers to put down the office of Ruling Elder, which was 

fully recognised by the Cambridge Platform. 1727, Oct. 

18th. Mr. Rogers is ordained. 1739, Sept. 7th. He 

preaches a sermon, as did his father, on the decease of John 

Appleton. 1743, July 8th. He is on a Committee, who 

report in Boston, a testimony, signed by himself and many 
other ministers : " That there has been a happy and remarka- 
ble revival of religion in many parts of this land, through an 

* Dorchester R. 



238 FIRST church; — ministers. 

uncommon divine influence, after a long time of great decay 
and deadness." In connexion with the testimony, the same 

Committee give advice against abuses of the revival. 1746. 

He declines to have John Walley as his colleague, because 
he was unwilling to exchange with a preacher, who had officiat- 
ed for a new church in Boston, which had seceded from other 
orthodox churches. This produced considerable excitement 

against Mr. Rogers ; still he adhered to his purpose. 

1747, Feb. 25th. After much controversy with Mr. Picker- 
ing, of Chebacco, which began in 1742, concerning the means 
used for the revival, Mr. Rogers takes part in the ordination 

of Mr. Cleaveland over the newly formed church there. 

1752, Sept. 27th. He proposes to relinquish one third of 
his salary, towards the support of a colleague. He recom- 
mends Timothy Symmes, who had assisted him, and who con- 
tinues several years to labor with him. 1763, March 2d. 

He preaches at the ordination of John Treadwell, at Lynn ; 
and, in the same year, delivers a sermon on the death of Dea. 

Samuel Williams. These discourses were published. 

1764, March 30th. He is so sick, as to have help in the 

ministry. 1765, Nov. 7th. He gives the right hand of 

fellowship at the ordination of the Rev. Joseph Dana. 

Grappling with the infirmities of his nature, he sunk under 
them and died peacefully, May 10th, 1775. Thus, he was 
taken away at a period, when, with the most of his ministerial 
brethren, his patriotic feelings were severely tried by the pro- 
ceedings of the mother country, and when he had deep anxiety 
as to the results of the revolution, upon which his countrymen 
had entered. He m. Mary, widow of Colonel John Dennison 
and daughter of President Leverett, Dec. 25th, 1728 ; and the 
widow Mary Staniford, May 4th, 1758, who survived him 
and d. in 1780. His children were, Margaret, Sarah, Eliza- 
beth, Martha, Lucy, and Nathaniel. Mr. Rogers was a man 
of superior intellect, which he industriously cultivated in literary 
and theological studies. When called upon councils, he was 
intrusted with a prominent part. It was from a deep sense of 
duty, that he took on himself and continued to exercise the 
office of minister. When the path of duty was plainly marked 
out for him, he resolutely pursued it, whether accompanied by 
few or many. His great end was to have a clear conscience 
before the eye of Hitn, who searches most deeply and most 
infallibly. To the poor and afflicted, he was a son of conso- 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 239 

lation In word and deed. His untiring exertions to build up the 
cause of Zion, were much blessed by the great Head of the 
Church. In view of his motives and conduct, as compared 
with the teachings of Revelation, he cherished a hope, which 
was to his soul as an anchor, sure and steadfast. 

The following lines, illustrating the character of Mr. Rogers, 
are upon his tomb-stone. 

" A mind profoundly great, a heart that felt 
The ties of nature, friendship, and humanity, 
Distinguish'd wisdom, dignity of manners ; 
Those mark'd the man ; — but with superior grace, 
The Christian shone in faith and heavenly zeal, 
Sweet peace, true greatness, and prevailing prayer. 
Dear man of God ! with what strong agonies 
He wrestled for his flock and for the world ; 
And, like Apollos, mighty in the Scriptures, 
Opened the mysteries of love divine, 
And the great name of Jesus ! 
Warm from his lips the heavenly doctrine fell, 
And numbers, rescued from the jaws of hell, 
Shall hail him blest in realms of light unknown. 
And add immortal lustre to his crown." 

TIMOTHY SYMMES. 

* He was a native of Scituate, Mass., and graduated at 
Harvard College in 1733. He was ordained at Millington, in 
East Haddam, Conn., Dec. 2d, 1736. In the revival of 1742, 
he did whatsoever his hand found to do. The result of his 
being so commendably on the side of religion, was opposition ; 
which drove him from his society. He came to Ipswich and 
assisted Mr. Rogers, in 1752 ; and continued here, laboring 
in season and out of season for the good of souls. In the 
midst of life, of purposes and endeavours to show himself as 
a laborer having no need to be ashamed, he was called to 
number and finish his days. This occurred April 6th, 1756, 
in his forty-first year. He m. Eunice, daughter of Francis 
and Hannah Cogswell. She survived him and m. Richard 
Potter. He left two sons, Ebenezer and William. In 1771, 
the former of these children was M. 16, and the latter 15. 
LEVI FRISBIE. 

He was born at Branford, Conn., about 1748. At the age 
of sixteen, he gave evidence of piety, and began to fit for Col- 
lege, under the Rev. Eliezer Wheelock, of Lebanon. He 
also studied with Dr. Bellamy, of Bethlehem. He enter- 
ed Yale College in 1767. Here he stayed over three years, 

* Farmer. 



240 FIRST church; — ministers. 

but finished his education at Dartmouth in 1771, in the first 

class who graduated at this institution. 1772, May 21st. 

He and David Macchier are ordained at Dartmouth College, 
as missionaries to the Indians at Muskingum, " where a re- 
markable door is opened for the Gospel." 1772, June 

19th. He and his fellow-laborer set out on their mission, 
expecting to be supported by the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge. While on their journey, they heard, 
that the Indians, to whom they were going, were inclined to a 
war with the English. Before getting to the immediate vi- 
cinity of their intended station, Mr. Frisbie was taken danger- 
ously sick with a fever. He recovered ; and as the condition 
of the Indians at Muskingum w^as very unsettled, he and Mr. 
Maccluer spent about seven months among the wdiite scattered 
population, making their chief place of residence at Fort Pitt. 
After this period, they returned to New England. We are 
informed, that Mr. Frisbie, still desirous to prosecute the duties 
of a missionary, travelled to the southward and also to Canada. 
In a letter of his to a friend, he states that he was on a mission 
in the counties of Lincoln and Kennebec, Me. But this spe- 
cific manner of preaching the Gospel he was constrained to 
relinquish, on account of the unsettled state of the whole coun- 
try, occasioned by the Revolution. 1775, March. As 

Mr. Rogers was unable to perform his parish duties, Mr. Fris- 
bie is engaged to assist him. Being approved by the people, 
they gave him a call, and he was installed Feb. 7th, 1776. 
With his brethren in the ministry, he was deeply interested in 
the struggle of our country for Independence. While he 
chiefly sought the spiritual welfare of his flock, he was not in- 
active for the temporal prosperity of the nation. When the 
tidings of peace came, he was selected by the town to deliver 
an oration. This, being pertinent to the occasion, was pub- 
lished, as well as the following productions of his.-^ 1784. 

A Funeral Address, at the interment of the Rev. Moses 

Parsons, of Newbury. 1799. Two Fast Sermons. A 

Right Hand of Fellowship, at the ordination of Josiah Webster. 

1800. Thanksgiving Sermon. Eulogy, occasioned by 

the death of Washington. 1804. A Sermon, before the 

Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians. 

The last days of Mr. Frisbie were considerably embittered by 
the loss of some parishoners, who left him to aid in the forma- 
tion of a new society in the town. His sensibility was great, 



\ 



FIRST church; MINISTERS. 241 

which, added to the infirmities of his age, led him to think 
more of such a defection, than he would have done in earlier 
life, and to apprehend worse effects from it, than really fol- 
lowed. It was such returns for long, faithful, and benevolent 
efforts, that led him to think, with pious submission, " I would 
not live always." The last office, which he performed in the 
house of God, was to administer the communion, when he in- 
troduced the present incumbent to his pulpit. This was Sept, 
21st, 1605 ; and he d. Feb. 25ih, 1806, and was buried the 
28th. His parish voted i^' 100 to purchase mourning for his 
family. The Rev. Asahel Huntingdon, of Topsfield, preached 
his funeral sermon. Mr. Frisbie m. Zeruiah, the eldest 
daughter of Captain Samuel Sprague, of Lebanon, Conn. 
She, being sick only six days, d. Aug. 21st, 1778, M. 31 
years and 5 months. He m. IMeliitable, daughter of the Rev. 
Moses Hale, of Newbury New Town, June 1st, 1780 ; who d. 
April 6th, 1828, M. 76. He had children, Mary, Sarah, 
Levi, Nathaniel, and Mehitable. As to his person, Mr. Frisbie 
was of light complexion, above the common height, and rather 
large. As a tribute to his merit, rendered to him by his friend 
and brother in the ministry here. Dr. Dana, we have the fol- 
lowing. " His manner was serious, his conception lively, his 
expression natural and easy. He was interesting and profita- 
ble. He read, thought, and conversed much. His labors 
were blessed. In his catechizing and visits he was affection- 
ate. He had great tenderness of conscience. The loss to his 
family and flock is great. The vicinity are greatly bereaved. 
The Society for Promoting the Gospel have, in him, lost a 
worthy member. Zion at large will mourn. But to him, it 
is believed that death is a blessed release." 

DAVID TENNEY KIMBALL. 

He is son of Daniel and Elizabeth Kimball, inhabitants of 
Bradford, b. Nov. 23d, 1732. He graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1803; was an assistant in Phillip's Academy, Andover, 
one year ; studied divinity with the Rev. Jonathan French, and 
was ordained Oct. 8th, 1806. 

We now close our account of the ministers, who have la- 
bored, and all but one of whom have closed their lives, in the 
First Church of Ipswich. The doctrines, which they, as well 
31 



242 FIRST CHURCH ; FASTS, &iC. 

as all the rest of the Congregational ministers of the town, 
have taught, are those of the Reformation, as adopted by the 
Assembly at Westminister, in England, and by the churches of 
Massachusetts in 1680. 

Fasts for Ministers. 

These have been appointed by the church, and then con- 
curred in by the parish, whenever they were about obtaining 
a new minister. A similar custom has prevailed in the other 
churches of this place. 

Ordination Expenses. 
These, in 1692, were £24 ; and in 1727, £55 IO5. 5(7. 

Salary and Settlement. 

1652. The salaries of the ministers, having been together 
£140, are raised to £160. This, in 1656, was paid, " three 
parts in wheat and barley, and the fourth in Indian." 

1665, £210 ; and in 1686, £160, for salaries. These, in 
1696, were paid one third in money and " the rest in pay." 

1704. £150, current money, are voted to Mr. Fitch for the 
settlement promised him. 

1726. Nathaniel Rogers is to have £130 annually for 
three years, and then £l50. 

1776. Levi Frisbie has £100 salary. 

1806. David T. Kimball has ^*600, and parish lands, for 
salary, and ^'600 settlement. 

The various dispositions of a people are often perceived in 
their conduct about salary engagements. Some appear to 
think, that they have a right to set very lightly by their con- 
tract with a minister, and to treat him as a slave, because they 
grudgingly pay him a tax. Others act in a very different 
manner. These, if manifesting kindness, justice, and generosity 
more to one class of men than to another, do it to the consis- 
tent preachers of the Gospel. Such individuals are the lights 
of a congregation, who strengthen the hands and encourage the 



FIRST CHURCH ; PARSONAGE, &;C. 243 

heart of their pastor, when dispirited with opposition. They 
are ready to own and practise the truth, that every people 
shoLdd as punctually and civilly discharge their pecuniary ob- 
ligations to their ministers, as a good paymaster does his to the 
merchant, who has faiily sold him merchandise. 



Parsonage. 

1656. £100 are voted towards building a house for Mr. 
Cobbet. This vote occasioned much difficulty, and was at last 
confirmed by the General Court. 

1660. Eight acres of land, by Mile Brook, are ordered for 
the ministry ; to which six more, on the north of the river, are 
added in 1664. 

1731. A lot on Turkey Hill Eighth, is granted by the 
commoners, to the ministry, on the north of the river. It was 
afterwards exchanged for land in Bull Brook pasture. 

If ever parsonages were needed, and undoubtedly they were, 
they are in these days of instability for clergymen. 



Meeting-Houses. 

There is mention made, in the grants of lands, of a meeting- 
house as built before 1637. This edifice was probably 
erected soon after the settlement of the town. Tradition in- 
forms us, and circumstances confirm it, that the first house of 
worship stood on the rise of ground, now occupied by the 
dwelling-house and barn of the Hon. John Heard. In 1646, 
Johnson says, " Their meeting-house is a very good prospect 
to a great part of the town, and beautifully built." 

167S. A new house has been recently paid for. Dunton 
remarked, in 1686, that it was handsomely built. 

1700. Another is completed this year, 66 feet long, 60 
wide, and 26 stud, for £.500 in money and £400 " in pay." 
■ 1702. A clock and dial are purchased for the meeting- 
house. 1712. A belfry is made. Before this, a turret had 

been placed on the top of the roof for the bell. 

1749, April 19th. Another is raised and still stands, 63 

feet long, 47 wide, and 26 stud. ■ 1819. The house is 

furnished with stoves. 



244 FIRST church; — seating, &c. 

The same site has served for the last three houses. 
These all had seats, instead of pews, on the right and left of 
the broad aisle ; one row of them being for adult males, and the 
other for adult females. 



Seating and other regulations of Meeting- 

HOUSES. 

1642. Dogs are forbidden to enter the house on Sabbath 
and lecture days, on penalty of their owners being fined. This 
rule was repeated long afterwards. 

1663. The Elders and magistrates are to appoint seats for 
members of the congregation. This custom lasted till 1710, 
and probably later. It was very difficult, because done accord- 
ing to office and taxes paid, and because many thought they 
were not placed among so respectable persons, as they should 
be. Hence it was, that some refused to sit where appointed, 
and that a fine of 5s. was imposed on any one for sitting a day 
in any place not designated for him. 

1745. Tythingmen prosecuted young and old, who behaved 
disorderly in time of worship. 



Bell. 

1659. There was one rung at nine o'clock, probably 
P. M. This, we are told, was given by the Hon. Richard 
Salstonstall. 

1696. It was voted to have another of two hundred pounds 
from England. This was sold to Marblehead in 1700, and 
its proceeds went towards the purchasing of one weighing six 
hundred pounds. 

1716. The bell was rung at five o'clock in the morning, 
from 6th of March. 

1769. It was rung at half past twelve at noon, and at nine 
in the evening. 

1827. It began to be rung at twelve for dinner, and has 
continued to be so. 



FIRST CHURCH : CHURCH CONCERNS. 245 



Church Concerns. 

*1653, May 18th. The General Court order a letter of 
thanks to the Church here, for then- self-denial in giving up 
Mr. Norton, so that he might be settled in Boston. But this 
Church did not so understand the matter. 

1655, May 23d. The Legislature appoint a committee to 
consider the case of Boston and Ipswich about Mr. Norton. 
The Committee report, that two years have passed since Bos- 
ton Church desired Ipswich Church to relinquish Mr. Norton ; 
that the question was submitted to a council, who decided, 
Feb. 1653, that the vote of Ipswich Church, of Feb. 21st, 
1653, was understood by themselves to be in the negative, 
but by Boston Church in the affirmative ; that the latter 
Church sent messengers to the former, to debate the meaning 
of the vote, and still received for answer, that no permission 
had been given for him to leave. The Boston Church called 
a council, and invited messengers from Ipswich. The Council 
sat Nov. 1653, and advised that Mr. Norton move thither. 
Hence, the Committee observe, that " troubles are increasing 
in Ipswich Church, which threaten its dissolution, together with 
disappointment of Boston Church, and of the country, by 
losing Mr. Norton, while the two Churches are contending 
for him." In view of these reasons the General Court order 
a council of twelve churches to meet here the 2d Tuesday of 
June. They designate three to represent their desire in the 
Council that Mr. Norton may continue in Boston. As he was 
installed next year, the Council appear to have decided as the 
Legislature wished. This body voted, that the expense of 
councils, convened for this business both here and at Boston, 
should be paid out of the Colonial treasury. 

1663, Jan. The printed result of the Synod came recom- 
mended to the Church by the General Court. 

1676, March 9th. A proposal is made to the Church here, 
by ministers of Boston and this vicinity, to renew covenant, 
so that God may pardon prevailing sins and remove judg- 
ments. 

1724, Nov. 27th. The Church had chosen a committee to 
attend a council at Boston, about advising Mr. Fitch as to his 
leaving Ipswich for Portsmouth. 

* Col. R. 



246 MINISTER OF NEW MEADOWS. 

1746, March 23d. They decide that the sending of their 
pastor and delegates, to ordain Mr. Cleaveland at Chebacco, 
was regidar. 

1782, Oct. They agree to articles respecting their duty to 
persons who have owned the covenant and who have been 
baptized in infancy, and other duiies to be discharged " at the 
presetit day of darkness and delusion." 

1783, Aug. 24th. A child, dangerously ill, is baptized at 
the house of its parents. 

1790, Oct. 10th. A woman, unable to go out, is received 
into the Church at her home, in presence of two deacons and 
other members. 



Quarterly Fast. 

1780, May 30th. The First and South Churches become 
united with the Chebacco Church in such a fast, which the last 
Church had observed some years, and which corresponded 
with the plan, published by a number of ministers in Scotland 
in 1744. The Church at the Hamlet came into the same 
union, July 23d, 1780. This fast has been observed to the 
present time. It was formerly much more fully attended than 
it has been of late years. 



THE MINISTER OF NEW MEADOWS. 
WILLIAM KNIGHT. 

Refusing to conform to the injunctions of Ecclesiastical Courts 
in England, he embarked for Massachusetts, and was received 
as an inhabitant of Salem in 1636 - 7. He became freeman in 
1638 ; was granted two hundred acres of land in Ipswich 

near the farm of Mr. Hubbard. 1641. He is noticed by 

Lechford, as a minister residing here. He began to preach at 
New Meadows and was thus laboring there in 1643. He ap- 
pears to have been living here in 1673. There is mention of 
Mr. Knight's farm as late as 1681 - 2. When he died 
and who were his family, is not known. He was evidently a 
conscientious man, and ready to apply his time, talents, and 
acquirements for the good of his adopted country. 



SOUTH PARISH. SOUTH CHURCH. 247 



SOUTH PARISH. 

* 1746, Dec. 2d. Sixty-eight persons of the First Parish 
agree, as a means of composing differences, to become incor- 
porated and erect a meeting-house on the green, south of the 
river, and settle Mr. John Walley, if he will, or some other 
candidate. 



SOUTH CHURCH. 

f 1747, July 22d. This body is formed by twenty-two males 
from the First Church. Aug. 7th. They vote unanimously 
to call Mr. Walley. 

Dec. 21st. Voted, that persons having owned the baptis- 
mal covenant may have their children baptized. Though 
this has not been repealed, it has ceased of late years to be 
acted on. 

1765, May 14th. The Church called Joseph Dana to be- 
come their pastor, with which the parish concurred the 23d. 

1775. The day after Lexington Fight, an agreement was 
made with the First Church, to observe the following Tues- 
day, as a season of prayer, " on account of the affecting aspect 
of the time." Many more meetings of this sort were held 
during the Revolutionary war, and were fully attended. They 
were followed with good results, and some members were added 
to the churches. 

1828. There were fifteen male and fifty-five female mem- 
bers. 

1833. There were twenty-five male and one hundred and 
four female members. 



MINISTERS OF THE SOUTH CHURCH. 

JOHN WALLEY. 

He was son of the Hon. John Walley, of Boston, and was 
1716. He graduated at Harvard College 1734, and was member 
of the South Church in his native place. He was invited to preach 

* South P. R. t S. C. R. 



248 SOUTH church; — ministers. 

for the First Parish Jan. 1747, which he did for eight months, 
and then received a call from a large majority of the church 
and congregation. But the Rev. N. Rogers ohjected, because 
Mr. Walley declined exchanging with a preacher, who offici- 
ated for a society of seceders in Boston. Hence it was, that 
the South Parish came off from Mr. Rogers and invited Mr. 

Walley to become their minister. 1747, Oct. 19th. Mr. 

Walley, in answering his call, fears his health will not allow 
him to preach a lecture once in three weeks, as the people 
desired, besides catechizing the children. He had shortly 
before informed the Church, that he did not think, that the 
Bible authorized Ruling Elders, but that he would acquiesce 
in the choice of such officers, though he wished to be excused 
from taking part in their ordination. His opinion, thus express- 
ed, prevented the Ruling Elders, who were elected, from 
being ordained. Nov. 4th. Mr. Walley is ordained and 

preaches a sermon. 1764, Feb. 8th. He had recently 

requested a dismission, because he had been sick several years 
and was unable to perform his duties. His request was grant- 
ed, and he was regularly dismissed the 2-2d. 1773, May 

13th. He was about being installed at Bolton ; whence he took 

a dismission in 1784, and d. at Roxbury, March 2d. He 

m. Elizabeth Appleton. In his last will, he says, " I give, as 
a token of my love, to the South Parish in Ipswich, £13 6s. 
8c?., the yearly income to be by them given to such persons in 
the parish, as they shall judge to be the fittest objects of such 
a charity." Mr. Walley was not above the common height, 
light complexion, and much pitted with the small-pox. He 
possessed a good mind, an affectionate and pious heart ; was 
an eloquent writer and speaker. 

JOSEPH DANA, D. D. 

He was the son of Joseph and Mary Dana, b. at Pomfret, 
Conn., Nov. 2d, 1742, graduated at Yale College in 1760. 
Among the scenes of his boyhood, he related, that, his father 
being a respectable innkeeper, the wolf killed by General Put- 
nam was dra2;ged into the entry of their house, and that he 
with other children ran up stairs, to look with less dread down 
upon the animal, which had filled the town with alarm. He 
preached six months with much acceptance to the South 

Society in Boston. 1765, Nov. 5th. Having officiated 

at Ipswich several months, he was ordained. The sermon on 



SOUTH church; MINISTERS. 249 

this occasion was by Mr. Parsons of By field. Dr. Dana 
entered on the responsible office of pastor, with supreme reli- 
ance on divine grace for aid and direction, and with an earnest 
desire to benefit the people of his charge, as well as others, in 
their highest interests. In the struggle of our nation for free- 
dom, he prayed, preached, and acted, as the Christian patriot. 

ISOl. Deservedly esteemed as worthy of the honor, he 

was made Doctor of Divinity at Harvard College. In person 
he was of about the common height and size, quick and active 
in his movements, of dark complexion, with marked and intel- 
ligent features. Though his voice was not strong, yet it was 
clear, and, in religious performances, it was accompanied 
with attractive fervor. In his manners he was kind, accessi- 
ble, and gentlemanly. In morals he was exact, being diligent 
in business, punctual in engagements, refined and improving in 
conversation, and upright in his actions. His intellectual 
endowments were of a high order and richly improved with at- 
tainments in literature and theology. His style of writing was 
strong, lucid, and sententious. His piety was the same every- 
where and at all times, bearing the impress of the Holy Spirit, 
and appearing as a sacrifice, acceptable in the sight of Deity. 
Thus constituted and sanctified by his Maker, Dr. Dana plan- 
ned, purposed, and labored, during a long ministry, as not 
his own, but bought with a price ; as constantly liable to be 
summoned before the bar of perfect justice and mercy. It was 
often his expressed desire, that he might not outlive his useful- 
ness. His prayer in this respect was signally granted. Very 
few, of his advanced age, exhibited so much intellectual and 
physical power to the last. During his ministry many were 
added to his church, who went before him to another world in 
the peaceful hope of eternal life. During this protracted period, 
he, as living in a world of fallen beings, was called to experience 
consolations and trials peculiar to the pastoral office. Tliey, 
who knew most of Dr. Dana, were most ready to acknowledge 
him as a man of God. On a special occasion his parish gave 
the following testimony in reference to him. " We consider it 
our duty explicitly to bear testimony to the world, of our high 
opinion of the exemplary piety and faithfulness, with which 
our Rev. Pastor has adorned the profession of a Gospel minis- 
ter, with us and our fathers, for more than forty years, and of our 
belief that, through the whole course of his useful life, the Chris- 
tian character has appeared." Thus approved by intelligent 
32 



250 SOUTH church; — ministers. 

and worthy men, the time came for him to reahze the promises 
of his Redeemer. He was seized with a lung fever, and in 
four days d. Nov. 16th, 1827. He was buried on the 19th, 
from his meeting-house, Avhen the Rev. Robert Crowell 
preached an appropriate discourse. Dr. Dana m. Mary Stani- 
ford, the dauijhter-in-law of the Rev. N. Rogers. Siie d. 
May 14th, 1772, in her twenty-eighth year. He m. Mary, 
daughter of Samuel Turner, of Boston. She d. April 13th, 
1803, in her fifty-third year. Professor Tappan preached 
her funeral sermon. He m. Elizabeth, widow of the Rev. 
Ebenezer Bradford, of Rowley, Dec, 1803. She d. in 1824, 
M. about 75. His children were Mary, Joseph, and Daniel, 
of the first wife; Elizabeth, Samuel, Sarah, Abigail, and Anna, 
of the second. 

He published the following productions by request. 

1782. Two discourses, from Proverbs xv. 8, on the sacrifice 
of the wicked. 

1794. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Daniel Dana. 

1795. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. David Smith. 
1795. National Thanksgiving Sermon. 

1799. Two Sermons on the National Fast. 

1800. Discourse on the Death of Washington. 

1801. Sermon before the Convention of Ministers. 

1801. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Samuel Dana. 

1804. Sermon before the Merrimack Humane Society. 

1806. Lecture on Baptism. 

1807. Sermon on the Worth and Loss of the Soul. 

1807. Integrity Explained and Recommended, before an 
Association. 

1808. The Question of War with Great Britain. 

1808. Sermon at the ordination of the Rev. Joshua Dodge. 

1810. Two Sermons on a special occasion. 

1812. Sermon on the Calamity at Richmond. 

1812. Sermon before the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. 

1816. Sermon before Essex Auxiliary Education Society. 

1818. Sermon on the Death of the Rev. Dr. McKean. 

1820. Thanksgiving Sermon. 

1825. Sermon on the Sixtieth Anniversary of his Ordina- 
tion. 

1827. Discourse on the Fifty-first Anniversary of Ameri- 
can Independence. 



SOUTH church; SALARIES, Stc. 251 

To these may be added : — 

1803. Charge at the Ordination of the Rev. Joseph Emer- 
son. 

1806. Right hand of Fellowship at the Ordination of the 
Rev. D. T. Kimball. 

1815. Charge at the Ordination of IMessrs. Smith and 
Kingsbury, Missionaries. 

1826. Charge at the Ordination of the Rev. Daniel Fitz. 

" Also, many communications in periodical publications, 
among whicli are hymns and other writings, both in poetry and 
prose." 

DANIEL FITZ. 

He is son of Currier and Sarah Fitz, b. at Sandown, N. H., 
May 28th, 1795, and removed, in early infancy, with his parents 
to Derry. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1818, was 
an assistant in Derry Academy one quarter, taught an Academy 
at Salisbury, N. H., two years, and was then invited to take 
charge of ^larblehead Academy, where he remained a year and 
a half. He entered Andover Theological Seminary in 1822, 
and graduated in 1825. He was ordained Colleague with 
Dr. Dana, June 28th, 1826. 

Salaries and Settlements. 

1747. John Walley has £150 salary, and £1200 O. T. 
settlement. 

1765. Joseph Dana has £100 L. M. salary, and £160 
settlement. 

Daniel Fitz has ^'650 salary. 

Meeting-House. 

1747, Nov. 4th. This was raised, being forty feet wide, 
sixty long, and twenty-five stud. It had two stoves in 1819. 

Parsonage. 
*1731, May 14th. The Commoners vote, that the super- 

* Commoners' R. 



252 LINE BROOK PARISH. 

numerary lots in South Eighth, be for the use of the ministry 
on the south side of the river. This has been sold, and the 
interest of the proceeds aids to meet parish expenses. 



LINE BROOK PARISH. 

* 1742, Dec. 2d. A committee report, that the West End 
do not become a parish, but keep up preaching among them. 

1744, April 12th. Voted, that they be set off. 

f 1746, June 5th. Tiie General Court allow some of West 
Ipswich and of Rowley to become a distinct parish, who vote, 
Jan. 27th, 1747, to be called Line Brook Parish. 



LINE BROOK CHURCH. 

J 1749, Nov. 15th. Sixteen males sign a covenant and are 
formed into a Church. This Church had Ruling Elders till 
after 1757. 

1823. There were only two female members. 

1833. There were fourteen males and twenty females. 



Meeting-House. 

1744. A house had been erected. A vote is passed in 
1747, to have it finished. It was near the burying-ground. 
The old one is pulled down and another built, on the present 
spot, in 1828. 



Parsonage. 

1790, Nov. 15th. The town grant Bull Brook towards the 
support of the ministry, at Line Brook. 

* First Parish R. t Line Brook P. R. t Church R. 



line brook church ; ministers. 253 

Ministers of Line Brook Church. 

GEORGE LESSLIE. 

He was son of James, who came from Scotland and settled 
at Topsfield, when George was two years old. He graduated 
at Harvard College 1748, joined Topsfield Church, March 
5th, 1749, and appears to have studied his profession there 
with the Rev. Jolin Emerson. Having preached at Line 
Brook one year, he was ordained Nov. 15th, 1749. He 
preached at the ordination of Samuel Perley, Jan 31st, 1765. 

His sermon was printed. 1778, July 2d. He attends 

Ezra Ross to the gallows, one of his parishioners, execut- 
ed at Worcester for the murder of Mr. Spooner. 1779, 

Oct. 22d. He asked a dismission, because he had lost by- 
having his salary in paper money, and had not enough to sup- 
port his family. Nov. 30th. He was dismissed by advice 

of Council, who convened the 4th. 1780, July 12th. 

He was installed at Washington, New Hampshire. He m. 
Hepzibah, youngest daughter of Dea. Jonathan Burpee, 
Oct. 26th, 1756. His children were, George, David, James, 
Jonathan, William, Hepzibah, Joseph, and Mehitable. He 
d. Sept. 11th, 1800, M. 72. He fitted many pupils for 
College, and others for the ministry. He had a strong mind, 
was a noted scholar, and a pious minister. 

GILBERT TENNANT WILLIAMS. 

He was son of the Rev. Simon Williams of Windham, 
New Hampshire, was b. Oct. 8th, 1761, at Fogg's Manor, 
New Jersey, graduated at Dartmouth College 1784, and 

studied divinity under Mr. Murray of Newbury. 1788, 

Dec. 23d. He was invited to preach six months at Line 
Brook, and was ordained the first Wednesday of August. 
His house was in Rowley. 1813, May 6th. As his peo- 
ple were few and considered themselves unable to afford 
him a competent support, he took a dismission. He preached 
a Farewell Sermon on this occasion, which was printed. 

1814, June 1st. He was installed at Newbury New Town. 
Having had a shock of the palsy, he left his people Sept. 
1821, and d. at Framingham, Sept. 24th, 1824. He m. 
Martha Morrison of Windham, who now resides in Boston. 
His children were, Simon Tennant, Martha, Samuel Morrison, 



254 LINE BROOK CHURCH; MINISTERS. 

John Adams, and Constant Floyd. He was of about the 
common height and of a florid complexion. He was a man of 
integrity, whose motives and exertions were to benefit his fel- 
low beings. 

DAVID FULLAR. 

He was the son of John and Ann Fullar, b. at Shrewsbury, 
Conn., Sept. 22d, 1748, was brought up in Sheffield, Mass., 
and 2;raduated at Yale College 1774. Soon after this he 
kept "school at Sheffield six months. When the militia were 
mustered to invest Boston, he marched thither as a Lieuten- 
ant. When the militia were disbanded several weeks after, 
he returned home and began to study divinity. This he did 
under Drs. Bellamy and West. Being licensed, he preached 
at Windsor, Vermont, where he was ordained 1779. He was 
dismissed, on account of ill health, June, 1734. He was in- 
stalled at Milford, Connecticut, Nov. 17th of the same year. 
Leaving this field of labor, he was installed Dec. 7th, 1803, 
at Rowley. He took leave of his people here 1810 ; preach- 
ed eight months at Williamstown, where he received a call, 
but declined it, and thence went to Genessee. Here he 
preached ten years in many destitute places, as a missionary 
at his own charges. Finding the duties too oppressive for his 
health, he came back to Rowley, where he still had faithful 
friends. Though aged, he employed his time in trying to 
build up the Society at Line Brook; whose church had be- 
come very nigh extinct. He entered on this service 1S23, 
and continued in it till 1S30. His endeavours for this period 
were so divinely blessed, that he was instrumental in gather- 
ing a scattered flock, and adding strength to its church, and 
thus preserved them from the dissolution, to which they ap- 
peared to be fast tending. W^hile Mr. Fullar was in 

Connecticut, he had students with him to prepare for college, 
and also for the ministry. His labors in several places were 
accompanied with revivals of religion. He m. Charity Fel- 
lows of Sheffield, Massachusetts, Sept. 22d, 1779. He has 

had no children. Above the common height, and of a 

majestic appearance, he still discovers traits of the sound mind 
and of the thorough theological acquisitions which he was 
justly accounted to possess. 



BAPTIST SOCIETY. 255 



MOSES WELSH. 



He was born in Plaistow, New Hampshire. He is about 
forty-seven years of age. He taught school, and became mem- 
ber of the first class, who went to the Bangor Theological 
Institution. While here, he had a commission as missionary in 
Maine, where he preached several years. Tlience he came to 
Amesbury, where he statedly supplied five years, and then 
two years at Plaistow, his native place, where he was installed, 
and continued five years more. His health being feeble, he 
took leave of his people, loth to part with him, and came to 
Ipswich, in hopes a change of air would help his complaints. 
He engaged to preach for Line Brook Parish Jan. 1st, 1831. 
He has continued, with some interruption, to labor success- 
fully with them. 

Salary and Settlement. 

1749. George Leslie, £100 N. T. and twelve cords of 
wood salary, and £700 O. T. settlement. 

1789. G. T. Williams, £100 L. M. salary and parish 
land. 

Moses Welsh has $300. „ 



BAPTIST SOCIETY. 

This was formed Feb. 1806. Their first preacher was 
H. Pottle. They occupied the building where the Post- 
Office now is. Their Church contained sixty-eight communi- 
cants in 1813, A secession took place from the Church, 
because discipline was not exercised, June 4th, 1816. This 
secession was justified by a Council the 16th of July. The 
seceders formed themselves into a new Church, Aug. 27th, 
and met in the building now used by the Bank. William Tay- 
lor was their first minister. He continued with them till Aug. 
1818, and took his dismission, because his people were few 
and unable to support him. When he left the Church, it 
contained thirty members. Thus destitute of one to guide 
them, they continued to hold meetings and have the sacra- 
ment administered occasionally, till Aug. 1820. From this 
time, they omitted assembling till 1823. In the course of 



256 METHODIST SOCIETY, &Z;C. 

this year, they dissolved. The original Society of Baptists 
continued, after the secession from them, only one year. 



METHODIST SOCIETY. 

1817. The remainder of the first Baptist Society and 
some Methodists began to have preaching of the latter denom- 
ination. They still worshipped in what was formerly a wool- 
len factory. They gradually enlarged, and were organized 
March, 1S22. As a Society of Methodists, they built their 

present meeting-house in 1824. Aaron Wait was the first 

minister with them, 1822-1824; Mr. Josselyn 1825; Mr. 
Paine 1826, 1827; J. T. Burril 1828-1833; Mr. Bliss 
1829 ; Jacob Sanborn 1830 ; Enoch Mudge 1831 ; Mr. 
Kibby 1832. The church has 150 communicants. 



UNITARIAN SOCIETY. 



1830, April 28th. Several persons leave the First Parish, 
having recently formed themselves into a Society. They had 
preaching a part of the time, on the Sabbath, in the Court- 
House. Their meeting-house was dedicated Oct. 23d, 1833. 



RESTRICTIONS AND FINES ON ACCOUNT OF 
RELIGION. 

* 1637, Nov. 20th. William Foster and Samuel Sherman, 
for favoring Mrs. Hutchinson's views, are ordered to give up 
their arms to William Bartholomew before the 30th. 

1638, Sept. William Foster is required to leave the juris- 
diction of Massachusetts. 

1643, Nov. 3d. John Wicks, a Gortonist, brought with 
others by military force from Providence, is sentenced to 
confinement and hard labor at Ipswich. 

1675, March 30th. Roger and Lucretia Derby are fined 
for absence from meeting on the Sabbath. 

1677, Nov. 6th. They are similarly fined. As they were 
respectable persons, it is likely that they did not attend Con- 
gregational worship, on account of some religious scruples. 

* Col. R. 



CHEBACCO PARISH. 257 

CHEBACCO PARISH. 

* The people here, having apphed to the town for leave to 
employ a preacher Feb. 1677, wiio soon came among them, 
and was Jeremiah Shepard, and having met with considerable 
opposition from the First Parish in retaining him, are freed by 
a vote of the town from paying ministerial taxes to that parish, 
and are allowed to hire preaching on their own account, Dec. 
lOih, 1679. 

Meeting-House. 

As the society at Chebacco had worshipped in a private 
house, and could not get consent from the First Parish to 
build a meeting-house, some women, without the knowledge 
of their husbands, as the Record says, and by the advice of a 
few men, went to other towns, and obtained help to raise a 
house of worship, March, 1679. Two men and three women 
were prosecuted for this act. May 28th. The Province 
Council order tliese individuals to confess, that such conduct 
was irregular at the next Quarterly Court in Salem, and thus 
be excused. — The sanctuary, so erected, may be truly said 
to have been built " in troublous times." It stood to the north- 
ward of the present one, on the road leading to Ipswich. 

1717, Oct. 11th. Voted to build a new house. It had a 
turret on the top, and a seat for Ruling Elders. 

Bell. 
1713, Oct. Measures are taken to buy one of 160 lbs. 
1740. A turret is to be built on the middle top of the 
meeting-house for a bell. 

Parsonage. 

1679, Dec. 2d. The town grant two acres for the minis- 
ter's house, and, 1680, Feb. 24th, one or two more. 

1686, March 23d. They vote, that the ten acres, granted 
the last year for the ministry, be laid out, and ten more for 
Mr. Wise. 

Church. 

1681, Aug. 31st. The parish vote to have a church 
gathered among them. 

From Oct. 29th, 1727, to Oct. 13th, 1728, there were 
ninety-four admitted to communion. 

* 2d P. R. 
33 



258 CHEBACCO PARISH ; MINISTERS. 

1746, May 20th and June 10th. A council, composed of 
pastors and delegates from nine churches, meet here. The 
majority of them decide that the secession of certain brethren 
from Mr. Pickering's ministry, is unjustifiable. The result 
of this council was long, able, and interesting. 

1747, April 7th, The Church write to the First Church, 
that they intend to deal with them in the third way of disci- 
pline, for taking part in the ordination of Mr, Cleaveland. 
Dec, 31st. They approve and empower a committee to have 
printed " A Letter from the Second Church to their Separatists 
Brethren, in defence of their deceased Pastor and Themselves." 

Ministers of Chebacco Parish. 
JEREMIAH SHEPARD. 

He was the son of the Rev. Thomas Shepard of Cambridge, 
b. Aug, 11th, 1648, and graduated at Harvard College 1669. 
He preached a considerable time at Rowley, where many 
were strongly desirous to have him ordained. A chief bar 
to his being ordained there, as well as at Chebacco, was, that 

he had not united with any Church. 1677. He came 

to labor among the people here. They were much attached 
to him and would have had him for their pastor, had they 
been permitted by the First Church and the General Court. 
He left by advice of a committee from the Legislature, May 
22d, ]6S0, After this, he became an eminent minister of 
Lynn, and died there June 2d, 1720, JE. 72. 
JOHN WISE. 

He was son of Joseph Wise, of Roxbury, baptized Aug. 

15th, 1652, and graduated at Harvard College 1673, 1680. 

As highly recommended by the General Court, he came to 

preach here, and was ordained Aug. 12th, 1683. 1687, 

Aug. 23d. He advised the town not to comply with Sir 
Edmund Andres's order for raising a Province Tax, as being 
contrary to Charter rights. For this he was tried in Boston, 
imprisoned, fined heavily, and deposed from his ministry. 
Having, with other principal men of the town, who acted with 
him, made a concession for such opposition to the govern- 
ment, he appears to have been permitted to resume his 

parochial duties. 1689, May 9th. Mr. Wise was one 

of two Representatives from Ipswich, to meet in Boston and 
help re-organize the former Legislature after the administra- 



CHEBACCO PARISH ; MINISTERS. 259 

tion of Andros was overthrown. Dec. 24th. He was ap- 
pointed with the selectmen, by the town, to draw up, accord- 
ing to the order of the General Court, a narrative of the late 
Governor's treatment towards himself, and other Ipswich 
inhabitants. This narrative, like others of the kind, was 
forwarded to England to substantiate charges against Andros, 
for mal-administration. About this time, Mr. Wise deem- 
ed it his duty to prosecute Mr. Dudley, Chief Justice, for 
refusing him the privileges of the habeas corpus act, while he 

was imprisoned. * 1690, July 5th. He is desired by the 

Legislature to go as Chaplain in the expedition against Can- 
ada. He went. When, in 1705, it was recommended by 

the Boston clergymen, as an association, to other similar 
bodies, to consider the proposal for having each association so 
connected with its Churches, as to form a Standing Council, to 
which ecclesiastical difficulties might be referred, Mr. Wise 
was active to prevent such a measure. On this occasion, he 
wrote "The Church's Quarrel Espoused," printed 1710. 
About 1717, he published " A Vindication of the Govern- 
ment of the New England Churches." Both of these pro- 
ductions are deservedly standard works in ecclesiastical con- 
cerns. 1721. He was among the iew philanthropists, who 

came forward to advocate the inoculation for the small-pox, 
against deep-rooted prejudices and general reproaches. Dur- 
ing his ministry, there was a remarkable coincidence between 
one of his prayers and the result. A boat's crew from his 
parish were captured by pirates on our coast. When beseech- 
ing the Lord, on a Sabbath morning, to give them speedy 
deliverance, he said, " Great God ! if there is no other way, 
may they rise and butcher their enemies." The next day 
the men arrived and related, that, the very morning before, 
they had attacked the pirates and killed them. In per- 
son, Mr. Wise was of a majestic form, and of great muscular 
strength and activity. When young and before his ordina- 
tion, he was accounted a superior wrestler. Such repute was 
much more respectable in his day than in ours. Some years 
after his settlement at Chebacco, Capt. John Chandler of 
Andover, who had found no champion able to throw him, 
came down on purpose to prevail with Mr. Wise to try 
strength with him. After much objection, he consented to 

* Prov. R. 



260 CHEBACCO parish; MINISTERS. 

take hold once with the Captain. The resuk was, that the An- 
dover gentleman found himself, in a few minutes, on his back, 
and was compelled to own himself beaten. The intellectual 
power of Mr. Wise compared well with his physical power. 
His mind was of the first rank. His classical and theological 
attainments were eminent. His composition was rich in 
thought, purity, learning, and piety. His oratory was elo- 
quent. His services were often desired and given on Church 
councils. "In the beginning of his last sickness, he ob- 
served to a brother in the gospel, that he had been a man 
of contention ; but, as the state of the Church made it neces- 
sary, he could say upon the most serious review of his con- 
duct, that he had fought a good fight." He died as he had 
lived, in the faith of the Son of God. This occurred April 8th, 
1725. An exchange of worlds to him, was, so far as human 
perception can discern, an entrance upon a higher, more 
active, and blessed state of existence. It was truly inscribed 
on his tomb-stone, " For talents, piety, and learning, he shone 
as a star of the first magnitude." He left a wife, Abigail, 
and children, Jeremiah, Lucy, Joseph, Ammi Ruhami, Mary, 
Henry, and John. 

THEOPHILUS PICKERING. 

His parents were John and Sarah, of Salem, b. Sept. 28th, 

1700. He was graduated at Harvard College 1719. March 

29th, 1725, he was invited to assist Mr. Wise, who was sick. 

Having preached acceptably here, he was ordained Oct. 13lh, 
1727. The earthquake of this year was immediately followed 
by a powerful reformation among his people, which called for 

his abundant labors. A usual degree of harmony prevailed 

between him and his congregation till 1742. At this time the 
revival spirit, as promoted by Whitefield, was infused into 
some individuals of Chebacco. Such persons were for hear- 
ing other ministers, than those approved by their pastor, 
and for employing other means of grace than those he thought 
best to use. The fact was, that he was apprehensive lest the 
new measures of Whitefield should result in the unnecessary divi- 
sion of churches and congregations. Hence, like some of his 
clerical brethren in the vicinity, he set himself against the ex- 
ertions wliich part of his parish made to introduce such meas- 
ures among themselves. This, of course, brought on him 
their suspicion, that he was unfriendly to revivals. But he 



b-HEBACCO PARISH ; MINISTERS. 261 

contended that he was heartily favorable to revivals, as conduct- 
ed by the New England ministers. The persons, whom he 
so withstood, were countenanced by the Rev. N. Rogers and 
his brother Daniel, of Ipswich. This produced a coldness be- 
tween Mr. Pickering and the Messrs. Rogers, which was fol- 
lowed by several letters between them on the points of their 

disagreement. 1742, Aug. 9th, he writes to the Rev. 

James Davenport, of Long Island, then at Mr. Rogers' of Ips- 
wich. He desires Mr. Davenport not to come and preach 
among his people, because he considered his late conduct as 

very irregular. 1745, Feb. 12th, he sends a letter to Mr. 

Whitefield, stating the reasons why he had declined having him 

preach for his people, when he was recently at Chebacco. 

1747. Mr. Pickering publishes " A Bad Omen to the Churches 
in the Instance of Mr. John Cleaveland's Ordination over a 
Separation in Chebacco Parish." He was indefatigable to pre- 
vent this ordination, but without avail. While preparing 

to answer a publication, called " A Plain Narrative by the New 
Church," he was taken sick, and died Oct. 7th, 1747. What 
he thus left unaccomplished, his Church did for him after his 
decease. He was not married. From the misapprehen- 
sion which he appears to have cherished, as to the results 
of the Whitefield measures for promoting religion, the impres- 
sion has been on many minds, that he was not friendly to 
orthodox doctrines. But the majority of an Evangelical 
Council decided differently, the minority being those with whom 
he had a controversy for favoring the brethren, who seceded 
from him. Such a majority, in reference to one charge, brought 
against him 1746, namely, "Your not clearing up the doc- 
trines of grace, as you ought," say, " We have not been 
able to discern any such defects in said Pastor's discourses." 
Though the latter part of Mr. Pickering's ministry was much 
embittered by difficulty with the dissatisfied among his people, 
yet he had warm and valuable friends to comfort him. He 
was gifted with a mechanical genius, which, by way of exer- 
cise, he often indulged. His mental abilities were of no ordi- 
nary kind. He had a strong taste for learning, which he com- 
mendably cultivated. As a logician, few were before him. 
He was well versed in Theology. He held the pen of an able 
and ready writer. His ministry was uncommonly successful. 
Nearly two hundred were added to his Church, while he was 
their pastor. Summoned from his gospel field of labor, he 



262 FOURTH CHURCH. 

departed in the hope of acceptance with Him, who is not slack 
concerning his promise. 

NEHEMIAH PORTER. 

His father and mother were Nehemiah and Hannah, of the 
Hamlet. He was b. March 20th, 1720, and graduated at Harvard 
College 1745. He was ordained as successor to Mr. Pick- 
ering, Jan. 3dj 1750. For a considerable period, he lived 

in peace with his people. At length, however, difficulty pre- 
vailed. This occasioned several councils. Referees being 
chosen by Mr. Porter and his opponents, they met April 29th, 
1766, to hear their respective pleas. They decide. May 3d, 
that it is best for him to have his connection with them dis- 
solved, if his Parish pay him £340 L. M. One reason why 
this sum was so large was, that his regular salary had not been 

paid up. In June, he takes his dismission. He soon went 

down to Cape Canso, where some emigrants from Ipswich re- 
sided, and preached there two or three years. After this, he 
became installed at Ashfield, where he died Feb. 29th, 1820, 
nearly 100 years old. He m. Rebecca, daughter of the Rev. 
John Chipmah of Beverly. She d. Oct. 28th, 1763, M. 36. 
His second wife was Elizabeth Nowell, of Boston, who sur- 
vived him. He had several children. For a more par- 
ticular account, of him, see the "Boston Recorder," No. 33, 
Vol. V. 

Salaries. 

1678. Jeremiah Shepard, £60. 

1681. John Wise, £60, two thirds of it in produce, and 
the rest in money, with the strangers' contributions, and 40 
cords of wood, 8 loads of marsh hay, and ten acres of land. 

1725. Theophilus Pickering, £120, to rise or fall, as the 
paper money does, — parsonage and contribution of strangers. 

1749. Nehemiah Porter £500, in paper currency, and the 
parsonage. 



FOURTH CHURCH. 

1744, Sept. 22d. The brethren who formed this Church, 
say, that Mr. Pickering having declined to allow them a 
Council, " we then tried the third way of communion, got 



SIXTH PARISH. 263 

the pastor, Mr. Wigglesworth, of the Third Church, to call 
on him, and he renewed the visit with two other neigh- 
bouring pastors ; but Mr. Pickering did not agree with 
their proposals, Mr. Wigglesworth then laid the subject 
before his Church, and they voted a letter to Mr. Pick- 
ering." 1745, March ISth. Mr. Pickering offers 

the aggrieved brethren a mutual Council, as advised by the 
Third Church. Aug. This Church reprove the Second 
Church, because they had not proceeded to call a Coun- 
cil. The Second Church were- about to comply, but 
delayed, as Mr. Pickering made proposals for leaving them. 

1746, Jan. 13th. Sixteen members of Mr. Pickering's 

Church vote to secede and form themselves into another Society, 
and, except two of them, to have preaching, if he do not leave 
as they expect. May 20th. The two separate Churches 
of Boston and Plainfield meet here by their representatives, 
and advise the brethren to become a Church. The cove- 
nant is signed on the 22d, by nine brethren, who were some- 
times called "New Lights." Thirty-two females are united 

with them. 1747. Twenty-four were admitted. 

1750, Oct. 28th. Voted, that the pastor and six delegates, 
according to invitation of the Rev. Jonathan Parsons, of 
Newbury, go thither and see " on what terms a coalition 
may be made with the Presbytery." This subject was 
under consideration several months, but was decided in the 

negative. 1755. More than usual additions. 1764. 

Eighty-four become members. 



SIXTH PARISH. 

1746, Jan. 20th. This is formed out of the Second. 

1748, Feb. 8th. They petition the General Court for incor- 
poration. They were, as a singular fact, connected with the 
Fourth Church. 

Meeting-House. 

1752. This was erected where the present one stands. 

Minister of the Sixth Parish. 

JOHN CLEAVELAND. 

His father and mother were Josiah and Abigail. He was 

b. at Canterbury, Conn., April 11th, 1722. He entered Yale 

College 1741, and continued here till a few weeks before the 



264 SIXTH parish; — * minister. 

close of his senior year. Then he was required by the Gov- 
ernment to leave, because he went to hear, in the May vacation, 
a preacher who was a follower of Whitefield, and who officiat- 
ed where his parents worshipped. Subsequently convinced, 
that they had wronged Mr. Cleaveland, the College granted 
him a degree, and had him recorded among the graduates of 

his class in 1764. Previously to his settlement here, he 

preached for a new Society in Boston, who were called Sepa- 
ratists, which was a common term then ; because they with- 
drew from Churches there, who protested against the means 
used by the Rev. James Davenport for promoting religion, 
while he was on a visit among them. Mr. Cleaveland was 
invited by that Society to become their Pastor ; but he de- 
clined. 1746, Dec. 17th. Having preached "formerly 

and latterly," for the New Church at Chebacco, he receives 

a call from them, and is ordained Feb. 25th, 1747. 1747, 

Sept. 1.5th. Reappears to have written " A Plain Narrative " 
of this date, which defends his people and himself against the 
charge of irregularity, as contained in Mr. Pickering's " Bad 

Omen." 1748. " Chebacco Narrative Rescued from the 

Charge of Falsehood and Partiality," bears marks of coming 
from the same pen. These, as well as the subsequent produc- 
tions of his, were all printed. 1758. He was Chaplain 

of a Provincial Regiment at Ticonderoga, and was on the 

battle-ground when Lord Howe was killed. 1759. He 

serves in a like capacity, in an expedition against the French, 
at Louisburg. 1763. He composes an Essay on Im- 
portant Principles in Christianity, with Animadversions on Dr. 

Jonathan Mayhew's Thanksgiving Sermon. 1765. He 

replies to the same clergyman. He writes a Justification of his 
Church from the strictures of the Rev. S. Wigglesvvorth, of 

the Hamlet, and the Rev. Richard Jaques of Gloucester. 

1767. His Narrative of a Revival of Religion among his peo- 
ple in 1763 and 1764. 1775. He is chaplain of a regi- 
ment at Cambridge ; and 1776, a short campaign in ^ew 

York. 1776. An Attempt to nip in the bud the Unscrip- 

tural Doctrine of Universal Salvation. 1784. A Disserta- 
tion in support of Infant Baptism. His Defence of the Result 

of a late Council, against Dr. Whitaker's Remarks. 1785. 

A Sermon at the Ordination of his Son atStoneham. Mr. 

Cleaveland also wrote many political pieces for newspapers, 
before and during the revolutionary contest. He m. Mary, 



SIXTH parish; MINISTERS. 265 

the only daughter of Parker Dodge of the Hamlet, July 31st, 
1747. She died of a cancer April lith, 1768, in her 46th 
year. He m. Mary, widow of Capt. John Foster, of Man- 
chester, Sept. 1769. She d. at Topsfield April 19th, 1310, 
in her 80th year. An address was delivered at her inter- 
ment in Chebacco by the Rev. Asahel Huntingdon. Mr. 
Cleaveland's children wexe, Mary, John, Parker, Ebenezer, 
Elizabeth, Nehemiah, and Abigail. After a short and painful 
sickness he d. April 22d, 1799. The Rev. Joseph Dana 
preached his funeral sermon from 2 Kings, ii. 12. This 
parish voted ^'80 for the expenses of his burial. 

Mr. Cleaveland had blue eyes and a florid complexion, was 
near six feet tall, very erect, of great muscular strength and 
activity. Only a fortnight before his decease he preached 
with much animation and walked with great elasticity. In his 
domestic, social, and parochial relations, he was kind, faithful, 
and magnanimous. He had a large share of physical and 
moral courage, tempered with the wisdom, which yields a 
point, when duty calls. He had a nature capable of combat- 
ing and overcoming perils and difficulties. Few men have 
had more trials, than he had, at the outset of their ministry ; 
and few have come out of them so commendably as he did. 
His opposers in high places were constrained to acknowledge 
his integrity and worth. So steadily and prudently did he 
pursue his course, that he was instrumental to the union, which 
took place between the two Societies of Chebacco, which had 
been long and bitterly at variance. His intellectual abilities 
were superior and well improved. He was a scribe well in- 
structed in the things which pertain to the kingdom of God. 
His style of composition was nervous and logical. He was 
not much in the habit of writing his sermons. Still he did 
not come to the sanctuary without beaten oil. He delivered 
his discourses with much previous thought and arrangement. 
Aged people, who remember his performances, speak of him 
as one of the most popular and powerful preachers of the many 
whom they heard. His voice was heavy and had great compass. 
His utterance was rapid, yet very distinct. He had a great degree 
of natural and expressive gesture when speaking. Like other 
clergymen of his day, he was anxious lest European infidelity 
should contaminate our Republic, and he strove hard to pre- 
vent so pernicious an occurrence. His love of country was 
such, that he perseveringly and efficiently sought its highest 
34 



266 CHEBACCO PARISH SECOND CHURCH. 

welfare, both temporal and spiritual. To his people, he was 
" an ascension gift " indeed. He was divinely enabled to turn 
many of them to ways of wisdom and salvation. The ruling 
motive which most shone out from his soul, amid the various 
and untiring efforts of a protracted ministry, was to please God 
and bring honor to his great name. Thus it came to pass, 
that the promises of Revelation, which he often held up to 
others, were the staff on which he leaned when summoned to 
pass through the valley and shadow of death. Dr. Nathaniel 
Emmons truly said of him, that he " was a pattern of piety and 
an ornament to the Christian and clerical profession. He 
stood high among the first of faithful preachers of the gospel, and 
zealous promoters of the cause of Christ and the good of souls." 

Quarterly Fast. 

1760. The Church agree to spend one day every quarter 
of a year in Congregational Fasting and Prayer, for the out- 
pouring of God's Spirit upon them and all nations. 

Salary. 

Till the union of the two Societies in Chebacco, Mr. 
Gleaveland had his salary by subscription, and afterwards 
he had about £65 and the parsonage. 

Union of the Second and Fourth Churches. 

After many years of separation, in a part of which, the in- 
tercourse of neighbours and friends was embittered by jealousy, 
disaffection, and difference, which commonly arise betvveen 
rival societies, such a union was formed to the great gratifica- 
tion of every well wisher to the peace and welfare of the 
community. This took place by advice of Council Oct. 26th, 
1774, when the two Churches agree to be called the Second 
Church. The two Parishes accepted this result and assumed 
the name of the Second Parish. 



CHEBACCO PARISH — SECOND CHURCH. 

This Church, united with the Fourth, and assurning its 
original name, as previously stated, enjoyed a peace within its 
borders, to which it had long been a stranger. The last of its 



CHEBACCO PARISH SEC. CHURCH; MINISTERS. 267 

Ruling Elders (such officers having been elected soon after 
Mr. Cleaveland's ordination) was Eleazer Craft, who died 
1790. 

Ministers of Chebacco Parish — Second Church. 

JOSIAH WEBSTER. 

His parents were Nathan and Elizabeth Webster. He was b. 
at Chester, N. H., Jan. 16th, 1772; graduated at Dartmouth 
College, 1798 ; ordained at Chebacco, Nov. 13th, 1799, when 
the Rev. S. Peabody of Atkinson, N. H., preached, with whom 
he had studied divinity. He took a dismission July 23d, 1806, 
and was installed at Hampton, N. H., June 8th, 1808, where 
he has enjoyed a successful ministry. 

THOMAS HOLT. 

His father and mother were Daniel and Mary Holt. He was 
b. at Meriden, Conn., Nov. 9th, 1762 ; graduated at Yale Col- 
lege 1784 ; resided there most of 1785, and pursued his studies 
of divinity under Professor Samuel Wales, and afterwards with 

Benjamin Trumbull, D. D., of North Haven. He was 

ordained at Hardvvick, June 25th, 1789 ; and closed his con- 
nexion with the Church there, March 27th, 1805. He was in- 
stalled at Chebacco Jan. 25th, 1809, and took his dismission 
April 20th, 1813. He has resided since on a farm in Hardwick. 

ROBERT CROWELL. 

His parents were Capt. Samuel and Mrs. Lydia Crowell. 
He was b. in Salem, Dec. 9th, 1787 ; graduated at Dartmouth 
1811 ; taught school one year in his native place; studied his 
profession with Samuel Worcester, D. D. ; after haying 
preached at Chebacco about twelve months, he was ordained 
Aug. 10th, 1814. 

Meeting-House. 

1792, Jan. 5th. After many proposals, it is agreed to build 
a meeting-house, near where the Old South one stood. It 
was raised in June. A vote was passed to furnish it with 
stoves, Dec. 16th, 1818. 



268 ESSEX : — incorporation, boundaries, extent. 

Salary ; — Settlement. 

1799. Josiah Webster, ^334 and parsonage for salary ; 
%5Q0 settlement. 

1804. He had ^100 added to his salary. 

1808. Thomas Holt, ,^500 and parsonage for salary. 

1814. Robert Crowell, ^'600 and eight cords of wood for 
the same. 



CHRISTIAN SOCIETY. 

This was formed April 5th, 1808. Their house was erec- 
ted 1809. They have not had a constant supply of preachers. 
At first, Mr. John Rand officiated in the ministry among them 
about seven years. 



UNIVERSALIST SOCIETY. 

This was formed April 2Sth, 1829. 



ESSEX. 



INCORPORATION. 

After several attempts on the part of the people at Chebac- 
co to be set off from Ipswich, they became incorporated Feb. 
5th, 1819, and took the name of Essex. As an indemnity, on 
account of the poor and other things, this town paid ^3000, 
besides ,'||t2270, their share in public property, for this privi- 
lege to the parent-town. 

BOUNDARIES. — EXTENT. 

Essex is bounded on the North by Ipswich, East by Glou- 
cester, West by Hamilton, and South by Manchester. Its 
greatest length is five miles and a quarter from North to South, 
and its mean length four and a half. Its greatest breadth 
from East to West is four miles, and its mean breadth three and 
a quarter. 



ESSEX : SOIL PRODUCTIONS MANUFACTURES. 269 



SOIL. — PRODUCTIONS. 

The soil is chiefly argillaceous, loamy, gravelly, and marshy. 
In 1831, it was divided into 406 acres of tillage, 577 of En- 
glish and upland mowing, 78 of fresh meadow, 1882 of salt 
marsh, 2554 of pasture inclusive of orchard pasturage, 1095 
of woodland exclusive of pasture land enclosed, 295 unim- 
proved, and 120 of unimprovable. Besides these divisions of 
land, there were 250 acres for roads and 1200 covered with 

water. Productions, in the same year, were, 25 bushels of 

rye, 864 of barley, 5171 of corn, 521 tons of English and 
upland hay, 39 of meadow hay, and 1084 tons of salt hay. In 
addition to these were potatoes and other vegetables, apples, 
and other fruits. 

Live Stock. 1831. There were 73 horses above one year 
old, 194 oxen of four years and over, 380 cows of three years 
and more, 39 steers and heifers above one year old, 168 sheep 
of six months and above, 143 swine of a similar age. 



MANUFACTURES. 

Mills ; three saw-mills, two grist-mills, and one carding- 

mill ; a bark, roHing, and hide mill. Tanners &; Curriers, 

two ; Carpenters, fifteen ; Ropewalks, three, two of them in 
operation ; Coopers, three ; Wheelwright, one ; Painters, 
two ; Cabinetmaker, one ; Mason, one ; Brick-makers, two ; 
Cordwainers, there are eighteen shops where such mechanics 
work ; Blacksmiths, nine ; Caulkers h Gravers, five ; Ship- 
building, — in this employment, thirty-eight master-workmen, 
now living, have built and are building vessels. A large num- 
ber of hands are hired for such work, each of whom receives, 
on an average, twenty dollars per month, besides board. The 
making of vessels was commenced here as long ago as 1668. 

In 1828, forty vessels of different dimensions were built. 

For four years, up to 1834, the average amount of tonnage, 
annually made, was 2500 tons. Each ton sold, at a medium 
price, for twenty-five dollars. Previously to fifteen years past, 
nothing but pink-stern boats were made ; since, square-sterned 
ones have been increasingly built. The largest of these was 



270 Essex: — road — bridge — population, &;c. 

202 tons. Ship-building, thus followed, has given scope to a 
commendable spirit of enterprise, cherished a more than usual 
mechanichal genius, and added much to the prosperity of the 
town. 



ROAD. — BRIDGE. 

1823. A new road is made at the Falls, which leads to the 

landing. The same year, a draw to the great bridge is 

made. 



WHARVES. — TONNAGE. 

1831. There were eight thousand superficial feet of 
wharves, mostly taken up for ship-building, and for materials 
in this business. Vessels owned here, from five tons and up- 
wards, measured 273 tons. 



FISHERY. — BAIT. 

Thirty years since, forty sail of boats from this place were 
engaged in the fishery on the Eastern shore ; a few were em- 
ployed in the Bank fishery. The fishing business diminished, 
as ship-building increased and was found more profitable. 
It was mostly discontinued twelve years ago. Nine hun- 
dred barrels of clams are dug here annually. The persons, 
by whom they are obtained, sell them, exclusive of barrels 
and salt, from ^2-50 to ^'3'00. Such bait was formerly vend- 
ed at Marblehead, and now in Boston, for the prices men- 
tioned with reference to Ipswich. 



POPULATION. 

In 1820, there were 1107 inhabitants, and 258 ratable 
polls ; in 1830, 1333 inhabitants, and 319 ratable polls, twelve 
not taxed, and six supported by the town. 



ESSEX : POPULATION. 



271 



Among those of the last census is a dumb and deaf boy. 
The following table gives the ages and numbers of the two 
sexes, as they were in 1830. 



Whites. 









MALES. 


FEMALES 


Under 5 


years, 


102 


72 


Of 5 and under fO, 


69 


76 


" 10 




15, 


78 


72 


" 15 




20, 


81 


60 


" 20 




30, 


143 


132 


" 30 




' 40, 


77 


62 


" 40 




50, 


44 


53 


" 50 




60, 


40 


41 


" 60 




' 70, 


24 


46 


" 70 




80, 


13 


20 


" 80 




' 90, 


5 


6 


" 90 




100, 




3 



676 



643 



Blacks. 



Under 10 years. 
Of 10 and under 24, 
" 36 " 55, 
" 55 '' 100, 



males. 


FEMALES 




3 


5 


1 


1 


2 




2 



Recapitulation. 



MALES, 
FEMALES, 
MALES, 
FEMALES, 



> WHITE, I 

> BLACK. I 



676 

643 
6 

8 



1333 



272 Essex: — valuation — town expenses, &c. 

VALUATION. 

This, as rendered in by assessors in 1831, was ^282,567, 
and it was doomed by the State, $322,297-99. 



TOWN EXPENSES. 

1822. For poor and other charges, $400 ; for high-ways 
$600 ; for schools, $400; and towards the debt of Ipswich, 
$1500. 

1833. The expenses this year were $1493. 



BUILDINGS. 

1831. 157 dwelhng-houses ; 9 shops in or adjoining such 
houses ; 63 other shops ; and 127 barns. Among the houses, 
in 1833, was one tavern. 



HAY-SCALE. 

1833. In the place of the high-framed one, another of the 
patent kind was put. 



ENGINE, &c. 

1824, Oct. 21st. Voted $600 to purchase an Engine, 
a house for it, 24 leather buckets, 2 more fire-hooks, and 
4 long ladders. 



POST-OFFICE. 
1821. A commission was granted for this office. 



MILITARY. — PENSIONERS. 

1820, May 4th. Voted to have a powder-house on the 
bill near Ezra Perkins's. This was done. 

1833. One uniform company and one militia company. 

Under the law of 1832, there are six pensioners, who were 
in public service during the war of Independence. 



ESSEX: POLITICAL TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES, &iC. 273 



POLITICAL. 

1820, Oct. 16th. Jonathan Story, Esq., is chosen dele- 
gate to the convention, which is to meet in Boston the 3d 
Wednesday of November, for altering the State Constitution. 



TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 

These, called Essex North and South, comprise 500 mem- 
bers. The influence of them was so beneficial, that, in 1833, 
there was no license for selling spirituous liquors in the town. 



EDUCATION. 

1833. There were 370 scholars in six district schools. 
The amount of time, for which all the schools are kept in 
a year, is 22 months. The sum, raised by the town for their 
public schools, is ,^'600; and, ])aid for private schools, is 
1^300. The branches taught are, Spelling, Reading, Writing, 
Arithmetic, Geography, Grammar, and, to a limited extent, 
History, Rhetoric, and Philosophy. There is an increasing 
and commendable spirit in Essex to furnish their youth with 
intellectual improvement, which so powerfully and speedily 
adds to a community's respect and welfare. 



GRADUATES SINCE THE INCORPORATION OF 

ESSEX. 

Hon. Rufus Choate, 1819, at Dartmouth College. 
Dr. John D. Russ, 1823, at Yale College. 
John C. Perkins, 1832, at Amherst College, 



SABBATH SCHOOLS. 

In 1828, there were 90 scholars in the Congregational 
Society; and, in 1833, there were 132 scholars, and a library 
of 350 volumes. Besides this school, another has been re- 
cently formed, containing 40 scholars. 
35 



274 ESSEX: — company libraries — alms-house, &c. 



COMPANY LIBRARIES. 

1833. The Social Library has 400 volumes. 
The Religious Library has 200 volumes. 



ALMS-HOUSE. 

Until an establishment of this sort was obtained, the poor, 
as in other places, were let out to the lowest bidder. 

1825. A farm was purchased for them. 

A report of 1832 gives us the following information. 
The house measures 50 feet by 30. It has been built proba- 
bly a century. It has seven lodging-rooms for the poor. 
The farm contains 100 acres of upland, and 50 of marsh. 
The cost of the whole was ^5000. No ardent spirits are 
given to its inmates. These work on the land, make their 
own cloth, and pick oakum. Three men and six women are 
each able to do a day's work. Few of the State's poor apply 
here for assistance. Salary of the superintendent, ^200, and 
of a hired man for two months, ^30. 

Dr. Whole expense of the poor last year, . . ^714 69 
Interest on the cost of the farm, . . 300 00 



Cr. Labor of paupers, and sale of 

produce, . . . #667 89 

For State's poor, ... 40 80 



;1014 69 



#708 69 

Balance against the town, . . #306 00 

1833. The clear cost of the poor is #276. 

There are twenty of them, seven-eighths of whom have 
been impoverished either directly or indirectly by intemper- 
ance. 



CHARITIES. 

1830. To sufferers by fire at Gloucester, about #60. 
1833. The religious charities of the Congregational So- 
ciety are #250 annually. 



ESSEX: PUBLISHMENTS, MARRIAGES, &CC. 275 



PUBLISHMENTS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS. 

The yearly average of publishments for thirteen years has 
been ISy'g ; of marriages, for the same period, has been Q/j ; 
of deaths, My^g. 

Among the births of 1832, there was a triple one. 

Persons who died aged 90 Years and over. 

1821. Widow Westley Burnham, 98. 

1822. Widow Lydia Lufkin, 93. 

1823. Widow Anna Andrews, in her 95th. 

1824. Jesse Story, 94. 

1831. Phillipa Burnham, 93. 

1832. Mary Lufkin, 93. 



CASUALTIES. 

1823, Sept. 2d. Ebenezer Burnham's barn is destroyed 
by lightning. 

1824, Nov. 19th. Susan Varney, ^. 11, is burnt to death 
by her clothes taking fire. 

1825, Oct. Stephen Story, IE. about 60, is drowned. 
1828, March 17th. James Nutter, M. 20, is drowned. 
1831, June 26th. A daughter of Thomas Hardy, M. 2 

years, is drowned. 

1833, May 10th. Esther, daughter of Nimrod Burnham, 
quite young, is scalded to death. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

1822, Feb. 27th. Washington, son of David and Miriam 
Choate, d., M. 19. He was a member of the Junior Class 
in Dartmouth College. He gave evidence of deep piety, and 
was a scholar of extraordinary promise. 

1826, Feb. 6th. George, son of William and Mary Choate, 
d., M. 64. He m. Susannah, daughter of the Hon. Stephen 
Choate, of Ipswich. His children were William and John, both 
deceased, George, and Francis. He sustained various offices 
in the town, was Justice of the Peace, Representative from 
Ipswich, 1814, 1815, 1816, 1817, and from Essex, 1819. 
His life was useful and his death lamented. 



276 ESSEX: — essex church. — hamlet parish. 

ESSEX CHURCH. 

After bavins; been Ions; denominated witb relation to ber 
niotber Cburcb, and after baving passed tbrougb more trials 
tban ber adjacent sisteis, tbe Cburcb bere began to be known 
by ber present name, wben ibe parisb of Cbebacco was incor- 
porated. 

1328. Tbe members of tbe Cburcb were six males, and 

forty-one females. From Feb. 17 tb, 1823, to April 19th, 

1829, eigbty-lbree persons were added. 

1833. The members were thirty-seven males, and eighty- 
four females. Tiiese facts furnish us witb proof, that this 
Church, like many others in our country, has received spiritual 
blessings from the band of God. Benefits pertaining to time 
should be sought and valued. But those pertaining to eternity 
are far better. Accessions of worthy inhabitants to tbe com- 
munity, is a blessing. But accessions to a Church of such 
as shall be saved, strikes a string, which vibrates through the 
universe, and fills all heaven with joy unspeakable. 



THE HAMLET 



HAMLET PARISH, CALLED THE THIRD. 

* 1712, May 1st. Sixty-five males of the Hamlet petition 
tbe First Parish to be set off. The reasons assigned by them 
for such a movement, were, that forty families of them attend- 
ed woi'ship at Wenbam, where the meeting-house was not 
large enough to accommodate them and others, who wor- 
shipped there ; tbe distance to Ipswich was great, and it was 
much trouble to convey their families thither. May 22d. 
Tbe town allow this petition, if a meeting-house be erected, 
and an orthodox minister be called here. Subjoined to such 
a permission, is this noticeable remark : " It will be consider- 
ed, that we have two ministers to maintain, whose salaries 
must not be diminished ; and as there have been two ministers 
here maintained from tbe foundation of the town, so we hope 
there will continue to be to the end of the world," — and " if 
it should ever be otherwise, it will be a shameful degeneracy 
from tbe piety of our ancestors." The views which dictated 

* T. R. 



THE hamlet: CHARACTER MEETING-HOUSE, &iC. 277 

the last clause, have been long erased from the code of 
modern opinion and practice. Though it has been a ques- 
tion, whether, on the whole, it is not best for a minister and 
his people to have him labor alone with them, and custom 
has decided the question in the affirmative, yet, in these days 
of increasing and oppressive labors of ministers, when no 
small portion of them sink under their duties, there is a louder 
call for two of them over a large congregation, than there was 
for many years after the settlement of this country. 

1713, Oct. 14th. The Parish here becomes incorporated. 
It contained, in 1773, 116 houses, 172 families, 419 males, 
451 females, making 870 inhabitants. 



CHARACTER OF THE HAMLET. 

In a remonstrance of the town, in 1678-9, they say, 
" One of the principal of these Hamlets lies on the road to 
Boston, extending almost to Wenham, wherein are several 
of the better rank ; members of the Church ; persons of pub- 
lic places and service, as well or better landed than any, and 
as wise to be sensible of their difficulties, which they deeply 
share in, as others." 



MEETING-HOUSE. 

1712, Oct. 2d. Voted to have such a building erected 
by November of next year, which was done. It cost the 
proprietors about ^'1033, besides some donations of other 
individuals. Its dimensions were 50 feet long, 38 wide, and 
20 stud. It had a turret on the south end. 

1762. Another house of worship is built, 60 feet long, 40 
wide, and 26 stud. It is the present one, and occupies the 
site which the former did. Till 1801 it had long seats on 
the right and the left of the aisle in front of the pulpit, one 
set of them for men, and the other for women. Its cost was 
about §2151. 

CLOCK AND BELL. 

1727, March 7th. The town vote to give the Hamlet 
Parish their old school bell. 

1731, Sept. 8th. The Hamlet appropriate £60 in bills 
of credit, to purchase a bell in England, of 300 lbs. and up- 
wards. This arrived the next year, and was hung for some 



278 THE hamlet: — parsonage — salaries, &.c. 

time on a pine tree to the north-west of the meeting-house, 
until a beliry was prepared for its reception. 

1785. It is voted, that the old bell be sold, and that 
£40 be added to its price, for the purchase of a new one. 

1795. Permission is given by the town for putting up the 
clock. 



PARSONAGE. 

1714. A vote is passed by the parish to procure a par- 
sonage for the use of Mr. Wigglesworth. This was done 
1720, and seven acres were purchased, adjoining his house-lot. 

1731, May 14th. The commoners grant one of the super- 
numerary lots in the Hamlet Eighth, for the use of the minis- 
try there for ever. 

SALARIES AND SETTLEMENTS. 

1714. Mr. Wigglesworth's salary was £60 for the first 
year, payable two-thirds in money and the rest in grain, and 
20 cords of wood ; £65 for the second, and £70 for the 
third year, with the same quantity of wood, and the use of 
a parsonage when obtained. His settlement was £100 to- 
wards building his house, which stood where the present 
minister's does, and one acre and a half of land. 

1771. Mr. Cutler's salary was £85 and parsonage, and 
settlement £133 6s. 8d. In 1788, he had his salary raised 
to £100; 1796, to |'367 ; 1797, to |'400; 1807, till 1821, 
to ^450 ; 1821, lessened to ,^400 ; 1822, to $3331 ; 1823, 
to ^'150 besides the parsonage, when the parish vote to sup- 
ply the pulpit. 

1824. The successor of Dr. Cutler had ,'^500, and Pond 
Parsonage, for a salary. 



THIRD CHURCH. 

1714, Oct. 12th. A covenant is privately signed by twen- 
ty-five brethren, besides Mr. Wigglesworth, and was publicly 
owned by them the 27th. From the earthquake, Oct. 29lh, 
1727, to Sept. 8th, 1728, inclusive, ninety-nine were admitted 
to the Church. Tradition informs us, that many persons 
united with the Church after the earthquake of 1755. 



THE HAMLET : SAMUEL WIGGLESWORTH. 279 

1744, Sept. This Church undertakes to deal with the 
Second Church, according to the third way of disciphne, 
takes the first and second steps, and then suspends its pro- 
cedure, because promised tliat the offence should be settled. 

1768, Nov. 28lh. The Church vote, " that if any candi- 
date may be hired on probation, and have it as his principle, 
that infants of none but such as are in full communion, 
ought to be baptized, it shall be no bar to his settling.' As 
their next pastor did not object to the baptizing of children 
under the half-way covenant, this was done for the greater 
part of his ministry. 

1771. There were 27 male, and 41 female members. 

1774, March 27th. Voted to have a portion of the Old 
Testament read in the forenoon, and another of the New in 
the afternoon, of the Sabbath. 

1780, July 23d. Passed a vote to unite in the Quarterly 
Fast of the other Ipswich Churches. 



SAMUEL WIGGLESWORTH. 

He was son of the Rev. Michael Wigglesworth of Maiden ; 
b. Feb. 4th, 1683 O. S. He graduated at Harvard College 
1707, where he pursued his studies for two years after he took 

his first degree. 1709, June 30th. He commenced the 

study of physic under Dr. Graves of Charlestown, and con- 
tinued with him till March 1st, 1710, when he came to Ips- 
wich Hamlet, and began to practice. Here he continued till 
Dec. 29th, and then went to his native place and took a 
school. While thus employed, he studied divinity, and 
preached his first sermon Jan. 20th, 1712. He was invited 
to labor at Dracut, July 15th, and, after being there a year, 
he received two unanimous calls to settle, which he concluded 

to decline. 1713, Oct. 17th. He was engaged to supply 

the pulpit at Groton. Here he stayed till Jan. 27th, 1714, 
when he returned to the Hamlet, as a spiritual physician. 
Approved in this capacity, as he had been in his other, by 
the people, they invited him to become their pastor, and he 
was ordained Oct. 27th, 1714. Thus taking on himself an 
office, followed by momentous and endless results, he looked 
to Omnipotence for aid, that he might not be a slothful servant. 
In this he was heard. His health was not robust. It occasion- 
ally sunk under his parochial labors. Though called in this 



280 THE hamlet: — samuel wigglesworth. 

manner to experience physical infirmities, bis mind and heart 
continued to improve. He soon became known as a talented 
writer and a devoted minister. His printed productions are as 
follow : 

1727. A Sermon in Yarmouth at the Ordination of Josiah 
Dennis. Oct. Another before a Society of young men, 
in his parish, who had united, like others of their age, in 
Old and New England, for religious improvement. This 

discourse was a fortnight previous to the earthquake. A 

discourse the Sabbath after this event, which shook the earth, 
and waked the slumbering consciences of multitudes. 

1733, Jan. 10th. Sermon at the Ordination of John War- 
ren in Wenham. An Election Discourse before the Legis- 
lature. The subject of it was, — the necessity of general 
reformation in morals and piety. 

1744. A short Account of the Rev. Mr. Hale of Newbury, 
in the "Christian History." 

1746. Sermon on the death of the Rev. John Rogers. 
Rev. Mr. Chipman's, of Beverly, and his own Contro- 
versy with the Rev. Mr. Balch of Bradford, about the result 
of a Council. 

1751. A Discourse before the Convention of Congrega- 
tional Ministers of Massachusetts. 

1755, March 20th. Two Sermons to his parishioners, 
enlisted for an expedition to Nova Scotia. 

1760. Dudleian Lecture. 

1765. Rev. Mr. Jaques's, of Gloucester, and his own 
Controversy with the Fourth Church, about admitting per- 
sons from neighbouring Churches. 

As a member of the Synod or great Council, which met in 
Salem to deal with the First Church there, according to the 
third way of communion, July 16th, 1735, Mr. Wigglesworth 
withdrew, because a majority would not allow a document 

of Mr. Fisk to be read. ■ 1743, July 8th. He signs a 

testimony with many other clergymen convened in Boston, 
which approves the late revival of religion. He was on the 
Committee, who reported such a testimony, and also, advice 
against abuses of the revival. 

Besides attending to the public and private calls of his 
office, Mr. Wigglesworth still cultivated his knowledge of 
medicine, and was frequently useful in prescribing for ills of 
the body, as well as of the soul. This combining of two pro- 



THE HAMLET : SAMUEL WIGGLESWORTH. 281 

fessions was common in his day. He prevailingly gave proof, 
that he applied his abilities, influence, and opportunities, as 
one, who was to render an impartial account. Supreme self- 
ishness was a stranger to the motives of his conduct. .He 
lived for others, as well as for himself. As illustrative of this 
attractive trait in his character, we have the following fact. 
Towards the close of his life, as he was setting out an apple 
tree, one of his people came along and remarked, " Sir, you 
cannot expect to reap any fruit from your labor." " No," he 
quickly replied, " 1 am only paying a debt." Blessed with 
a church, whose principles and practice were better than 
usual, he enjoyed among them a good degree of harmony. 
Occasionally, bowever, he had bitter experience of the truth, 
— " They are not all Israel, who are of Israel." In cases of 
this kind he did not lie still for the sake of being applauded 
by those, who advocated false peace, as a covering for their 
own faults. No, he entered on the painful duty of discipline, 
so that a moral gangrene might not spread through the whole 
flock. Mr. Wigglesworth was thoroughly versed in eccle- 
siastical concerns, and was often invited to exercise his knowl- 
edge and prudence in church difficulties. In his intercourse 
with others, he was accessible, kind, and improving. Few 
could be in his company without being able, if they chose, 
to carry away thoughts worth remembering and being acted 
on. Though he had much suavity in his feelings and man- 
ners, yet when the voice of obligation summoned his energies, 
he stood in its defence like the surf-beaten, but unmoved rock. 
As a speaker, his voice was not strong ; but still it was clear, 
and accompanied with earnestness, so as to command close 
attention. His intellectual powers were above the common 
standard. His perception was quick, imagination lively, mem- 
ory tenacious, invention fruitful, and judgment sound. He 
did not hold these talents, as bound in a napkin. He dili- 
gently and successfully cultivated them in the various depart- 
ments of human and divine knowledge. He was happy in 
his Scriptural illustrations. The judge, which ended all de- 
bates with his conscience on points of faith and practice, was 
the Bible. His style of composition was original, perspicuous, 
pure, and energetic. Though his sermons contained many sub- 
divisions, in accordance with the custom of his time, yet they 
were rich in ideas, and suited to interest and edify. But 
what is more than all, in the view of Him who never errs, 
36 



282 THE HAMLET : SAMUEL WIGGLESWORTH. 

is, that the natural endowments and acquisitions of Mr. Wig- 
glesworth were controlled and directed by the principles of 
rehgion, deeply engraven upon his heart. At home and 
abroad, he was the consistent messenger of Christ. His piety 
was of the sterling kind, which was not taken off and put on, 
like a garment, to suit occasions. Its texture, hue, and 
strength, were essentially the same at all seasons, in all 
places, and under all circumstances. Reviewing the mental, 
moral, and religious character, as well as the writings of Mr. 
Wigglesworth, we have reason to say, as Dr. Eliot did, in 
reference to him, that he "was an eminent divine." Of such 
desert, the Lord abundantly blessed his exertions to promote 
the cause of Zion. As he drew near the grave, his infirmities 
multiplied upon him, and he had to receive assistance in the 
labors of the pulpit. Exhausted in the difficult, but elevating 
service of his heavenly Master, he fell asleep in the hope, 
that an incorruptible crown awaited him. 

" Sure the last end 
Of the good man is peace. How calm his exit ! 
Night-dews fall not more gently to the ground, 
Nor weary, worn-out winds expire so softly." 

The decease of Mr. Wigglesworth was Sept. 3d, 1768, in 
his eightieth year, and the fifty-fourth of his ministry. On 
his tomb-stone is inscribed the pertinent passage, — "And 
Samuel said unto the people, Fear not, for the Lord will not 
forsake his people, for his great name's sake. Only fear the 
Lord, and serve him in truth with all your heart." Perhaps 
it may be well to state here, that, as to his person, he was 
of a light complexion, rather small in stature, well-propor- 
tioned, sprightly in movement, and of an interesting counte- 
nance. He m. Mary, daughter of John Brintnal of Winni- 
semet, now Chelsea, June 30th, 1715. Their children were, 
Mary, Michael, Martha, and Phebe. His wife d. of a pleu- 
ritic fever, June 6th, 1723, M. 28. He m. Martha, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Mr. Brown of Reading, March 12th, 1730. 
She survived him, and d, at Newburyport, 1784, M. 89. 
Their children were, Sarah, Phebe, Samuel, Katherine, Eliza- 
beth, Edward, John, Abigail, and William. Four sons and 
four daughters outlived him, but they are now all dead. 
Thus parents and children pass away, and leave the scenes of 
earth for their successors, who must soon follow, and in body 
mingle with dust, and in spirit witness eternal realities. Surely 



HAMILTON : INCORPORATION, &;C. 283 

" all flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flow- 
er of the field." 



INCORPORATION OF THE HAMLET AS A TOWN. 

After several exertions on the part of the people here, and 
after long delay, the Hamlet is incorporated by the name of 
Hamilton, June 2lst, 1793. As an indemnity to Ipswich for 
paupers and other things, this town paid them £908 85 3d. 



SITUATION. — EXTENT. 

Hamilton has Wenham on the south-west, Manchester south, 
Essex east, Ipswich north, and Topsfield west. Its latitude is 
42° 38' north ; longitude from Greenwich 70° 52' west. Its 
greatest length from east to west is five miles and a half, 
and its mean length, three and three-quarters. Its greatest 
breadth from north to south is three miles and three-eighths, 
and its mean breadth three miles. 



SOIL. 



There is some clayey, sandy, and boggy soil, but the loamy, 
gravelly, and peaty predominate. The land, in 1831, was divi- 
ded into 483 acres of tillage, 724 of English and upland mow- 
ing, inclusive of orchard mowing, 778 of fresh meadow, 4139 of 
pasture, including orchard pasturage, 998 of wood-land, exclu- 
sive of inclosed pasture lots, 470 of unimproved, and 37 of 
parsonage. Besides these, there were 120 acres for roads, and 
345 covered with water. 



PRODUCTIONS. 

These are such as are common to New England. The 
crops of grain, fodder, fruit, and vegetables are proportiona- 
ble in quantity to those of the adjacent towns. In 1831, 
there were raised 425 bushels of rye, 1333 of oats, 5006 of 
corn, 67 of barley, 354 tons of English and upland hay, 



284 HAMILTON : BUILDINGS ROADS, &C. 

416 of fresh meadow. The fanners here get considerable salt 
hay from their lots of marsh in Essex and Ipswich. Previous- 
ly to the ravages of the canker-worm, this town raised apples 
enough to supply the market with large quantities, and to 
make 550 barrels of cider. 

Live Stock. The livestock, in 1831, were 91 horses of 
one year old and upward, 168 oxen of four years and above, 
399 cows of three years and over, 238 steers of one year 
and upward, 430 sheep of six months and above, 139 swine of 
similar ages. 



BUILDINGS. — ROADS. — BRIDGE. 

In 1831, there were 116 dwelling houses, 50 shops, and 114 
barns. Among the houses in 1833, were two taverns. Since 
1811, most of the roads have been widened and straightened. 
In 1830, the road from Rust's corner to Smith's mills was 
much improved by being made wider, and having several new 
pieces. One half of its expense cost the town ^1000; the 
other was paid by the county. In 1814, Moulton's bridge was 
rebuilt. 



POPULATION. 

The number of inhabitants has not advanced, but of late 
years has been rather retrograde. One cause of this is, that 
most of the young people settle in some other part of the 
country. As, according to the mode of agriculture, there is 
no more land than is sufficient for the present number of far- 
mers, no well-founded expectation can be cherished, that the 
people will increase, unless more manufactures should be in- 
troduced. In 1810, the census gave 780 inhabitants ; 

1820, 802, and 182 ratable polls ; 1S30, 748, and 150 polls 
rated, and thirty others not rated. 

The following table presents a view of the ages and num- 
bers of both sexes, as they were in 1830. 



HAMILTON : EMPLOYMENTS. 



285 





Whites. 










MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Under 


5 years, 


30 


31 


Of 5 i 


and under 10, 


35 


34 


" 10 


15, 


39 


50 


" 15 


20, 


32 


46 


" '^0 


30, 


68 


48 


" 30 


40, 


36 


48 


" 40 


50, 


24 


50 


" 50 


60, 


33 


34 


" 60 


70, 


22 


28 


" 70 


80, 


13 


23 


" 80 


90, 


11 


7 


" 90 


100, 


2 


1 



345 



Blacks. 



400 





MALES. 


females, 


Under 5 years, 


1 





of 20 and under 30, 





1 


of 24 and under 36, 


1 






MALES 
FEMALE 
MALES 
FEMALES 



Recapitulation. 

' > WHITE, < 

.ES, f ( 

' > blacks, < 

ES, ) ' ( 



345 

400 

2 

1 

748 



EMPLOYMENTS. 

Most of the common necessary arts are practised here* 
There are only three shop-keepers. Formerly it was a mat- 
ter of course for a large number of such traders to sell ardent 
spirits. Now only one of them doles out this deadly drink. 
The greater proportion of the men are farmers. There are 
about thirty-five places where shoes are manufactured. In 
some of them several hands work together. 

Mills ; — one saw and one grist mill, one veneering mill to 
saw mahogany for cabinet-makers. 



286 HAMILTON : — BUILDING VESSELS , StC. 

Cabinet-makers, two ; Tannery, one ; Blacksmith, one ; Ma- 
sons, two ; Chairmakers, two ; Wheelwrights, two; Carpenters, 
eight ; Weaver, one. 

On the Hamilton side of Ipswich river, a stone Factory has 
been partly erected. A reason, why its completion was sus- 
pended, is the check which cloth manufactories experienced. 
A large stone dwelling-house has been put up, which was in- 
tended to accommodate those who might work in the Factory. 



BUILDING VESSELS. 

This business was carried on considerably in the east part 
of the town, sixty years since. Fishing-boats from ten to 
twenty tons were then made, and drawn to the waters of Che- 
bacco' by teams of cattle. Of late years such employment 
has nearly ceased. Now and then, fishing schooners, of lar- 
ger dimensions than formerly, are built. 



LACE. 

A considerable number of young women were engaged in 
working dresses for Ipswich lace factories, while these were 
in operation. 



FISHERY. 

Some years, individuals who bought the privilege of fishing, 
have caught a considerable number of alewives in Mile River, 
for the West India market. 



POST-OFFICE. 
In 1803, this establishment commenced, and has continued. 



EDUCATION. 

There are four district schools. They are kept partly by 
masters and partly by mistresses ; by the former in winter, 
and by the latter in summer. 



Hamilton: — graduates, Stc. 287 

1793. £36 were voted for schools. 

In 1796, ^150; and from 1808 to 1822, ,f 200; and from 
1822 to 1833, ,^300, were raised annually for this object. 

1833. ,f 400 were assessed, besides ^'108 paid for private 
schools. There are 205 scholars. 

The winter terms of instruction, added together, make ten 
months, and the summer terms nine and a half. 



GRADUATES SINCE THE INCORPORATION. 

1793. Charles Cutler, Harvard. 

1811. Solomon S. Whipple, Dartmouth, 

1833. Isaac Brown, Amherst. 



SABBATH SCHOOL. 
1833. Ninety-one scholars. Library of 250 volumes. 



LIBRARIES. 

There have been two of these, called First and Second So- 
cial Libraries. The former has nearly ceased, and the books 
of the latter are not numerous. 



TOWN EXPENSES. — PAUPERS. 

1815, ^'1100,-1822, .f 1450,— 1832, $1500, — and 
1833, 4' 1800? were voted for town charges. 

From 1832 to 1833, $516 were paid for fifteen paupers; 
some of whom were wholly, and others partly supplied. The 
most of the debt was brought on this community by intem- 
perance. 

The increasing expense for the poor in this town is twice as 
much as the interest of a valuable farm would be, if it were 
bought and made an alms-house establishment. Sound econ- 
omy, and the diminution of pauperism and corruption, call 
loudly for such a provision. 



HAMILTON : VALUATION POLITICAL, SlC. 



VALUATION. 

This, as handed into the Secretary of State's office, in 
1831, was ^485,768-50, which was doomed by the State, 
^211,883-99. 



POLITICAL. 

1796, April 25th. Voted to inemorialize Congress, in favor 
of ratifying the treaty with Great Britain in an honorable 
way. 

1812, Jidy 1st. A letter from Boston, and a copy of the 
proceedings there, being read, resolves are passed here, expres- 
sive of an opinion against carrying on the war with England. 



MILITARY. 

1794, Oct. 6th. " Voted to make to the detached men, 
together with what the Continent shall allow them, four shil- 
lings a day, for each day that they do duty, by virtue of said 
detachment, before they are called to march." The same min- 
ute-men are voted to have £3 a month, with what they shall 
receive from the State and the United States, from the time 
they may march, till they return. 

1814, Sept. 29th. Voted to pay the detached men ^5 per 
month, when called into actual service. 

1833. There is one militia company, and a considerable 
number, who, with others from the adjacent towns, form a 
troop. 



PENSIONERS.: 

Under the law of 1832, there were seven pensioners here, 
who bore arms for the cause of our Independence. 



BENEFACTIONS. 

1811. The town give, by subscription, ^215 to sufferers by 
fire at Newbury port. 



HAMILTON : MARRIAGES BIRTHS DEATHS, &C. 289 

1823. Collections for the Greeks, ^36-50. 

1830. Paid to the sufferers by fire in Gloucester, f 37-59. 
Religious charities, ^100 annually. Such benefactions are 
exclusive of other considerable sums given by individuals. 



MARRIAGES. — BIRTHS. 

From 1794 to 1833, being thirty-nine years, there were 236 
marriages, which make about six per year. 

For twenty years, up to 1832, there were 332 births, mak- 
ing sixteen and three-fifths annually. Of these, 183 were 
males, and 149 females ; among them were two double births. 



DEATHS. — LONGEVITY. 

For forty years, ending 1833, 517 deaths occurred, which is 
an annual average of nearly thirteen. In the first decade of 
that period there were 112; in the second, 120; in the 
third 145 ; and in the fourth, 140. 



Deaths of persons aged 90 and over. 



1794. 

1798. 

a 

1799. 



1801. 
1804. 
1805. 
1806. 
1809. 
1812. 
1813. 
1815. 



Jonathan Clinton, 90 

Sarah Clinton, 93 

Joseph Poland, 95 

Plato, formerly a slave, 
born in Africa, of a 
pious and excellent 
character, 10 

William Brown, 90 

Simon Brown, 91 

Ephraim Brown, 91 

Mary Kinsman, widow, 93 



Phebe Brown, do. 

Nathaniel Knowlton, 

Grace EUery, a black, 

John Goodhue, 
His wife, Elizabeth, d. 
1811, when they had 
been married 68 years, 
had eleven children, 

37 



fifty grand children, 
and fifty-two great- 
grand children. 
1815. Sarah Brown, widow. 99 
Her descendantswere 
1 70, five of whom be- 
longed to the fifth 
generation. 
1817. Jenny, a black, 97 

" Molly Moncrief, 90 

1827. Luke Dodge, , 90^ 

" Sarah Annable, widow, 99f 
She professed re- 
ligion 11 yrs. before. 
" John Tuttle, 
1830. Hephzibah, wife of 
Nehemiah Patch, 
" Nehemiah Patch, 
1832. Robert Annable, 



92 

90 
90 
91 



290 HAMILTON: BURYING-GROUND HEARSE, &C. 

These deaths, for forty years, are to tlie whole number of 
deaths, for the same |)eriod, as 1 to 23^. 



BURYING-GROUND. — HEARSE. 

Such ground, being exchanged, in 1706, for other land, grant- 
ed by Ipswich in 1705, enlarged by land given by Jolin Hub- 
bard, is retnlarged by three-eighths of an acre, bought of Mr. 
Roberts's family, in 1797. 

1814. A hearse, and a house for it, are provided. 



CASUALTIES. 

1793, Dec. Aaron Poland, M. 28, is washed overboard at 
sea, and drowned. 

1795, May 28th. John Trask, M. 27, killed by falling 
from a frame, which was raising. 

1799, May 29th. Perley, son of Col. Robert Dodge, 
M. 14, died with the lock-jaw. 

1800, Dec. lOih. Simon Brown, Jr., M. 25, was drowned 
by falling through the ice on Chebacco pond. 

1808, Aug. 16th. Jonathan Lamson, in his eighty-eigluh 
year, died by being scalded with hot water. 

1816, Oct. The corn was cut off by frosts, though there 
was a great crop of barley. 

1820, July 6th. Francis Quarles's barn was burnt up. 

1822, Nov. 8th. The house belonging to Isaac Dodge and 

Margaret Lummus was consumed. Dec. 25th. David 

Dodge's mills were destroyed by fire ; loss, ,^'4000. 

1823, April 25th. George Dodge's three-story hou^e was 
burnt down. ■ July 6th. Thomas Dodge's barn was con- 
sumed by lightning. 

1827. James Brown, iE. 19, was drowned at sea. 
1830, Sept. 14th. Malachi Knowlton died in a few hours 
after being run over by his wagon. 



EMIGRANTS. 

Doctor Elisha Whitney, b. at Watertown, graduated at Har- 
vard College 1766 ; came to the Hamlet 1772 ; m. Eunice 



HAMILTON : OBITUARY NOTICES. 291 

Farley, of Ipswich ; served as a surgeon in the Revolutionary 
army; removed to Beverly 1793, where he died. 

Doctor Nathan Lakeman, b. at Exeter, N. H., came to 
Hamilton 1793 ; m. Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Peter 
Frye, Esq., who had lived in Salem, Jan. 1794. She d. May 
17th, 1776, M. 29. He moved to Gloucester ISOO ; m. 
Mary Hardin, formerly of Charlestown, 1801 ; moved to Man- 
chester, thence to Beverly, vs^here he deceased. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 
DEACON NATHANIEL WHIPPLE. 

His parents were Jolm and Hannah Whipple. He was one 
of the principal inhabitants of Ij)svvich, before the Hamlet 
became a town. After this, he was Treasurer, Selectman, 
and held other offices. He was the last man w ho wore a full- 
bottomed wig here. He m. Mary Appleton, and had ten chil- 
dren ; five of whom are still living, whose collective ages 
amount to 400 years. He d. Dec. 19th, 1809, M. 89. He 
was an exemplary Christian, and an excellent member of soci- 
ety. His influence was constantly and efficiently cast into the 
scale of order and rehgion, of public and private good. 

BARNABAS DODGE. 

He was son of Paul and Faith Dodge ; m. Elizabeth Gid- 
dings, who d. Dec. 23d, 1825, M. 84. He owned and car- 
ried on the Mills on the Hamilton side of Ipswich River. He 
was a surveyor of land, and sustained the principal offices of 
the town. He had six children, three of whom survived him. 
He d. of the asthma, Aug. 15th, 1S14, in his seventy -fifth 
year. He was a professor of religion, a talented, useful, and 
respected inhabitant. 

JOHN SAFFORD. 

His parents were Nathaniel and Margaret SafFord. He was 
b. Oct. 15th, 1750, m. Martha Whipple. He held the chief 
trusts in the town, was Representative to the General Court 
1809, 1810, 1815. He d. of the liver complaint, Oct. 17th, 
1820, in his seventy-first year. His wife and three children 
survived him. 



292 HAMILTON: OBITUARY NOTICES. 

COL. ROBERT DODGE. 

He was son of Isaac, m. Mary Boardman 1765. He had 
ten children, of whom four sons survived him. His wife d. 
Feb. 2Sth, 1824, M. 79, and he d. June 15lh, 1823, M. 80. 
He served as Lieutenant and Captain in several campaigns of 
the Revolutionary war ; held various trusts in the town ; was 
Colonel of a regiment ; was Representative to the Legisla- 
ture 1801, 1802, 1803, 1808, 1811, 1812, 1813. 

JONATHAN LAMSON. 

His father and mother were Jonathan and Anna. He was 
b. Aug. 10th, 1747, m. Bethiah Whipple, who d. Aug. 16th, 
1806, in her sixty-first year. He d. Sept. 28th, 1825, of the 
dropsy ; had five children, and four of them survived him. He 
was long Selectman of Ipswich before the Hamlet was incor- 
porated, and he held the same office and others here after- 
wards. He was delegate to the Covention for revising the 
Constitution in 1820. 

DEACON BENJAMIN APPLETON. 

His parents were Nathaniel and Susannah. He m. Molly 
Tilton, and d. of an inflammatory fever Nov. 10th, 1825, in 
his seventy-sixth year. He was Deacon of the Church here 
over fifteen years. He had nine children, five of whom and 
his wife survived him. 

DR. ENOCH FAULKNER. 

He was a native of Andover, and his parents were Daniel 
and Phebe. He was an apothecary in Haverhill and New- 
buryport, previously to his coming hither, which was in 1800. 
From this time he practised physic here till his last sickness. 
He d. March 16th, 1830, in his sixty-third year. He left a 
wife who still survives him. 

FRANCIS QUARLES. 

He was son of Francis and Frances Quarles. He gradu- 
ated at Brown University 1777, held several offices in the 
town, and was long a preacher. He m. Polly, daughter of 
Mr. John Hutchinson, of Charlestown. She d. Aug. 2d, 1801, 
M. 35. He d. Feb. 15th, 1831, M. 81, and left one 
daughter. 



HAMILTON : EXTRAORDINARY BLEEDERS, hc. 293 

CAPT. JOHN WHIPPLE. 

His parents were John and Martha. He m. Martha Cogs- 
well, who d. March 29th, 1816, M. 75 ; m. widow Susannah 
Robertson, sister to his first wife, Jan. 15th, 1819, who still 
survives him. He d. May 28th, 1832, M. 89, and left five 
children. He sustained town ofiices, was active to promote 
the cause of Independence, and was an officer in the cavalry 
at the capture of Burgoyne. 



EXTRAORDINARY BLEEDERS. 

There are four families in this town, called bleeders. Three 
of them are immediately, and the other mediately, related. 
The number of individuals, so denominated, is five. They 
are thus named from an unusual propensity in their arteries 
and veins to bleed profusely, even from slight wounds. A 
cut or other hurt upon them assumes, at first, the common 
appearance. But after a week or fortnight, the injured part 
begins and continues, for several days, to send forth almost 
a steady stream of blood, until the redness of this disappears, 
and it becomes nearly as colorless as water. A portion of 
the coagulated blood forms a cone, large or small according 
to the wound. The bleeding ceases when the cone, which 
has a minute aperture, and is very fetid, falls off. The 
persons thus constituted, dare not submit to the operation of 
a lancet. They often bleed abundantly at the nose, and 
are subject to severe and premature rheumatism. Some of 
their predecessors have come to their end by wounds, which 
are not considered by any means dangerous for people in 
general. This hemorrhage first appeared in the Appleton 
family, who brought it with them from England. None but 
males are bleeders, whose immediate children are not so, and 
whose daughters, only, have sons thus disposed. As to the 
precise proportion of these, who may resemble their grand- 
fathers in bleeding of this kind, past observation furnishes no 
data ; it has been found altogether uncertain. 



UNIVERSALIST SOCIETY. 

This was formed in 1827. 



294 HAMILTON: HAMILTON CHURCH, SlC. 



HAMILTON CHURCH. 

Having existed from 1714 to 1793, as the Third Church 
of Ipswich, it assumes the name of Hamilton Church. 

1798, Aug. 15th. It is represented in a Council, which 
sat here, for the ordination of Daniel Story over the newly 
formed Church at Marietta, Ohio. During the ministry of 
Dr. Cutler, from 1771 to his decease in 1823, there w'ere 
1031 baptisms, and 140 persons became members of his 
Church. Of these, thirty-seven made a profession of religion, 
from Sept. 1st, 1799, to Oct. 26th, 1800. 

1823. There were fifteen male, and thirty-eight female 
members. From June 16th, 1824, to Jan. 1st, 1832, fifty- 
one W'ere admitted to full communion. Of these, twenty-four 
were united with the Church, and two more by letter, from 
Nov. 6th, 1831, to Jan. 11th, 1832. 

1832. There were twenty-one male, and sixty-four female 
members. The successor of Dr. Cutler was installed pastor 
of this Church, June 16th, 1824, and, having been unable to 
preach for almost a year, took his dismission Dec. 4th, 1833. 

MANASSEH CUTLER, LL. D. 

V His father W"as named Hezekiah, who was a respectable 
farmer and member of the Church in Killingly, Conn. He 
was b. 1744, and graduated at Yale College 1765. Soon 
after he took his first degree, he engaged in business, kept a 
store, and was concerned in commerce and w'haling at Edgar- 
town, on Martha's Vineyard. While so employed in an active 
and enterprising manner, he neither lost his taste for study nor 
threw aside his books. He acquainted himself with law, was 
admitted to the bar, and ])leaded a few cases in the Court of 
Common Pleas 1767. Still he cherished a preference for 
the ministry, and was determined to prepare for the discharge 
of its sacred offices. His diary for Nov. 1768, says, — 
" Prosecuted my study, — began to make sermons. May 
God grant me his blessing in so important an undertaking, 
and make me serviceable to the cause of religion, and the 
souls of my fellow men. 1 never engaged in this study with 
so firm resolution before ; yet I have, for many years, had 
serious thoughts of entering on the ministry." Thus deter- 
mined, he settled up his business and removed with his family 
to Dedham, Nov. 1769, for the purpose of pursuing his 



Hamilton: — manasseh cutler. 295 

theological studies under his father-in-law, Mr. Balch. In 
order to comply with the clerical costume of that period, he 
soon, but reluctantly, suffered his hair tp be shorn, and its 
place to be supplied with a dark-colored wig. Being licensed, 
he preached for the Hamlet parish six months, and was 
ordained here Sept. lltli, 1771. This solemn occasion, how- 
ever, did not pass over without a trial to his feelings. Three 
persons objected to his becoming their pastor. But the 
Council, after considering their charges against him, decided 
that they were insufficient to prevent his settlement. At the 
time of his being set over this people, the difficulties between 
our country and Great Britain were assuming a dark and fear- 
ful aspect. He watched, with emotions of deep interest, the 
approach of the Revolution. When news came of Lexington 
battle, he made a short address to the minute company here, 
then mustered to march thither, and, with Mr. Willard of 
Beverly, afterwards President of Harvard College, he rode 
on horseback to Cambridge, and came in sight of the enemy, 

as they were retreating into Boston. 1776, Sept. 5th. 

Desirous to serve his country in deed, as well as word, he 
receives a commission, as chaplain, in the regiment under 
Col. Ebenezer Francis. In this capacity, Dr. Cutler served 
six months ; and, for the same time subsequently, in the regi- 
ment commanded by Col. Titcomb, at Long Island and other 
stations. Towards the close of the war, as the physician of 
his people was employed in the army, and they were destitute 
of his aid, Dr. Cutler applied himself to the study and prac- 
tice of medicine. At this crisis of public affairs, and of great 
distress, his salary had nearly ceased, he suffered loss by the 
depreciation of paper currency, and his family were strait- 
ened for the comforts of life. For several years lie adminis- 
tered to the bodily, as well as the spiritual ills of his flock. 
For his former services he received little or no compensation. 
While he sought an increasing acquaintance with the revealed 
wonders of Deity, he did not fail to be interested in those 
works, which he had made in the heavens, and upon the 
earth. ' The plants of his own neighbourhood and elsewhere 
early attracted his attention, and he became one of the 
pioneers of botanical science in America. He was induced, 
at first, to pursue this branch of knowledge by casually meet- 
ing with an English work on Botany. He soon became noted 
for his scientific taste and attainments. 1781, Jan. 1st. 



296 HAMILTON: MANASSEH CUTLER. 

He was elected a member of the American Academy. He 
furnished their volumes with the following pieces. On the 
Transit of Mercury over the Sun, Nov. 12th, 1782. On an 
Eclipse of the Moon, March 29th, 1782, and of the Sun on 
the 12th of the next April. Meteorological Observations, 
1781, 1782, 1783. An Account of some of the Vegetable 
Productions, naturally growing in this part of America. Re- 
marks on a Vegetable and Animal Insect. 1785, June 1st. 

He was chosen a member of the Massachusetts Medical So- 
ciety. 

Owing to the uncertain and difficult state of things 
in his own and other parishes, at the close of the Revo- 
lutionary struggle, he had serious thoughts of removing 
to the West, as the means of providing more effectually 
for his young and growing family. He still cherished this 
inclination in 1786, when a number of officers in the late 
army met to form the Ohio Company, as they had contem- 
plated in 1783, for the sake of having their bounty lands 
located together. At the meeting just mentioned, the com- 
pany agreed to raise one million of dollars, by their certificates 
for military service and otherwise, and purchase territory 
northwest of tlie Ohio River for a permanent settlement. 
They then invited, by public notice, other pei-sons in various 
parts of the United States, to engage with them in this 
enterprise. They anticipated success, and held out a fair 
prospect to those who would unite with them. Major Win- 
throp Sargent, one of the most intelhgent and efficient of 
their number, was acquainted with Dr. Cutler, and these 
two consulted together on the proposed colony. The result 
was, that the latter became a member of the Company, and 
was appointed by its directors an agent in connexion with 
Major Sargent. In this unexpected capacity, Dr. Cutler and 
the Major visited the seat of Government, and made a con- 
tract with the proper authorities for one million acres of land, 
at a dollar an acre. They also obtained a grant of half a 
million more acres, as an allowance for bad lands and in- 
cidental charges. They transacted this business, which was 
to be followed with important consequences as to our West- 
ern territories, Oct. 27th, 1787. On his return home. Dr. 
Cutler made immediate preparations, by order from the Direc- 
tors of the Company, to fit out an expedition for the intended 
settlement. He had a large wagon built and covered with 



Hamilton: — manasseh cutler. > 297 

black canvass, which had on its sides, in white letters, — 
" Ohio, for Marietta on the Muskingum." He engaged forty- 
five men from various towns, among whom was his son, Jervis, 
to accompany this wagon, and to help settle and defend the new 
country against the Indians, for three years. These emigrants 
and the wagon started from Dr. Cutler's house, Dec. 1787. 
They were armed and fired a volley, as a salute, on their de- 
parture from his door. They, having been increased to sixty, 
commenced the settlement of Marietta April 7th, 1788, under 
General Rufus Putnam. The use to which the wagon, already 
spoken of, was appropriated, — the circumstances under which 
it left New England, and reached an uncultivated wilderness, 
where political power is soon likely to wield the destinies of 
our republic, — have made this exploring vehicle an object of 
much interest among some of our literati, who have mentioned 
it ; so that it is beginning to wake in the mind, associations 
somewhat similar to those produced by the suggestion of the 
May-Flower, which landed the Pilgrims on the shore of 
Plymouth. In the further discharge of his agency, Dr. Cut- 
ler set out in a sulky, accompanied by a few others, for Ohio, 
July 21st, 1788. He reached Marietta, Aug. 19th, by a 
route of seven hundred and fifty-one miles from his home. 
The succeeding Sabbath, being the 24th, he preached in the 
hall of Campus Martins. Considering the object and hopes of 
himself and his audience, the hardships they endured, their 
perils from wild beasts, disease, and jealous and plotting savages, 
the scene of such a sacred occasion must have appeared with 
lights and shadows, novel to their perception, romantic to their 
imagination, attractive to their attention, impressive to their 
minds, and affecting to their hearts. He continued worship 
the succeeding Sabbaths while he remained. On the 27th, 
he performed the burial service for a child of Major Cushing. 
This was the first funeral, which had occurred among the 
whites of Marietta. While here. Dr. Cutler examined the forts 
and mounds, which he thought were a thousand years old, and 
were the works of some nation, more civilized and powerful 
than any Indians of America now known to exist. Having 
been much honored, and treated with great kindness, he took 
his leave of the people in Marietta, Sept. 9th. Soon after his 
departure he was introduced to Corn-Planter, a noted Indian 
chief. He returned to his family Oct. 15th, and, from what 
he saw and experienced while absent, he concluded, that it 
38 



298 HAMILTON : MANAS SEH CUTLER. 

would be best for them and him to remain in happy New 
England. 

1791. He receives a degree of LL. D. from his Alma 
Mater. Finding that the Ohio settlement, as is generally 
incident to such undertakings, had given more blossoms of 
hope than fruits of participation, he stated, that " in the fall 
of 1791, the affairs of the Company became so serious and 
critical, that it was absolutely necessary to bring the business 
to a close." 1792, March 2d. As one of the three Di- 
rectors of this Company, he petitioned Congress in their be- 
half, so that some reduction might be made from the sum, due 
to the Government for the land bought of them ; because the 
settlement was under great embarrassments from Indian hostili- 
ties. This application for relief did not avail. 

1792. He is chosen a Member of the Massachusetts Soci- 
ety for promoting agriculture, and of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. 

1793. At his own expense, he made a considerable exer- 
tion to get the Hamlet incorporated. He continued the com- 
mendable custom, which had been practised in Ipswich, of 

opening the annual town-meeting with prayer. Soon after 

the peace, made by General Wayne with the Western Indians 
in 1795, President Washington tendered to Dr. Cutler a com- 
mission, as Judge of the Supreme Court in the Ohio territory, 
which he concluded it best to decline. 

1798, May 16th. A letter of this date, written by Gen- 
eral Putnam, a principal inhabitant of Marietta, was received 
by Dr. Cutler, empowering him to act, as agent of the Church 
and Trustees there, in effecting the Ordination of Daniel Story 
here, as their pastor. The writer of this letter remarked to 
Dr. Cutler, '' The substance of your letters to me was com- 
municated to the meeting ; and the people as well as the 
brethren of the Church, expressed their sensibility of the obli- 
gation they are under to you, for the interest you take in their 
welfare." 

In the spring of 1800, Dr. Cutler was elected by his peo- 
ple, as their Representative to the General Court. From the 
fall of this year, to 1804, he served two terms as a Member 

of the House of Congress. 1803. He obtained the grant 

for a Post-office in Hamilton. 1809, He became an 

Honorary Member of the Philadelphia Linnaean Society. 
1813. He was elected a Member of the American An- 
tiquarian Society. 



HAMILTON: MANASSEH CUTLER. 299 

About 1819, the Trustees of the Ohio University, in Ath- 
ens, had his portrait taken in Salem, Mass., by Mr. Frothing- 
ham, for the purpose of having it placed in the hall of that 
Institution. This was done, as an expression of gratitude to 
Dr. Cutler, for his judicious and benevolent efforts to obtain 
two townships of land for the support of such a seminary. 
His correspondence was extensive with European litera- 
ti. He did much to promote the agricultural interests of his 
parishioners. He took a principal part in obtaining the act of 
incorporation for the proprietors of meadows, on Miles' River. 
He efficiently sought the welfare of schools among his people. 
Having commenced a private boarding-school at the close of 
the Revolutionary war, he continued it with extensive useful- 
ness, for many years. Till near the close of his life, he had 

scholars to learn Navigation, with Lunar Observations. 

Of his printed clerical performances are the following : 

1798. Charge at the Ordination of Daniel Story. 

1799. A National Fast Sermon. 

1813. A Sermon before the Bible Society of Salem and 
the vicinity. 

1814. A Century Discourse, giving an account of his 
Church from its commencement. 

As to his family, it would afford us satisfaction to speak of 
them more fully than we do, if our limits allowed. He m. 
Mary, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Balch, of Dedham, Sept. 
7th, 1766. She d. Nov. 3d, 1815, JE. 73. His children 
were, Ephraim, Jervis, Mary, Charles, Lavinia, Temple, Ehza- 
beth, and Temple. 

In person. Dr. Cutler was of a light complexion, above the 
common stature, erect and dignified in his appearance. His 
manners were gentlemanly ; his conversation easy and intelli- 
gent. As an adviser, he was discerning and discreet. His 
voice, in preaching, was not loud ; but it was distinct and audi- 
ble to his Congregation. His style of writing was pure, per- 
spicuous, and strong. His mental endowments were high. 
He industriously and perseveringly employed them in the 
attainment of scientific and theological knowledge, as all pro- 
ceeding from the same fountain of Infinite Wisdom, and, when 
properly applied, as conducive to the declarative glory of the 
Creator. For the last twenty-two years of his life, he was afflict- 
ed with the asthma. But amid his growing infirmities he strove, 
and was enabled, to perform his parochial duties, till within four 



300 CONCLUSION. 

years of his decease. Even during this period, he for the 
most part preached and visited his flock. He knew that his 
end approached. No longer able to comply vi^ith his wish to 
be publicly useful, he had assistance several months previous- 
ly to his death. Shortly before this, he relinquished the most 
of his salary, though it was legally his due. As his dissolution 
drew nigh, he realized more and more fully his dependence 
on Divine aid, and on the Redeemer, as his only justifying 
righteousness. He closed his earthly existence, July 2Sth, 
1823, in his eightieth year, having entered on the fifty-third 
year of his ministry. Thus one, who had enjoyed in an emi- 
nent degree the confidence and honor of many intelligent and 
worthy characters, and who had moved in a circle of various 
and extensive usefulness, was removed from this world, in the 
hope of receiving the merciful approbation of God, and of 
being perpetually and blissfully dedicated to his services. 



\ 



CONCLUSION. 



From the commencement of this volume, we have been 
kindly carried by the hand of Providence to its completion. 
While it has been in progress, even some, who expected to 
peruse its pages, have been called to their great account. 
This is an emphatic admonition to us, that, while we look back 
on the past and collect its details for present consideration, we 
should not forget the uncertainty, which hangs upon the future 
of all our secular planSj purposes, and anticipations. 

It calls on us so to use our capacity for becoming acquainted 
with human concerns, as to have this power chiefly employed 
in the purer, higher, and better subjects of Divine perfection, 
government, and truth. It teaches us so to exercise our curi- 
osity in reference to rare and common facts of small as well as 
large communities here, that we may be conversant hereafter 
with the sublime, improving, and glorious themes of heaven's 
boundless and perpetual empire. May we give heed to such 
admonition, command, and instruction, that, when our eyes 
shall be closed on earthly scenes, our spirits may be fitted for 
the society of perfected saints, and for the fulness of God, which 
shall pour upon them increasingly and for ever. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 



When the name is printed without any numeral adjective opposite 
to it, one is to be understood, as the number subscribed for ; but when 
such adjectives are mentioned, expressive of more than one, the word 
copies will be understood, as following them. 

IPSWICH. 



Andrews, Francis M. 
B. 

Baker, Samuel N. 
Boardman, Winthrop 
Brown, Thomas 
Brown, Joseph, Jr. 
Brown, Daniel, Jr. 
Brown, Josiah 
Brown, Jacob 
Brown, Michael 
Burril, Rev. John T. 

C. 

Caldwell, Samuel 
Caldwell, Mary 
Chadwick, Doct. George 
Chapman, Nathaniel 
Chapman, Hannah 
Cheever, Mary P. 
Coburn, Stephen 
Cogswell, Daniel 
Cogswell, Aaron, Jr. 

39 



Conant, Gilbert 

D. 

Davis, Olden 
Day, Samuel 



Farrington, Samuel 
Fitz, Rev. Daniel 



Grant, Z. P. 



G. 



H. 



(two.) 



Heard, Hon. John 

Heard, George W., Esq. (six.) 

Hobbs, John 

Hunt, Eliza 



Jevvett, Sewall P. 
Jewett, David 
Jewett, Harriet N. 



302 



LIST OP SUBSCRIBERS. 



K. 

Kendall, Ephraim 
Kendall, Jonas 
Kimball, Rev. David T. 
Kimball, Charles, Esq. 
Kimball, Benjamin 
Kimball, John 



Lakeman, Richard 

Lane, Lucy 

Locke, Calvin 

Lord, Nathaniel, Esq. (eight.) 

Lord, Daniel 

Lord, Joseph, Jr. 

Lord, Asa 

Lord, Benjamin 

Lord, Lydia 

Lufkin, William 

M. 

Manning, Doct. Thomas 
Manning, Nathaniel L. 
Marshall, William 
Miller, E. F., Esq. 
Mitchell, Frederick 

N. 

Newman, John A. 
Newman, Susan 
Nourse, Daniel 

O. 

Oakes, William, Esq. (two.) 



P. 

Patch, John 
Patch, John, Jr. 
Peatfield, James 
Plaisted, Olive M. 
Priest, Jonathan 

R. 

Ross, Thomas 
Ross, Sarah R. 
Ptussell, Andrew 

S. 

Shatswell, John 
Smith, Asa, Esq. 
Smith, Ammi 
Souther, Timothy 
Stone, Dorcas 
Stratton, Mary A. 

T. 

Treadwell, Nathaniel, Jr. 
Treadwell, Susan 

W. 

Wade, William F., Esq. (two.) 

Wade, Nathaniel 

Wade, Samuel 

Wade, William 

Wait, Luther 

Warner, Stephen 

Warner, William 

Willet, Mary 



ESSEX 



B. 



Andrews, Col. William (two.) 
Andrews, Samuel 
Andrews, George 



Boyd, Adam 
Burnham, Gilman M. 
Burnham, Robert W. 



LIST OP SUBSCRIBERS. 



303 



Burnham, Issachar 
Burnham, Benjamin, Jr. 
Burnham, Nathan 
Burnham, Nathaniel, Jr. 
Burnham, John S. 
Burnham, Michael 
Burnham, George W. 
Burnham, Joshua 

C. 

Choate, John, Esq. 
Choate, David 
Cogswell, Caleb 
Crowell, Rev. Robert 

D. 

Dexter, Charles 
Dodge, Nehemiah 

E. 

Eveleth, Philemon S. 

F. 

Foster, William S. 
Foster, Warren 

L. , 

Lamson, Doct. Josiah 



Low, Col. Joshua 
Low, Winthrop 
Low, Jeremiah 

M. 

Marshall, Charles 
Mears, Daniel 
Mears, David 

N. 

Norton, Daniel 
Nutter, James 



Perkins, Ezra 
Perkins, Thomas 
Poland, Oliver 

R. 

Riggs, Asa 
Robinson, George 

S. 

Story, Jonathan, 3d, Esq. 
Story, Epes 
Story, Norman 
Story, Col. David 
Story, Perkins 



HAMILTON 



A. 

Annable, Anna 
Annable, Ephraim 
Appleton, George 
Appleton, Doct. John 

B. 

Brown, Arza 



D. 



Dodge, Antipas 
Dodge, Benjamin 
Dodge, Nathan 
Dodge, William 
Dodge, Isaac A. 
Dodge, James B. 
Dodge, Manasseh 



H n 1 



304 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



F. 

Faulkner, Mary L. 
Foster, William 

G. 

Giddings, David 

K. 

Knowlton, Isaac, Jr. 



Larason, Obadiah 
Lamson, Albert 
Lovering, Nathaniel 
Lovering, Joseph 
Lovering, William 



Patch, Joseph 
Patch, Isaac 



Boston. 

Farley, Robert 
Lord, Thomas 

BOXFORD. 

Lamson, Obadiah, Jr. 

Danvers. 
Fowler, S. P. 

Gloucester. 
Lowe, John W. 

Lynn. 
Peck, Nathaniel 

Manchester, 
Blan, William 

New-York. 
Low, Seth 

Salem. 
Appleton, Nathaniel 
Brown, N. 
Brown, Benjamin F. 
Cheever, Ira 
Choate, Doct. George 
Choate, Francis 
Goodhue, Samuel 



Patch, Levi 
Patch, Paul 
Patch, Eppes 
Perkins, Nehemiah 

R. 

Roberts, Isaac W. 
Rust, Daniel, Jr. 

S. 

Safford, Daniel E. 
Standley, Zechariah 
Story, Samuel 

W. 

Wallis, Dennison 
Whipple, William, Jr. 
Whipple, Oliver 
Whipple, Elizp "th 
Witham, Will.,;m B. 
Woodbury, Jofiit 



(two.) 



Hubbard, Doct. \^. .i (two 
Kimball, Jonathan C. 
King, Hon. John Glen 
Lakeman, Ebenezer K. 
Lord, Nathaniel J., Esq, 
Lummus, William 
Merrill, Benjamin, Esq. 
Perkins, Jeremiah S. 
Phillips, Hon. Stephen C. 
Pulsifer, Joseph 
Salem Mechanics' Library 
Smith, Jesse, Jr. 
Story, Joseph 
Treadwell, Charles 
Whipple &/ Lawrence 
White, Hon. Daniel A. 

Topsfield. 
Cleaveland, Hon. Nehemiah 
Kellam, Isaac 
Sawyer, Joseph 
Towne, Jacob, Jr. 

Wenham. 
Sterrett, David (two.) 






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